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tir rav. (.• ir.sTUY 

Between Lake Superior 




Compilnl Jioiii the best AnlltarUics, and Published by Order of the 

Canadian (lurtrninent. 



HE ^^!^ 

C XT] t" 


TJie following pages arc (k'siguod to furnihh a concise and, as far as can be eora- 
pilod from independent sources, complete description of the physical features of the 
country lying in the Territory of the Dominion of Canada between Thunder ]',ay, at 
the head of Lake Superior, and the Pacific Ocean, through which it is proposed to 
continue the construction of the Canadian Tacific Railway, akeady partially built 
between Lake Superior and Red Eivcr. 

The compilation is principally meant to be a supplement to the more cxaci and 
technical reports of the Engineer, for the information of intending contractors who 
may desire a knowledge of the general features of the country. 

Papers laid before the Imperial and Canadian Parliaments, reports of (iovern- 
ment Engineers, observations made by residents, and accounts pubhshed by trust- 
worthy travellers form the substance of the compilation. 

Authorities are given in every instance, and copious Indices furnish a ready 
means of access to the facts. The Government do not guarantee the absolute accuracy 
of any statement, but there is no reason to believe that the extracts contain anything 
that is not reliable. 









r>. LIST OF WOIUn'S QrOTKi) xxKv 


7. ]::LFVATI0XS of PKOMINENT rOINTS xxxviii 




RIVER.... ir, 






1871 r, K!i 






I'MIO.M TIIUNDKl: r.AY 'J'O ItKD [ilVl'.li. 

Hk'ViUloii of Lake Siiporior -Thumlcr Jjay — KiUiiiiiisti(|iu;i Valley —duoloijical Slmu' 
tiirj — Terraces of Lake Siiperjor ]5asiu — Kakaboka Falls Mouth of Kaniiui- 
stiquia liiver — Ma;^iietic Iron Ores — McKay'ri Mouutain- Alluvial Valleys — 
(rcology of Dog Lake — Drainage of Country — Elevations — Divide at Jtat 
Portage — Water Communication — lieiglit of Land — Fi-om Kccwatin to Sel- 
kirk (iold — Copper — Iron — Prairie Steppes — Vicinity of lied River— I>ake 
of the Woods— Swamps — Lake Winnipeg — Direction of lliver.s — Fort (Jarry 
— Iloads — Whmipeg liiver — Islington Mission — Soil —Vegetation— Timber - 
Mines of Lake Superior — Climate — Temperatures — Capabilities for Settlement 
— Building Material — Thunder Bay Miuc:^ -Altitude of Watershed —CI ra- 
dic'uti pages 1-14, 



Physical Characteristics — Elevation of I'raii-ie Steppes — Composition of the Plaiua — 
River Valleys — The Northern Forest — Prairie Fires — Direction of Rivers— 
Superlicial Deposits — Iluronian Boulders — Geology of the Plains — Lakes and 
Rivers — Hills and Mountahis — Woods — Prairie Openings— Slope of the Plains 
— Cleology of Lake Winnipeg — Touchwood Hills — Strata on Swan River — 
Vellow Ochre Springs— Sulphate of Soda — Coal Fields of the Saskatchewan — 
Maple Sugar — Forests of Riding and Duck Mountains — The Treeless Region — 
I'ort Polly— Fertility of the Land — Area of available Land —Physical Geography 
— Rise from Fort Garry to Edmonton -A Noble River- Banks of the Saskat- 
chewan—Beauties of Touchwood Hills — The Great Salt Plain — Prairie Lakes -- 
Watorfowl — Breadth and Depth of the Saskatchewan — Red Rive — Area of 
Lakes Winnipeg, Winnipegoosis and Manitoba— Soil— Navigation — Coal Plenti- 
ful — Area drained by the South Saskatchewan pages 15-32. 





[•i\j-i<»iis (if tlio Soiison^ - liutViilu Wiutcriiig (imuuJs-- Aviiiigo Fall of Snow — 
J'.lodgot on AVlioat rroiUictiou - Average ^'iolll per Acre Kxteut of Fariuini' 
Countrv— Pasture La-uls • IVesli aiui Saline Lakes ■ Si'ltlcmonls - Cluireli 
Missions -Forest lloj-'ion ^[ll::ke,!,'s Fertility of IVaco Itiver Section- A i,M-i 
cultural Area- Favoraiilo I'i.-position of Soil and Climate- A'alue of Natural 
l!(sourecs--Tiuilier Lignite Coal - Iron Ore- -Navigable llivers - lluclsoii 
l!;iy Company's Steamer— Iniperud Reports — Favorable lioute for a iiuilroad-- 
Cost of 'J'ransport- Isothermal lanes— Blodget's Climatology— Prairie Country 
compared with Ihirope — liainfall— Lord Selkirk— Grass of the Plahis — Immen- 
sity of Cultivable Laud— The Finest Pasture Country hi the "World— Healthy 

Climate liichness of Soil — Crops at Uattlc Ilivcr Frosts— IJarley— Opening 

of Spring— Temperature — A Ciood Stock ilaising Country — Fitness for Settle- 
nu.nt- Character of Soil— Divisions of the Territories - The Future Granary of 
the Dominion— Snowfall iJoring Operations— Desert Lands — "Water Supply — 
li( 111'- tones - P(.'!it- Salt nagt^s ;-i;-5-4(i. 




Widili ot the South Dranch- Extent of the Valley — Distance to North Ih-aneh — 
Country between the Two liivcrs — Confluence of the Two Branches — Woods- 
Grasses — Contour of tiic Land — Fertile Soil — Fires — Coal at Edmonton — 
Character of River Valleys — Topography of the Prairies^ — Beauty and Ferti- 
lity — Coal on Pcmuina Paver — "Wooded Countr}^ — Ascent of McLeod River — 
Cliffs on the Athabasca- -Terraced V'alleys — Jasper Valley— Mictte River 
Caledonia Valley — Yellow Head Pass — Country between Thickwood IIills and 
Jaeklish Lake— Tracts of excellent Soil — Ilich Land between Victoria and 
Edmonton — Plenty of Timber and \\'ater — Coal ou Battle Itiver — Fire Bound- 
aries — Course of the North Saskatchewan — Line of Hills- Rich Pasturage — 
FHigible Agricultural Lands— -Brick Earth and Potter's Clay — Climate — Future 
of the Saskatchewan — Soap-Clay —Coal on Brazcau River — Geological Forma- 
tion — Vastness of Coal Fields — Gold — Iron Ore — Coal at Termini of C. P. 
Railway — Approach to the Roeky Mountains — Country between Rocky Moun- 
tain House and Edmonton — iieaver Hills — Battle River Country — From South 
I'^lbow of the Saskatchewan to Battle River Junction . .pages 47-C-l. 




Fonuivtioa of tlu! Ilocky Moiiutaius — DoHceut into Britisli Columbui - Klcvatioii of 
Yellow Head Pass — Favorable Line for Railway — Gradiontri -Brid.^'iii,!^' of 
Rivers— The Waddiugtou Route — Limit of British C'oluinbia — Valley of th»! 
Fraser- -Water Communication — Gold Diggings — Peace River — Beauty of the 
Rocky Mountains — Winter ou the Athabasca — The Throe Rocky Ranges — 
^foose Lake — Grand Forks of the Fraser — Tete Jauue Cache — Cour^o of tiie 
Fraser — Character of Rivers — Engineering l)iflicultie>. —Passes through the 
Rocky ^lountains — Longitudinal Valleys — Fort Ht. George — Mackenzie lUver — 
Columbia River — Sir Alexander Mackenzie -Fort Alexandria — Divisions of 
Maudand of J5ritisli Columbia — Climate — Mhiing District — Forests — Valleys 
in British Columbia — Nature of Soil — Roads — Resources of British Columbia — 
Cascade Mountains- -Report of Lieut. Palmer — Stewart's Lake — The Central 
Plateau — Bute Inlet Route — Coast of British Columbia — Harbors —Inlands on 
Coast — Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands — Coal — Timber- Lead — 
Iron — Fisheries — Navigation — Desolation Sound — Soil — Climate — Produc- 
tions P".!,'^'^ 01-88 



Gardner Channel Route — Examination of Passes through Cascade Mountains from 
Fraser River to Similkameon — Journey from Fort Hope to Valley-^ iu South of 
British Columbia—Allison's Pass — Cattle Farms — R. C. Mission-- Exj)loratory 
Journal on the Central Plateau — Result of Observations during Journey — 
Character of the Country — Surveying Operations — Operations during 1875 — 
Homathco River — The Waddington Trail — The Cascade Mountains — Central 
Plateau — Journey from Dean Inlet across the Cascades by Salmon River Pass — 
Examination of Channels between the Islands at the Entrance to Bute Inlet — 
Gradients to the Cascade Mountains — Homathco River and Valley — Table of 
Gradients — Survey from Dean Inlet to Junction in the Blackwater Valley, with 
Line from Bute Inlet to Yellow Head Pass — From Kemano Bay, on the 
Gardner Channel, to First Lake on the Eastern Slope of the Cascade 
Mountains — Survey of Kitlope Valley pages 89-123 



Iiuliiiii Tj'ibos antl Treaties — Boundaries — Management of Tribes — Canadian Indian 
Policy — United States Indian Policy — Probable Effects of the Canadian Pacific 
Piailway — Indian Population — The Mounted Police— White Population — Areas 
— Productions and Extent of the North-West Territories — Climate — ^Britisli 
Columbia described -The Oregon Treaty — Advantages of the Canadian Eoute 
—The Peace Piivcr Country — Sir Alexander Mackenzie — Richness, Beauty and 
Extent of the Peace Eiver Country— Iron, Coal, Salt, Petroleum, .tc— 
Navigation through the Eocky Mountains— Botanical Eeport by Prof. Macoun — 
Climate of Peace Eiver pages 120-143 

c. — 
n — 



Aboriginal Population 

Abram's Gales 

Agassiz, Tour of 

A La Corne Fort, situation of 

Alexandria Forts situation of 

Alexis Lakes 

Allison's Pass, summit of 

Ambush Coulee 

American Desert, The 

Areas of North-West Territories 

Arrow Lakes, The 

Arran Eapids 

Arrow Eivcr, banks of 

Assiuiboine River, building stone on ... . 

•' " banks of 

'« " country adjacent to . . 

'* " " fertile area... 

" " boring operations on . 

«* " sources of , 

Athabasca Kiver, country drained by. . . 

«• " wheat raised on 

»' " cattle winter, etc 

«* " torraco structure on . . 

«' " climate 

'« " described 

*« " coal on 

•• " source of 

•« Lake, elevation of 

M " route by 

*' Pass elevation of 









18, 40 
84, 85 

40, (is 

48, 08 

63, 56 





Babiiio Lake, Salmon of 

Blackwatcr Ivivcr 

" Valley, gradients ill 

Black Bay, Bituatioii of 

Blackberry River, plains on 

Baptiste Biver, mouth of 

Barkervillo, situation of 

Basquia Hills, country near 

Basalt Lake, altitude of 

Battle River, Indian corn raised on.. 

" " country described.:. . . . 

" " coal on 

" " prairies of 

•• " scenery at mouth of .. . 

" " curious strata on 

" " coulees soutli of 

Bear lUvor, mouth of 

" " magnitude of 

Beaver, conseqrm^'e of their work . . , 
Beaver Hills, country near 

'* " timber on 

Boll River, salt on 

Bella Coola Indians 

Bella-IIoula Bay 

Bella Bella 

Belly River, source of 

Bcntinck Arm Route 

" North 

Big Hill, description of 

Birch Gully, banks of 

Birch Hills, country near 

Birdstail Creek, cretaceous shales on. 

Blodget, climatology of, quoted 

Bloody Hills, description of 

Boring Operations 

Bow Fort, situation of 

Broken Head River, situation of. ... 

Brazeau River, coal near 

" " gold on 

" " sources of 




00, 120 









o2, GO, (54 

49, 56, GO 















' 76 




27, 28 


36, 87 









90, 120 
I 60, 04 
56, 00 
' 70 
57, 28 
17, 28 
10, 87 


Buffalo Cart Plain, The * */' 

BuSaloes, wintering ground of «„ 

British Columbia, dimate and soil of ^3 y^ qq 

" ^°^^"^ '....!.'.' 'siIho 

" iiiforiuation concerning gr 

gold-bearing rocks of yi 

" " principal rivers of yj 

" " divisions of ^2 73 

" " mining district of ' yg 

valleys of .".....". "3 

coastof -7 

" " harbors of -- 7,. 

,, 1 1 , I >' 

" fisheries and timber of 78 79 

** " Indians of j^i 

*' " area of ^!^ 

Burrard Inlet, survey to ,... 

Bute Inlet, route to '.'^''^^.^.Z'.''''Z'Zm, 70, 77, 80, 121 

" islands at mouth of 215 

" navigation of -|j- 


Caledonia Valley, route through .|g 

Calling River, banks of .„ 

Campbell Island 

Canadian Pacific Bail way, route between IManitolja and Lake Superior 14 

" " country on line of , 4Q 

" coal at termini of i--. 

" coal along route of t:~ 

" " route between Yellow Head Pass and Ed- 
monton /jl^j 

route to Bute Inlet (..) 

bridging over Prairie Eivers .^7 

fovorable lino from Yellow Head Pass to 

Edmonton ^.^j 

" ■' bridging rivjrs west of Edmonton q^ 

gradients 60,08,122 

the Waddin-.ton Bonto ' ' f,(. 

" " " ballasting for or 

° zO 

** " " iron and conl for rails on line 54 

" " " effect of '"[ jy^^ 



Canada Pacific Eaihvay , advantages of 186 

Canoe River (58 

Carrot River, conutry near 2-i 

CariloO Mountains ()7 

" " goldmines 72 

Carleton Fort, country near 22, 4!J 

♦♦ " temperature at 8U 

" " crops raised at 12 

Cascade Mountains, altitude of , 48 

Passes in G7, 08, 5)2, 109 

" " described 77, 90, 101, 109 

" " lead found iii 78 

♦• " timber 104 

" " journey across 112 

gradients in 117,121,122 

Cedar Lake, situation of 82 

Central Plateau ofB. Columbia 35, 86, 67 

" " " " " climate 43,70 

" " " " " described 75,70 

•' " " " " routes across 75 

" " " " " railway facilities on 77 

•' " '■ " " journey on 90 

«» " " " " information concerning 101, 111 

Chimsains, Imlian Tribe of : 90 

Chilacoh River 90,100,120 

" Valley gradients 119 

Chisicut Lake, line to 96 

" altitude of 118 

Chcshcc River described 117 

Cliilancoli Valley 118 

Cliilcoateu Plain 07 

Valley 75,96 

" River, coimtry near 75 

Cliipweyan Fort, land near 89 

" temperature at 89 

Clinton, B. C. climate at 71 

Coal, deposits of 51, 52 

" " character and extent of 55, 56 

Cole's Falls 81 

Cochin LaLe 108 

Columbia River : 68, 71, 111 







22, 4!J 




8, »2, 109 

', 104, 109 




, 121, 122 


35, 3G, G7 






104, 114 


106, 120 







75, 96 





51, 52 

55, 56 



1, 141 

Connolly Fort, situation of 

Cowlitz River, coal on . . 

Cow-diing Lake, situation of 

Coquilialla Valley, character of 

Coldstream Valley, rich soil in 

Coulees, character of , 

Cranberry Eiver 

Cree Indians, treaties with , 

Cross Rapid, the 

Cumberland House, wheat grown at 

" " temperature at 

Diiuphlii Lake, salt springs at 

" " prairies near 

" River, situation of 

Deadman's Rapid 

Dean Channel, mountains crossing, 

" " described 

" Lilet, line to 

Demi-Charge, the rapid 

Desert Lands, tlie 

'• " boundaries of 

" " true character of . . . 

Desolation Sound, described 

Dirt Hills, country near 

Discovery Passage 

Dog Lake, country around 

" " geological formation at . 

Douglas Fir, uses for 

Duck River, situation of 

•* Mountain, situation of 

" " elevation of 






• 1 

surface deposits 

character of soil, foi'ests . . , 

streams issuing from 

" '* farming country near. . . . , 

Dunvegan Fort, temperature at 

" " thermometrical register at 
" " elevation of 






126, 130 

20, 30 
39, 42 
- 'f 




Eagle Hills, situation of , 04 

•' " elevation of 69 

" limit of 61 

" Pass 70 

" Lake, dcscribccl 108 

Ear Hills, coulees near Gl 

Edmonton Fort, country near ^4, 47, 40, 55 

" " temperature 89 

•• " coal at 47,58,03 

•« " rich mineral deposits at 55 

Elbow, S. Saskatchewan 28 

Ellice Fort, country near 18, 84 

" " " towards Touchwood Hills 26 

" " boring operations at | 43 

" " situation of 03 

Eliguck Lake, position of 98 

" " gradients on 123 

Eueuchu Valley, described 101 

English Piiver, country near 5, 49 

Enz Lake, position of 103 

Estero Basin, survey of 115 

Euchinico Lake, line on 123 

Evans Mount 110 


Fanny's Mountain, described 102 

Fertile Belt, agricultiu-al capacity of... 85 

" " natural resources of 86 

" extent of 41 

" " basis of settlement 46 

" " boundaries of 61 

File Hill, country near... 34 

" fertile area of 24 

I'inlayson Channel 89 

Fishing Lakes, banks of 17 

Fitzhugh Sound, entrance to 92 

Floating Ice River . 19 

Foot Hills 66 

Francois Lake, journey to 98 

» " altitude of , 103 







17, in, 55 


17, 58, 03 

18, Hi 
















Fiaser Rivor, source of ^^'^^'• 

" -mutl fork of ^® 

•' course of ^^' ''""^ 

" " roaa auwn valley of . 'Zl'"! ! ! ! !.!!Z!Z!!! <w. 08, 70 

" " navigation of ^^ 

" tlescnbocl.... ^'"^ 

<' " coalon ■;;: 09.71,100 

" Fort, position of ."...".*.'..."... '^^'^ 

Fraser Lake, agriculture on ^^'^ 

'• " view of ''^ 

" Beaches '^'^^^''^^.'.^''^^^'''. ^*^^' ^"f 

French Mission, crops raised at *^'^ 

Frederic Arm, position of. ^!! 

Fuca, Straits of .. . ^^'^ 


navigation of 

" lif^'hthousos o]i V 



(-iiirdner Cliannol, ronto l)v 


(rarry Fort, road from .7.7. ....'.'..'. ! ''"' '^^ 

" climate at .!.... 7..". 7 

Georgia, Straits of '^^ 

Georgia, Gulf of .7. .V. , ^l^ 

George Fort, situation of .'.'......'.!',' ^''' "^^ 

" section at .77...7!77. !'*^ 

Giscome Portage, country near *.V. 77 ^^! 

Gold Mountains, direction of * , ^*!l! 

Grand Canyon ^^ 

Grand Coteau, eastern limit of .7. ..'....'.'. ^^^' ^^.^'' 

" Prairie, beauty of , I 

Grand Eapid of the Saskatchewan . . . ,' . . ..7. .V. ! ! ! .7! f ' 

Graham Reaches 

Grant Trail, nature of the ^[^ 

Great Slave Lake //_ '^'^ 

Green Lake, country near ' ' ' ' f* ^ 

" road, crops raised on ' 

Gunboat Channel... 

•B ^ 89 





Ileavt Hill, dtituae of 22 

High Hills fiO 

Hope, on the Frasoi- ('»!>, !)2 

Hickiwh Narrows HQ 

Homuthco Pass 96 

•* " portals of 108 

•• Piivcr, east lu-anch of 108 

•* " jimction 109 

Valley, uatiue of 100, 111, 110 

HoAvso Pass, altitude of , 70 

Howe Soiiucl 80 

Hiiilson's Bay Basin, climate of 41, 42 

Hiiilson's Hope 141 


Indian Tribes, and treaties 120, 127, 128 

" " population 181 

/' " treatment of i;-}0 

Is-cul-taes-li Pdver, direction of !)7, 12H, 124 

Islington Mission, wheat sown at 9 

•• " seasons at 9 

Isothermal lines 30, 38, 41 


Jasper House, cultivable land west of 85 

" " situation of 57,00 

" Valley, ingress to 4H 

Jaekfish Lake, country near 4() 52 

Eiver 52 

Jervis Inlet 80 

Johnstone Htrait, width of 77 


Kakabeka Falls, country neighboring 9 

" " agricultural area below 4 

Knministiciuia, Eiver Valley, capabilities for settlement, geology &c.. . . 2, 4, 5, 11 

" terrace structure on jj 

** harbour at mouth of 2 

" navigation of 2 11 



()!), 5)2 
111, 110 


57, GO 

49, 52 



, t>, 11 



2, 11 

]viiiuiiiisti<]uia, ininoral dcposito on 

Laurentian and Iluroniau rocks on 

*• soil on banks of' 

" vegetation on 

" climate on 

Kamloops Fort, lino from, to New Westminster 

" road to 

Kamsquot lUvor, 

Keiuano Eivcr, month of 

" Valley, described 

" Bay, survey from 

Kercness, land }ar 

Kcewatin, geological formation at 

" mineral de^iosits near 

Kitloiie River described 

Kitlopo Valley, sm'voys in 

Kootanie Plain, prairies of 

Kliiskus Lake, abandoned post at 

Ktlilntlisly Lake, position of 


Lac La Biclie, soil near 

Lake of the Woods, country near 

" " " " timber " 

" " " " islands in and climate of. 

Lakes Saline 

" freshwater ^ 

■ *' " description of 

" " between the two Saskatchewans 

Laird Fort, wheat raised at 

Land, ratio of fertile 

Laura Passage 

Larimie Plains, the 

Laura Passage, route by 

Lonely Lake, outfall of 

Lesser Slave Lake 

Lignite, deposits of 

Tiilloet, road to 

Liquor Traffic prohibited 

Little Boggy Creek, bank,j of 






9, 10 

9, 10 



, 112 







0, 7, 12 
51, 55 


Little Toiicliwofxl Hills Fort 

*♦ I>i'(l Kivov, crops raised at 

" Slave Lako, wheat raised at 

Lorcdo Sound, outrance to 

JiUiui)y Hill of the Woods, country nciU' 

l^vtton, situation of 


Mackouzic liivcr 

" " coal on 

" " source of 

Mackenzie Sir Alexander, route followed by 

McKay's Mountain, arable lands near 

McLeods JUver, ascent of 

•• " coal on 

" I-ake, temperature at 

McLaughlin Bay 

Maligne Iiivcr, forests on 

Manitoba Lake, building stone on 

«« " description of 

" '• area of 

Manitoba Province, wells sunk in , 

»' " .soil of 

« " climate 

•« " .snowfall in 

<• " Lidians of 

Mattawin Piiver, situation of 

Mexico, Great Table-land of 

Miette River, route along 

Milieu Riviere dn 

^Nlilk River, desert near 

Millbank Sound 

Mission Valley, Indians of 

Mississijipi River, country west of , 

Moose Woods 

" timber at 

" " islands at 

" " description of 

" River, situation of 

Lake, " " , 





'J7, 5)8 
4, H 

IH, r,7 

•M, 88 
i}8, >J8 



m, 92 

GO, G8 







=r— .r= 





1)7, !»H 

1. H 

IH, r.7 












Hit, !)2 

130, 08 

Mooso Lakf, gradients at 

flossy Portiigo 

^^ouut Cariiu'l dosci'lption of 

Mount St. IClias, position of 

^fonnt IJrown, cltniition of 

Mount Hooker. " '• 

^Mountain Ifouse. strata at 

' " country hct^\•oon and Edmotiton 

Miul River i^Ciiilacoli) 

]\Iu(1,i,'e Caiiv , 


Xacoontloon Tiakr. route I'V 

Nakosia or Stewart liiver 

Navii,Mtioii of Thunder IJay 

" " Kaministiquia Rivor 

•' " "Water courses west of Tlnmder ]5ay 

" " Lakes Winnipeg, "NVinnipcgoosis, and Manitol)a 

" Lakes and rivers in Xorth-Wcst 

" l»y Steam 

" of Frascr River 

" Fuea Straits 

" " Britisli Columl)ia coast , 

" " Thompson River 

" north of Vancouver Island 

" of Bute Inlet 

" tiu'ougli the Rocky Mountains 

Nazio River, direction of 

'• Valley lU, 

Xecliaco River, and valley of 70, !)0, 

Nelson River, situation of 

Xettacoh River, situation of 

Nepean Sound, entrance to 

Nepowcwin Mission, situation of 

" " timber ai 

Ncshaw, north of 

Nestacho Lake, gradients on 

N'ghaco Lal^e, extent of 

Nicola Valley, trail in 

Nicolaume Vallev 










. ll.J 



11!>, 128 

102. 10,-) 


74, 90 



NiinpDli Luko, triiil nlon;^ .' 

Niiu! Milo (!r('ok. position of 

Xodiillcs Cliiiniiol, lido in 

Nortlu'otc, tilt' stiamcr . 

North-Wost Ttiritcti'ios, ilimati; of 

'• " " ciipacity to supiioi't i)f>puliitioii . 

" " " arcji nf 

" " " luniltliy cliiniito of 

*' " " ilivisioii of 

V " *' a(lii])tiil)ility for riiilrnjids 

di'scrt lands of 

" •• '• l)oanty of 

" " " lunthorn slope of 

♦' •• " pai'k-likc c'onntry in 

" " '* Indians of 

" " " [>o]inlation of 

" •• " productions of 

Nose Hill-, forest land on 

" Ci't-H'k, diaracter of 


Ukina,L,'an Itivcr 



Oil llogions, extent of 

()ssoyas Luke, position of 


Paeitie OcLiiii. route to 

" '• warui current in 

" '• Canada on 

Parsnip lii\ er, country near , 

Peace liivcr, country drained Iiy 

" " source of 

" " spring opens at 

" " cattle wmter al 

" " wheat raised on 

" '• cliniate of 

" " working railroad., at 

" " country dcocribid 




at;, ;{7 

H8, ia2 














85, 13(5 

4'2, 142 

48, lOU 


Pa. IK. 

1 1 .-> 









^ ISO 

ri'iico lUvcr, cdiil oil 

" " i^Ad ili.-ic'ovories on 

♦• " l*iiss, iiir curreiiis ill , 

♦• •• '• iiltitiuk' of 

" " Iiuliaiis 

Peak ^[ouiitiiins 

Pflly Fort, situiition of 

" " Itoriiif^ operations at 

Piiiihiiia llivir, coal on 

• '* (k'scribcil 

Peiubiua ^[ouiitaiii, country iioiir 

•• prairies near 

Plieasant Mountain, fcrtili' ari'n of 

Phillip Ann, head of 

Pie Island, situation of 

Pine River Pass, elevation of 

Pine Point, terraces at 

Pino lUver, described 

Piue Island Lake 

Piue Creek, situation of 

Pitt Fort, country near 

Plat Lake 

Police, Mounted 

Pootzeaks, Valley of 

Plumper Clianiiel 

Porcupine Hills, situation of • • • • 

" " altitude, country near, timber, kc 

" " surface deposits 

" " clay-iroiistoncs at 

Princess lloyal Islands 

Princeton, situation of 

Prairie Portage, Paver valleys -west of 

Prairie Country, seasons in 

•• " character of 47, 4!», 50, (10, 

" " nutritious grasses of 

Prince Albert Mission 

Priest's Fiock 

Puget Sound 

" " coal near 

Puntzoe Lake, counti'y near. 

CO, U) 



0.-, 70 





4M, .->(; 






:il. 47, 4!) 






( ( 

1)3, i»4 
01, 0P>. 0.'., 70 





Qnalclio Lake, position ol' 

QirAppelle Kivcr, desert near 

" " sources of 

Queen Charlotte Islands, situation of 

Quesnel mouth, position of 


(.)uol\olt Tndian<. villau'c of 


I I 

I I 




liainy Lalo. superficial deposits 

" " fori-sts near 

'• liiver, climate, ike 

" Hills, description of . . . 

JJai Portage, divide near 

'■ " geological formation at . 
" '• boring operations at. . . 

Rat Creek, boring operations at 

Rascals Village, situation of 

Red Deer River, situation of 

'' " coal on 

" *' cUmate at 

*' ■ " Lake crops raised a I 

Red (.)chrc Hills, countrv near 

Red River, coimtry cast of 

" banks of 

" country west of 

" prairies of 

" " fertile area 

" timber on 

' ' soil and fertility of 

" source and direction 

" water supply on 

Riding Mountains, rocks on flanks of 

" " elevation of 

'• " timber on 


delightful country near 

Rivers, direction of , 

River Valleys, depth of 17 

Robson's Peak 

* > 


10, 1 2 










17, 2!) 

18, 19 
20, 21 

20, 47, 01 






10. 12 










17. 2!) 

18, 1!) 
20, 21 

47, 01 

lloche Mietto Paok. 

" Pcrcce, situation of 57,66 

Roches Eouges 16 

liocky Mountain Tortago '^1 

llocky Mountains, navigation tlirou-'li -^'^^ 

'* . " baseof ".....'."^"!!'.V.".!' ^^^ 

country east or. , . '^'^ 

approachto 1^.48,02 

olGvationof '.".".".*."."."".*" Jf ' ^I! 

^■'■^lleys near eastern base of "^^ '^ 

" I'oute to Cliina throu^'h *'^ 

beauty of ■■_'■■' ^''' 

" passes tbroudi.... *'^ 

•« a ,.,„ . ° 08,70 

valley's 111 ' 

Tiuporfs Land, Imlians of ^^ 




Hiigeninaga River, extensive forests on 

Sabnon IJivcr, valley of ^" 

" survey on ■■;;■; !HM]8, 121 

" Pass ".".'."r.!.".V.:".7*; ^^^ 

Sahnon, immense yuantities of -"^^ 

Salt Plain, great ^^^ 

Salt Piver, examination of '^ 

Salteanx, treaty with the. ^^^ 

Sand Hills Lake, banks of... .".'.".*.'."".."." .7. '.'..'."..' ^^^' ^^^ 

Saskatchewan Cotuitry, geological forniaVion* ,' .'..'. ?! 

area of...,. ^^ 

, , 24 

gnizmg lands ^. . 

character of ' „f 

<i u r . -. ' 26 

clnuate and productions of.. ^n 

n-on deposits in * . 

beauty of ['[' ^* 

I' River, forests at Grand Forks on.'.'! 7. ".'..*.'. .. .[ '.".'".'.'.'...".". 24 
" ''^ North Branch, timber, coal and lignite. ;8.5, 49","i;'l, 52, 55, 57, 08 

" """"'^'y ^^e«cribed 47, 40, 50, 58, (!2 

" sources of m ri 

chmato ot 




beuda of 

•4, CO 

* i t • * I • • I II 

« * • • I I # • 


Saskatchewan Iliver, North Branch, geological formation on 

" " sandstone cliffs and caves on . 

" " description of 

•'• " depth of valley 

Eivcr, South Branch, forests on 

'• " description of , 









character of soil at 

elbow breadth and depth . . 
character at Moose Woods . 

area drained by 

desert south of 

" " " " crossing at 

Star Mission, wheat raised at 

Stelacoh Biver, described 

Steppes, three prairie 

• •' altitude, boundaries, geology of 

" composition, fertility, rivers, vegetation &c 15, IG, 17, 19, 

Stick Indians 

Stewart Island 

" River, gradients on 

" " journey to 

" " to Bute Inlet 

" Lake 

Sturgeon, fisheries 

Sturgeon Lake, position of 

St. Albert Mission, wheat raised at 

St. Ann's Lake, country about , 

" " scttlemcut 

" " track to 

St. George Fort, situation of , 

St. James Fort, cUmate at 

St. John Fort, situation of 

St. Joseph, coimtry near 

St. Paul Mission, country near 

Sumallow Valley 

Superior Lake, elevation, fluctuations, Indian name 

" '* mines on 

Savanuc River, timber on ; 

Savomia's Ferry, navigation at 

Scott Cape, situation of 

Reaforth Channel , 


58, G2, 04 




24, 29, 47 


2G, 47 








0, 15 

15, Gl, 70 

21, 23, 25, 59 






90, 105 






09, 71 






8, G2, 64 
!4, 29, 47 
0, 15 
15, 01, 70 
I'd, 25, 59 
90, 105 


Seine Eivcr, timber on 

Selkirk, Lord, efforts at colonization by 

Selkirk Mountains, the 

«♦ " passes tliroxtgli the , 

Seven Portages, situation of 

Seymour Narrows . . . ^. 

Shell Kiver, banks of 

" " fertile lands 

Shoal Lake, extent of 

Shuswap Kiver, character of 

Similkamoen, district of 

*« Eiver 

Simpson Fort, temperature at 

Sioux Indians, number of 

Skagit Eiver, altitude of 

Skecna Eivcr, country extending to 


Smokcy Eiver Pass, elevation of 

•' " " re^iort on 

<' " view of 

Soda Creek, B.C., temperature at 

" " " junction with Fraser Eiver, 

Souries Eiver, soiu'ces of 

Summit Lake, country near 

Swan Eiver, situation of 

«« " salt springs on 

" " country near 

" " surface deposits on 

«« " character of soil 

<« ♦' climate 

" •' boring operations on 

«• " minerals on .... , 


Tacla Lake described 

Tanyabunket Lake described 

Tatlayaco Lake described 

«' " gradients on 

Tatla Lake survey 

Tchatsquot Eiver, character of 












75, 92, 94 


80, 89 




33, 41, 43 







75, 92 



20, 22 









TchcHtatta Lake, Trail alonf,' 

Tclmtazcly Lake dcHcribccl 

Tea Eivcr 

Tchu-ain-il-til Lake, gradients on 

Temperatures, Table of 

" of British Columbia 

Tetachuck Lake, situation of 

Tete Jaunc* Cache, position of 

•• " navigation at 

Thickwootl Hills, country near 

Tlilo-et-loh, situation of 

Thoburn, the Rapiil 

Thompson Eouto, the 

" Eivcr, 

Thousand Lakes, Lake of 

•« •« " arable laucl near 

♦f •« " timber on 

<' " " climate 

Thunder Bay, area, depth, kc 

" " alluvial country near 

*' '• climate 

" " mines at 

" Cape 

Hill, situation of 

" " yellow ochre springs on 

• Thracha Lake, position of 

Ticdeman's Eivcr and Glacier 

Touchwood Hills, country uoar 

" " character of., 

" fertile area 

lyakes at 

" devastations by tire at... 

" :^cenery at 

" " snowfall on... 

" " climate at 

Transport, comparative cost of 

Trcmbleur Lake dcscxibed 

Tschick Lake, altitude and situation of... . 
Tulameen River, yalley of 








49, 51 




10, 12 




22, 21 

21, 20 

















49, 51 









5, 10, 12 




22, 21 

21, 2f) 












Unjij^ca Kivcv. . , 
Ursula Cluinucl, 


Vancouver Iblaml, coul on , 

•* " situation of .^ 

" " explorations by Captain ^'ancouvcr at 
*'• " navigation north of 

Valdez Island ' 

Yagctation, luxuriance of 

Vermillion, Fort, wheat and barley rai-td at 

Victoria MisJon, land near 

Victoria City, temperature at... . .' 

" " situation of 


AVaddington, Mr., place where his men were murdered 

Water supply 

Waterheu Eiver, channel of 

AVatcrshcd, elevation of, between Lakes Superior and Winnipeg 

altitude of ditto 

between Assiniboine and S. Saskatchewan 

" " Beaver and Athabasca liivers 

" " Saskatchewan and Peace Elvers 

'• " Pacific Ocean and Frascr Eiver 

•« " Blackwatcr and Chilacch Elvers 

•• " Chilacoh and Chilcotin 

" " Stewart and Fraser Valleys 

Welcome Islands, situation of 

Wcstroad Eivor, position of 

White Karth Fort, l)eautiful country near 

White IMud Eiver, fertile soil on 

" " " position uf 

White Mouth Eiver, situation of 

Whipsaw Valley, tlic 

Wignatinon, Valley of .*. . . 

line timber in, 

,'enoral description of, 

William Foi't, progress of seasons at. 


89, 92 







85, 38, 39 













90, ICO 






20, 3(r 






00, 01 


temperature at. 


Winnipeg Citj' 

" " tempci'atuvo at 

" " health of 

"Winnipeg River, country near . . 

" " description of 

" Lake, bnilcling- stone on 

" mineral wealth of 

" climate at 

" situation and altitude of . 
" boundaries and extent of. 
" character of country near 

Winnipegoosis Lake, building- stone on 

" " description of 

" " vegetation on 

" " area 

" " minerals 

AVoody ]\rountain, country near 

Wooded Country, the , 

Woodhalk or Bella Coola Eiver 



Yale, Eapids above 

Yellow Head Pass, character of 48, 05, 

" " " gradients in 

" " " elevation of 

" " " Lake gradients on 

Yeltesse, Salmon lUver at 

gradients at 



7, 8, 20 



13, 18 

13, 33, 42 

•15, 41 

IG, 19, 80 




23, 30 

19, 30 

20, 4G 



GO, 08, 09, 70 







Zazatcc Lake, gradients on, 




08, 69, 70 








Agassiz, Professor, Geology of Lake Superior. 
Antlerson, A. C, Tlie Domiuiou at tlie West. 


Barrett Lennard. Capt, C. E., Travels in British Columbia. 

Barnston, Lieut., Eeport of. 

Bayfield, Captain. • 

Bell, Robert, Geological Survey of Canada, 1872-3-1.5 

^"""' Onf!!- ^r '"'"'"■' '" ""'''''' '' ^'--"---^ of Crown Lands, 
Butler, Captain W. F., The Great Lone Land. 
" The Wild North Land. 


Choadle, Dr., North- West Passage by Land. 
Cornwallis, K., The New El Dorado. 


Dawson, G. M., Geology of the 49th Parallel 

Dowme,Wm., Report of, to Governor Douglas. ' 
Douglas, Governor, Report of. 


Fleming, Sandford, Report of Progress C. P R 1871 

Foster and Whitney, Messrs., Geology of Lake Superior Land District. 


Grant, Rev. George U., Ocean to Ocean, 

Hall Professor, Geology of Fourth District, N. Y. 

Hector, Dr., Geological Report in PaUiser's Exploration in B.N.A, 


Iliiul, Professor II. Y., Cauaclian Exploriiij,' Expedition. 

" " " Assiniboinc and Suskatchcwau Exploring Expedition. 

Hovotzky, Chas., Canada on the Paeilic, 

Keefov, Mr., Map prepared l)y. 

Laird, lion. David, Reports of. 
Logan, Sir "Wm., Geology of Canada. 


Mackenzie, Sir A., Voyages by. 

^lacoun, Professor J., Ileport of Progress C. P. 11., 1871. 

" " " Evidence before Select Committee on Immigration and Coloni- 

zation, Hoixse of Commons, Canada, 1870. 

^fartin, E. M., the Ilndsou's Bay Territories. 

^larshall, Chas., The Canadian Dominion. 

Mayne, Commandei' E. C, Four Years hi British Columbia and Vancouver Island. 

McLeod, H., Evidence before the Select Connuittee on Inunigralion and Colonization, 
House of Commons, Canada, 1870. 

IMcLeod, Malcom, Evidence before the Select Committee on Immigration and Coloniza- 
tion, House of Commons, Canada, 1870. 

Milton, Viscount, The North-West Passage by Land. 


Palliser, Captain, Exploration in B. X. A. 
Palmer, Lieut. H. S., Report on Bentinck Arm. 
Pembcrton, J. D., Facts and Figures relating to Vanconvo; 

Island and British 


Pdchardsou, Sir John, Arctic Exploring Expedition. 

Piichardson, James, Geological Survey of Canada, 1871-u, 

Rowan, J. H., Report of Progress, C. P. R. ' 

Russell, A. J., The Red River Country, Hudson's lUy and N. W. Territories. 


Sclwyn, A. R. C, Geological Survey of Canada. 
Simpson, Sir George, Overland Journey Round the World. 
Smith, Hon. D. A., Letter on Navigation in N. W. Territories. 




Smith Marcus, Report of Progress, Camuliau Tacilic liiiihvay. 
Smyth, Report of Major-Gouoral Selby. 

Spciico, Thomas, Manitoba ami the Nortli-Wcst of the Dominion 
Sponsor, J. W.. ( I eological. Survey of Canada, 187 Jr,. 


Trtchti, Afgr., Sketcli of tli.' Xorth-We,st of Amcrici. 


I Col 


l British 


Vavasour, Lieut., Report of 

md Coloni- 


Wells, A. W., Report by in Journals Legislative Assembly, Canada, 1851). 
Waddington. Alfred, Overland Railway through B. N. America. 














Arctic Exploring Expedition, by Sir John Riclmrtlson. 

Assiniboino and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition, by Prof. H. Y. Hind. 


Canada on the Pacific, by Charles Horotzky. 
Canadian Explormg Expedition, by Prof. H. Y. Hind. 

Dominion The, by Charles Marshall. 
Census of Canada, 1871. ' 

Dominion at the West, The, by A. C. Andersoji, J.P. 


Exploration in B. N. America, by Capt. Palliser. 

Facts and Figm-es relating to Vancouver Island and British Columbia, bv .7. D. Pem- 

Four Years in British Columbia, by Counnaudor E. C. Mayne, U.X. 


Geological Survey of Canada. 
Greology of Canada. 

" 49th parallel, by G. M. Dawson. 

•' Lake Superior Land District, by Messrs. Foster and Whitney. 

" the Fourth District N. Y., by Prof. Hall. 
Great Lone Land, The, by Capt. W. F. Butler. 


Hudson's Bay Territories, The, by R. M. Miiitin. 

Journals, Legislative Assembly, Canada, 1858. 
" '• " " 185l>.. 


l.<l(ir, fmiu Umii. |). A, buiitli, >[.!'., on Niiviyatiitii. 


Mniiit()l)ii and tlic Noitli-Wot dt'thc Douiiiiidii, l>y T. S|hiu'o, 


Noi'tli-Wi'st I'assaj^'o by Luml, Tlio, by Miltou aiul Choadlf. 
New El Dorado, The, by Kinahaii Cornwallis. 


Ocean to Occ'iiu, by lirv. (i. M. (iiuiit. 

Ovorhiud Journey lioiuul the ^Vorld, by Hir (loorgc hiuip.sou. 

" Itailway through !>. X. Aiuoriea, by Alfred AVadduigtoii. 


lI('liort of l'r(i;,'rc,s^, Cnnudiiiii racilie riailway, iMTl-i". 

lioute l)etween Lake Superior and llcil llivcr Sotlleirimt, 180S. 

" " Select I'omniiltee on Immigration and Colonization, House of Commons, 
Canada, IHOD. 
•* Select Committee on immigration and Colonization, House of CoiumouH, 
Canada, lH7(i. 
" " Commissioner of Crown Lands, Ontario, 1H70, 
" " Lieut. H. S. Talmer to (iovernor Douglas, 
•' Vavasour on Navigation. 
" Win. Downic to Governor J)ouglas. 
" '• Major-Clenoral Smyth. 
" Hon. D. Laird, 1870. 
" Marcus Smith, Esq., for 1H7'j. 
Ued i;iv'>'' Country, Hudson's r>My, and Xorth-Wcst Territories, by A. J. lUissell. 


Sketch o: llir NoriliAW^t of Amei'ica, by }Igr. Taclic 


Tnivelt- i)) Columbia, by Capt. Darrett-Len 



Voyages of Sir A. Mackenzie. 


)\'ild North Laud, The, by Cayi. y\'. 1". Butler. 


t)>f TiiK Link m tiik Canada Vmuu IIailway m:mm TuuNuut Bay 

TO Tiir: Pacmic Ockan. 

•^^ •■'^"•^ ^^'Jliam rmm foci 

" ^^"M'ing l^-8j„„ .. 

" ^''*^' ^i^-^''' 1,^15.00 .' 

" Wabiyoou Lake 1,-2(M.OO - 

" ^^^™i"'0" J^«I<o lj7o!()() .' 

"^^^^^•'^*'" I,081.(H) .. 

"^^'^^^^"^ imOH .' 

"^^^'^"•'^ 720.00 .> 

"^'"^^'- S27..0 '. 

" Poutraincourt ^,,,,„„ .. 

" ^"^•"^'^^t^ ]. 1/58.00 ^. 

■' I^^^'"S«tono j^g^,„„ .. 

" '^^^^^-^'^m' 1JH4.00 '> 

" S'^^'^atchcwan ^_,.^.5(„, ,, 

" ^'"'^^I'^vcrock 1 .^,,,„ .. 

"^■^^^'^^'^^ l,;593.0O '^ 

" Four lUaekroot Hills 2 143 00 " 

"^^^'"'^"^«" 2':3»1.00 '. 

" Pcmbiiia Ivivcr ., .,„,- ^a .. 

' ^fOOoAn) ' 

" McLooa-s Eiv.r ojyy.oO " 

"JasperHouso .. ..^ ^^^ .^ 

" Summit Yellow Hlm.I Pass 0. 710 00 " 

" Tete Jauno Cache 2,100.00 " 

" l'«i't <^^orgc iggOQQ .. 

" Valleys in Central Plateau, B.C 3,000.00 " 

" Yoltosse, above Salmon Piiver I 000.00 " 

Note.— See pages 1 17 and 122 for tallies of gradients of the lines suvvoyed througli 
the Cascade Mountains, where they are fully given mile by mile. 


C(i.MrjLKi) nioji Ai'THona QroTF.n in tiik FouEdoiXG Pagks. 

Lake Superior above the occau GOO feet 

Height of Lantl between Lake Sujierior and Winnipeg.. . " " 1,500 

AVatorshoil above Lake Superior 902 

Lake "Winnipeg above the ocean GOO 

First Trairie .'-tcppe ' " " 5)00 

Second " " " " l.GOO 

Third " " " " 2,700 

Sources of Qu'Appelle Eiver above Pied Paver 500 

Summit altitude of Piiding and Duck Mountains above the ocean l,G0O 

Heart Hill above the plains 700 

Porcupine l\rountain above Swan Lake 800 

Iiisc from Fort Garry to Edmonton, by trail 1,'400 

' ' from Edmonton to base of ^Mountains 900 

Mount Carmel, (Big Hill) above the plains IGO 

Lumpy Hill " " -100 

Height of the banks of RihT Piivcr above the stream 30 to 50 

Jasper House above the sea 3,372 

Highest point of Plateau in British Territory at base of Piocky iMountains, 

on 49th parallel above the ocean 1,300 

(ireat Table-land of Mexico 7,000 

Bow Piiver , at foot of Mountains 3,900 

Athabasca Eivcr, at foot of ^fountains 3,800 

Rocky Mountains al)ovc eastern plain 2,000 to 3,000 

Terraces east of Rocky Mountains above the ocean 3,500 to 4,000 

Mounts Brown and Hooker above the plains 10,000 

Roche Miette, from its ba">e G,()0() 

Mountains south of Moose lynko above the Like 2,000 

Average height of Rocky Mountains 9,000 

Lake Stuart above the ocean 1,800 

Howse Pass " " 4^500 

Athabasca Pass " •' G,025 

Yellow Head Pass " " ?,746 

Pine River " " " 2,000 

Peace " " under •• 2,000 


GOO feet 

1,500 " 

902 " 

000 " 

000 " 

1,000 " 

2,700 " 

500 " 

1,000 " 

700 ' 

800 " 

1,400 " 

900 " 

100 " 

■100 " 

to 50 " 

3,372 " 

Cascade Mountains at Kemano Iliver iibovo the sea 8,000 

at Skagit " " " 5,000 

Skagit Eivcr " " 1,900 

Allison's Pass above the sea (Cascades) -1,400 

Princeton " ■' " 2,300 

Tea P.iver " •' " 1,500 

Okanigan Mountain above the lake 3,000 

Lake '■ sea 1,120 

Valleys in Central Plateau, B.C., " " 3,000 

Hills " " above the sea 4,000 to 5,000 

Blackwater Bridge, B.C., above the sea 2,110 

Crown of Table-land, B.C., " " 3,500 

Blackwater Kiver (cami) 8) B.C " " 3,145 

ivluskus Lake, B.C., " " 3,500 

Thraclia Lake, B.C., • • " " 3,310 

Eliguck Lake, B.C., " " 3,010 

Divide on Central Plateau, B.C., " " 4,050 

Lake N'ghaco, B.C., '• " 3,500 

" Qualcho, " " " 2,820 

^' Tsehick, " " " ;),100 

" Tetachuck, B.C., " " 2,770 

" Tchutazely, " '• " 2,080 

" Enz, B.C " " 3,050 

" Tchestatta, B.C " " 2,800 

" Kthluthsly, " " " 2,!)00 

Head of Lake Eraser, B.C, " " 2,400 

HiUs on Central Plateau, B.C " " 4,000 

Foot of Lake Francois, '^ " " 2,540 

Chilacoh Valley, (above Canyon) above the sea 2,000 to 2,300 

Salmon House above river 100 

Yeltesse... " " 1,000 

Chisicut Lake 3,290 

Chilacoh Valley above the set?, 2,225 

Stewart Valley " " 2,055 

" River " " 1,950 

Basalt Lake, divide near " " 3,700 

Euchinico Lake crossing " " 1 >'^'Ji> 

Summit between Blackwater and Nazco " " 3,228 

Lake Francois, North shore , " " '^.790 

Duuvegan " " L^OO 



On First rrairio Steppe . . . . : ^ 80 feet 

" Secoml " " ir>0to200 " 

" TLird " " li»>^ to 400 " 

South Sn^kiitclicwuu Lelow prairie, third level • 800 

" " at the crossing 170 

North " helow prairie level 100 to 800 " 

Battle raver, below prairie level l-'O to 270 " 

RodRiver " " " 80 to HO 

Wignatinou River, below prairie level 200 

Vallovs in Central Plateau, B.C., 1 1^» 



Elevation of Lakk Sli'Erior. 

80 feet 
to '200 " 
to 100 " 
800 " 
170 " 
to ;500 " 
to 270 " 
to r,0 " 
200 " 

no " 

Canadian Ejcjtloring Expedition, by Henry Yule Hind. Vol. 1, jj. 17. 

" The elevation of Lake Su[)orior above the Ocean has been variously estimated by 
(lilterent observers. Captain Bayfield considered it to be 627 feet above the level of the 
sea, which altitude is adopted by the narrators of Agassiz's t&nr in tliat region, and by 
]\Iessrs. Foster and Whitney, in thrir report on the geology of the Lake Superior Land 
District. Sir Wm. Logan, in his Geological Report for 181G-7, states that its suiface is 
r)'J7 feet .''bevethe Ocean ; in Professor Hall's Geology of the Fourth District, N. Y., 596 
feet is its assigned elevation. Sir John Richardson assumed its level to be 641 feet 
above the Ocean. The altitude deduced by Mr. Keefer for the map prepared for the 
(Janadian Commissioners at the Paris EKhiliition in lSi)~^, with the advantages and in- 
formation derived from tlie levels obtained in tlio construction of vai'ious railways and 
canals from the Ocean to Lake Superior, estalilished a difference of only three feet in 
excess of that obtained by Sir Wm. Logan in 1817. The occasional fluctuations in the 
level of the waters of Lake Superior certainly exceed tliree feet, so that an elevation of 
600 feet is probably a correct estimate of the mean height of the waters of this ' Kitchi- 
guni-mi,' or (treat Lake of the Ojibways above the Ocean." 

TiiuNDEH Bay. 

Canadian Pacific Puiihcay. Peport of Pro'jrcss, 1871,/)/;. 2)8-209. 

" This Bay is on the north-west shore of Lake Superior, and has an area of about 
200 square miles. It lies in a direction generally from north-east to south-west, and is 
bound on the west and north by the mainland ; on the east by the promontory of Thunder 
Cape, which divides it from Black Bay ; and on tlie south it is divided from Lake Supe- 
ri(U' by a number of islands, of which Pie Island is the principal. * * * 

With the exception of a small group, (tlie Welcome Islands.) which lie about four miles 
east from the moutli of the Kaministii{uia River, there are not manv islands in Thunder 

" The principal entrance to Tliundei- Bay, ami the one generally used, lies between 
Thunder Cajte and Pie Island ; it is about five miles wide and has a depth of water rang- 
ing from 100 feet to 2.37 feet. The general depth of the Bay is given on the chart as 60 
feet. * * * The navigation is good for either steamboats or sailing vessels ; 

the opening and closing of the Bay is about the 8th May and 30th December." 

Peport on Line of Ponte betmcen Lake Superior and Ped Picer Settlement, by S, J. 

Dawson, C.E., 18()8, y>. 12. 

" Thuiuler Bay is itself a harbour, although of somewhat large dimensions, completely 
land-lock(!d and sheltered from every wind ; any swell, therefore, which can be felt must 
arise witl_in the bay itself. The huge surges of Lake Superior do not roll into it at all| 

ami it may be regarded, to all practical purposes, as an inland lake. '■'■• ''■'■ '■'■ 

It is safe from winds blowing Avest, soutli-wcst, north and north-west, an<l, I may add, 
that a wind blowing from a direction fifti'cn or twenty points to the east of north would 
not affect it. East or south-easterly winds alone would blow in upon the harbour, but 
the extent of their sweej) would be limited to the width of Thunder Bay, and the surge 
which could arise in that distance may easily ba guarded against." 

(It may be observed that the railway termiims is fixed on the Kaministiquia River, 
which Hows into the Bay and is itself a good harbour, and into which a deep outer passage 
is dredged through the Bar.) 

Kamixistiquia Vallev. 

Appendix No. o to XVI Vol. Journals of Leijislatlvc Assembhj of Canada, 1858. 

" The ]vaministi(juia for the fust ten nules or so is smooth, and the navigation is 
unimpeded. '•'■ '■'■'■ '" In regard to its general features, the country is 

varied. The vtillcy of the lower part of the Kaministiquia is well adapted for settle- 
ment. On ascending, however, the land becomes very rough and broken, although the 
hills are of no very great elevation. Dog Lake is a large sheet of water. The land rises to 
a considerable elevation around it, but the hills are not steep or in continuous ridges, but 
swell uj) gradually as it were in isolated mounds. At the Lake of the Thousand Lakes, 
although the country appears to be consideral)ly elevated, there are, properly speaking, no 
bills. Tlix land I'iscs gradually from the Lake presenting a smoothly -swelling outline 
against the distant liin-izon. 

"No pari of the country is moi-e than 1000 feet above the lake level, or 1000 feet 
above sea level, which height is reached about 50 miles inland." 

Captain ralligpr's Exploration in />'. X. America, folio, p. L*.'^7. Dr. 

Geoloijicid Jifport. 


or .s- 

" The whole of this district is occupied by a primitive axis, the 
intermediate primitive belt of Sir J. Richardson, which is com})osed of gneiss, mica, 
schist, limestones and other metamoriihic rocks, with intrusions of granite, probably of 
very ditierent agfs, the whole formation lunng the Laurentian of Logan, corresponding, 
it is thought, to the fundamental gneiss recently described by Sir R. Murchison, as nnder- 

1!' th(; ancient rocks in Scotland. 


" On the River Kaministiijuia, above the fall at Friar.s' Portage, the strata have an 
almost veitical position, and a little further on, at Lower Island L'ortage, are found to be 
dipping at an angle of 40 to south-south-east, and to be changed in character, liaving 
mica <leA'elo}ied in them, and also a great abundance of cpiartz veins. Immediately 
afterwards, in the course of the ascent, tiMu; granite; occurs ; and after several alterations, 
schistose Hags if!-a]i])ear at I'pper Island Portage, but now dipping at a high angle to the 

"From the Falls to the Dog Lake, the ascent of the river pui-sues a northerly 
course, crossing the beds ol>li(piely by a succession of minor falls, giving rise to scenery 
of uneipudk'd l)eauty. * * * I'Ik, ascent which is made after leaving the 
njiper end of Dog Lake, is tliiough a swampy country covered with drift. In fact, after 
leaving Dog Lake, until a considt'rabli! descent has been made to the w<>st, no rock is 
exposed, the whole summit level being covered with a thick deposit of drift. '■' '•' 

may add, 
)rtli would 
fbour, but 

the surge 

[uiii Piivev, 
Lev passage 


vigatiou is 
country is 
for settle- 
hough the 
md rises to 
ridges, but 
md Lakes, 
leaking, no 
ng outline 

1 GOO feet 


axis, the 

eiss, mica, 

rol)ably ot 


I, as under- 

ta have an 
bund to be 
tor, having 
ngle to the 

I northerly 
to scenery 
eaving the 
I fact, after 
no rock is 

" From the Lake of the Thousand Isles, where the i-ocky flooring of the country is again 
uncovered, until Kturgeou Lake is ix-acheil, the descent is veiy slight. * * * 
In miiiy cases the lakes are at exactly the same level at each end of the ]>ortage ; and the 
greatest ditierenco between the two ends of any of those jiortages is only about ."5,") feet, so that 
the total descent in this part ';f the route cannot amount to very nuich. * * * 

'* B(ftween Eainy Liiko and Lake of the Woods the superficial deposits again cover 
all rocks from view, and when tli(! north end of the latter lake is reached, and they are again 
exposed, their general strike is now changed to almost north and south, agi'ecing with 
tlie greater axis of the lake, just as liainy Lake agrees with the sti'ilco of the eastern 

Geological Survey of Caimd I, X^l'l-l?*, p. 106. 

" In going north-westward from Tiiunder Bay to I^ake Winnipeg, six ap])arently 
distinct belts of Huronian rocks are crossed. They appear to occuity long V shaped 
basins in the folds of the Laurentian strata, and their aggi'ogate breadth is about half that 
of the Laurentian l)ands between theui. Tlui first, or Thunder Bay band, hns a breadth 
of about IT) miles beliind Tiiunder Bay, but appears to spread out to a greater widtli west 
of the Kaministi(piia Bivcr." 

Geohvjy of Cainvht, p. 74-. 

" In addition to dykes, a great many mineral veins intor.ioct these rocks. A very 
large number of these contain a greater or smaller amount of various metalliferous ores ; 
and the indications which they ])reseut are such as to I'cnder it certain that many [)arts of 
the country characterized by them, will, sooner or later, rise into imiiortance as a mining 
region. The metals whose ores are met with are cop})er, load, zinc and silver, with more 
rarely nickel, cobalt, arsenic, uranium and molybdenum." 

Tkiuuces of Lakk Supeuior Basin. 

Cnptaiii Pallisrr's Exploration in B. X. America, folio, 2>- 219. 

" In ascending the Kaministiquia for a considerable distance above the Kakabeka 
Falls, the country is covered by a deposit of red marl earth, which forms theliigh ter- 
races of the river. Thus, opposite the mouth of White Fish Biver, thei-e are three dis- 
tinst terrace levels of 20, (JO and 90 feet. At some distance back from the river still 
higher terraces occur, belonging to this class of deposits, which must be considered as of 
more recent age than the true drift. Sir William Logan describes one at the height of 
331 feet above Lake Superior. The great deposits of sand and gravel which rest on the 
highest levels of the axis and are first met with at Dog I'ortage, belong, I think, to the 
pei'iod of the drift." 

Ilnil,p. 27. 

" The country' in the neighborhood of the Kakal)eka l<\dls at a little distance from 
the river rises to an elevation of 100 feet, a stee[) bank on eifclier side of the stream 
forming an additional terrace." , 


* * '•' " Terrace structure commences about 20 miles from the nioutli of 
Kaministiquia River, rising to the height of from <it> to i^t) feet above the level of the broad 

alluvial flat. These tevniced banks iu-e couiposod of a red, sandy marl 'om the auniiuit 
of which the countiv is level, with little or no swamp. * * 

The country i)resenis great irregularities in every direction, and, as a rule, is densely 

Geological Survey of Canmhi, ISGG lo 18G9, p. ?>'M). 

"In the hills on the left side of the Kaniinistiquia River, a finely handed rock made 
up of jasper and magnetic iron, occurs. '■' '■'• ••' These strata are consideral>ly 
contorted, anil dip at high angles, but their general course api)ears to be north-west- 
wai'd. On higher ground, overlooking the river at this locality, are thick beds of finely 
grained greenish-gray diorite coarsely jiorphyritic from the [tresence of numerous crystals 
of greenish feldspar. The beds varv from one foot in thickness uj) to IT) or 20 feet and 
Btrike N. C5" W. (mag.)" 

Canadian Exploring Expedition, hy 11. Y. Hind. Vol. 1, pp. 34-38. 

" Opposite this magnificent exposure of trap (McKay's Mountain), the clay banks of 
this river are about 14 feet high, and continue to rise on one side or the other until they 
attain an elevation of nearly GO feet, often, however, retiring from the present bed of the 
river, and giving place to an alluvial terrace, some 8 or 10 feet in altitude, and clothed with 
the richest profusion of grasses and twining flowering ])lants. '■• * * 
The alluvial valley of the river from abotit 3 miles l)el()w the mountain portage to Fort 
William, varies in breadth from a few hundred 3'ards to one mile ; the breadth occupied by 
land of a quality which might fit it for agricultural purposes extends to near the summit 
of the flank of a low table land which marks the true limit of the river valley, and the average 
breadth of this may })e double that of the strictly alluvial portion. * * * 

Occasionally the flanks of the low table land ajijjroach the river, contract the valley, and 
give an unfavorable asjtect of the country. * * * xhe area availa1)le for 

agricultural purposes below the Grand Falls, jirobably exceeds 20,000 acres, but if the 
flanks of McKay's Mountain be included in the estimate, a large addition may with 
propriety be assumed. The Grand Falls mark the limits of a tract of country difl'ering in 
many important physical aspects from the valley of the river lower down. Fi'om black 
argillaceous slates of Huronian (Cambrian) age we pass to a region in which granite, 
gneiss and chloritic schist prevail, and where the vegetation is often scanty and iioor." 

Geological Survey of Canada, 18GG-9, p. 32G. lieport of Mr. JL Ikll. 

* * * " Between the Grand Falls of the Kaniinistiquia and the head of 
Thunder Bay, the country is occu])ied jiartly by Laurentian and partly by Huronian 
rocks, to a distance of about eight miles from the former, and about sixteen from the latter. 
The distribution of the two formations is repiesented as accurately as possible according 
to present data. North of this area is the country around Dog Lake, which is all Lau- 
rentian so far as knoAvni." 

Hekiiit of Land. 

Mr. Sand ford Fleming in Report of Progress, Canadian Pacific Railway, 1874, p. 8. 

* * * " Between the Province of Manitoba and Lake Superior, the 
drainage of the country is mainly westward, passing into Lake \Vinni])eg. The water- 
shed between the two lakes is (juite close to Lake Superior, and maintains a nearly uni- 
foi-m elevation of from 1400 to 1500 feet above the sea. The descent from the watershed 
M-estward is very gradual, and tho country for the whole distance is remarkable for the 

le suniTuit 
is densely 

'ock made 
s of finely 
IS crystals 
) feet and 

T banks of 
until tliey 
jed of the 

itlied with 


;e to Fort 
jcupied by 
16 summit 

lie average 


\lley, and 
lilaljle for 
l)ut if the 
may Avith 
iH'ei'iiig in 

om black 
1 granite, 


le head of 
the latter, 
s all Lau- 

\,p. 8. 

lior, the 
he water- 
narly uni- 
le for the 

innumerable streams and lakes with which it is intersected. These consist of long wind- 
ing sheets of water, s(!i)arate(l by rocky ridges ; mid so numerous are they, tliat an Indian 
in his canoe can travel in almost any reiiuiied dire(,'tion by making an occasional portage." 

Canadian Parljir. RaUirrn/, liPixirt of Pro'jrp.>^!>, 1874, pp. i^Ol-202. Appendix I. 

Jan. II. lioican, (J. E. 

"There is a jx'culiarity which has an important bearing on tlie location of a railway; 
it is that about 30 miles east of Kat Portage a "divide" is crossed, which has a coui'se 
generally easterly until it strikes the height of land. This "divide" which has at some 
])oints a greater elevation than the height of land throws some of the waters, which How 
through the Winnipeg Kiver, to the south ; forming the line of water communication 
known as the Dawson Route. From the northern slope of the "divide " the waters flow 
into English River, the outfall of Lonely l.nke or Lac Seid, and enter the Winnijieg fifty 
miles below Rat Portage. The country diH'ers greatly on either side of this "divide," 
that on the south being ^;vl;;\mely rocky and rugged, while that on the north is more 
level with extensive tracts of light sandy soil." 

Captain PaUisers Exploration in J>. X. America, folio, p. G. 

* * * " Around Thunder P>ay, and extending for some distance up the 
• valley of the Kamiiiistiquia, there is a consideralde extent of rich alluvial land, heavily 

timbered. '•' '•■ '•■ 

" 'i'lie country which succeeds to the west and north is wild and rcjcky, but with 
no hill more than 300 feet above the general level, so that it cannot be called a mountain- 
ous region. It is intersected by long, narrow lakes and innumerabh^ watercourses l)rokeii 
by ridges of rock. The extent of the continuous water communication im])roves consider- 
ably as we descend to the west, and there are some large lakes which would be available 
for steam navigation in the event of the country ever becoming settled." 

Appendix No. 36 to the XVI / Vol. of the Jou7'nal.<, Le/jif<latire Atsenihli/, J^iorince of 
Canada, 1800. Peport of S. J. Dauson on the Country between La/ce ISuptrior 
and Red River Settlement. 

" The regions through which the exploitations have extended embraces two sections 
of country widely different in physical character. The first extending from Liike 
Superior to Lake "Winnipeg is of the jirimitive or crystalline' formation. In its general 
aspect it is a hillv and broken country, intersected by rajiid rivers and wide-sjiread lakes. 
'I'he mountains, however, do not rise to any great elevation, except on the immediate 
borders of Lake 'Superior, and there are several fine alluvial \alltys." 

From Keewatin to Selkirk. 

(icoloijical Sarrt'i/. Report of Progress, \S~'2'^, Alfred R. C. Selit'i/n, pji. l.")-14. 

* * * "The most imi)orfant and interesting point which has been 
ascertained is the occurrence of a series of. great parallel bands of schistose and slaty rtrata 
travei'sing this region, which hitherto was sujiposcd to be almost exclusively occujii 'd by 
Laurontian gneiss. * # * W'jiatever their age may be, their pnsence 
exerts a marked beneficial influence on the physical character and on the general fertility 
of the country when! they ocenpy the surface, 'i'his fact in relation to a portion o' two 
of the bands which we observecl west of Lake Su|)eri()r, was noticed by Prof. Keating in 
1823, who writes respecting these as follows : — " Previous to our arrival at Rat Podago, 


we observed that tlie rocks changed to a shite of which the stratilicatiou was very 
distinctly directed from east-north-east to west-south-west. The inclination was nenrly a 
■vertical one ; the color of the slate is a dark green ; it is vei-y decidedly a micaceous 
slate, at least on Hat Portage. 

" Apart from the geological interest which attaches to the detci'uiination of the 
distribution of these I'ocks and of their preciso relations to the underlying Laurentian 
gneiss, the foregoing facts show that it is economically impoiiant that the extent of these 
bands should be defined ; and tliii^ their mineral characters should be closely investigated 
is equally so, inasmuch as the gold, the cop])er, and the iron of the region, as far as 
knosvn, are associated with similar strata, and thus, not only the best land, but likewise 
valuable mineral deposits are to be looked for within the limits which they occupy." 

Dr. Hector s Geohjical Heport in Captain Palliser's Exploration in IJritinh North 

America, p. 219. 

" The steppes of this great slope may be naturally divided into three groups, having 
different ages and circumstances of deposition, and boldly marking three distinct levels. 
To the most recent of these belong the low prairies which surround Lake Winnipeg and 
the lakes of that group, including the marshy country west of Manitoba Lake. This 
forms the first prairie level. In the vicinity of the Red River Settlement its composition 
is of argillaceous marl, with a deficiency of sandy matter, and it is invariably stratified 
in their layers. Underlying this, at various depths from the surface, is a bed of stiff clay, 
which forms the immediate margin of the river at many places. The upper layers of this 
deposit contain leaves, and fragments of wood and reeds, and the whole is, undoubtedly, 
a fresh water deposit, indicating the time when the Winnipeg group of lakes covered a 
much moi'C extended area than at present, the gradual deepening of the rock channels 
through the eastern axes h.aving increased the drainage in modern times. The surfs.ce of 
this deposit is al»out 75 to 100 feet above Lake Winnipeg, but it slope.^ gradually from 
the west, and at Pembina Mount, near St. Joseph, is at least 100 feet high. To the 
east of Red River, in descending the Winnipeg River, two well marked levels were 
observed, which belong to this group of extended lake deposits. Thus below the seven 
portages that river flows through a smooth channel, and the banks are composed of a 
white marl earth, the river being at first only slightly depressed, but soon, from its rapid 
descent, while the level of the deposit remains the same, the banks become higli. At the 
Rat Portage this terrace, which is 150 feet above Lake Winnipeg, retires from the river 
on each side, and is replaced by another at an altitude of only 75 feet, through a cutting 
in which the river flows to its mouth at Fort Alexander." 

Rfiport on Line of Haute between Lake Superior and Red River Settlement, by S. J. 

Dawson, 1808,^;;;. 18-19. 

" This section of country presents to the eye, in its general character, the appearance 
of an undeviating flat. From the Lake of the Woods, for a distance of twenty-five or 
thirty miles westward, swamjis of great extent, covei-ed with moss and stunted evergreens, 
are of frequent occurrence. In other sections, considerable areas are occupied by marshes 
or shallow lakes, with bull-rushes and other acquatic plants standing o.>t of the water. 
In the latter cases, the bottom, after a certain depth is attained, is generaliy firm, while, 
iu the swamps, in some instances, the surface covering is itself afloat, and heaves and 
undulates beneath the feet, presenting a quagmire or peat bog on an extensive scale. This 
description a])plies more particularly to the section nearest to the Lake of the Woods. On 
approaching the prairie, the swamps are less extensive and the ground in general more 
favorable. In the swampy sections, however, there are some areas of dry ground and 
good soil, and, where the bogs are deepest, they are intersected by low gravelly ridges 

I was A'cry 
as nearly a 
I micaceous 

tion of tlio 
!Ut of tliosci 
1, as far as 
lit likewise 

y/i North 

lips, having 
tinct levels, 
innipeg and 
jake. This 
y stratified 
)f stiff' clay, 
yers of this 
s covered a 
;k channels 

siirfi-ce of 

lually from 

Rb. To the 

evols were 

the seven 

)oscd of a 
n its rajiid 
At the 
the river 

1 a cutting 

hy S. J. 

iity-five or 
3y marshes 
the water. 

m, while, 
leaves and 

ale. This 
oods. On 
leral more 
round and 
elly ridges 

which rise but a few feet over the general level. These ridges are firm, and their direction 
can bo traced by the he.!vy growth of wood which they cany. Flat and level a.s the 
country appears to be, it is susceptiljle of being drained. The section most swampy, 
although but slightly higher than the Lake of the Woods, is at an elevation of over three 
hundred feet al»ove the valley of lied lliver, and wherever a run of water is mot with, 
exce|)t in tlie lake-like swamps, it is seen gliding on with a speed which indicates a 
sulHjient fall for drainage. '■' ■■■ 

" The principal streams in this region are the Broken Head lliver and the White 
]\[outh Itiver. The Broken Head runs north to Lake Winnipeg, while the White Mouth 
falls into the Winnipeg River, just above the Seven Poitgages. The section which I 
have just been describing, except in the swamps and marshes, is densely wooded. West- 
ward of this is the prairie, having a depth of thirty miles to the eastward of Red River. 
This prairie does not meet the wooded region, as might be sujjposed, gradually mergiug 
from prairie to woodland, but abruptly and at once. It seems to be an ancient lake 
bottom, still nearly as level as a lake, and generally without wood. Bordering on this is 
the wooded region, with point? sti'etching into the plain, like the lieadlands of a lake. 
Just where the ju-airie and woodland meet, there are, in some ])laces, banks of gravel 
which will eventually become of importance, as material for forming roadways over the 
soft and viehliu!' soil of the plains. 

"From Fort Garry to tho north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods, a road line has 
boon laid out, and its j)racticability proved by the fact that, for several years, it was used 
as a post road and the mails carried over it on horseback. Wheeled vehicles, except in 
very wet weather, can already travel over the prairie, and, taking the lino altogether, 
its average cost, to form a tirst-class country road, will be rather under than o\er the 
g(?neral average of such works." 

Report of Progress, C. P. Railway, Id^li, p. 20L 

* * * " For 80 miles immediately east of Red River, the general charac- 

teristics are, a level and in some ]iarts swampy country, with ridges of sanil and gi-avel 
more or less thickly covered with timber ; the next 70 miles are rough, broken and rocky, 
(^specially in the neighljorhood of Winnipeg River, which at the outlet of Lake of the 
Woods (Rat Portage) where we cross it, is a stream of considerable magnitude, draining 
an area of country of about 10,000 squai'e miles ; an area which is largely increased below 
the point Avhere we cross it. * * * Rat Portage, or the Dalles (Keewatin) 

a few miles further down are the two most favoi'able jwints for a railwaiy crossing. 
* * * The country from this point to the Height of Land or eastern l)0undary 

of this (the Winnipeg) subdivision, has a gradual ascent, the total rise being between 400 
and 500 feet in a distance of 230 miles. * * * There is a great extent of 

water surface, consisting of lakes and lacustrine streams of every conceivable shape and 
size ; the former lying, for the most part, in the direction of tho strike of the I'ocks ; the 
latter occasionally cutting across it. The hills which almost universally follow a general 
direction from N.E. to S. W., consist for the most part of rock of the Laurentian formation." 

Appendix No. 30 to Journals Legidatlve Assembly, Canada, LSoi). Report hy 
S. J. Dawson on the Country between Lake Superior and Red River, 

" The tongue of land immediately to the eastward of Red River, within the boun- 
dary line, and between it and the Lake of the Woods, on the River Winnipeg, is remark- 
able, inasmuch as it divides the wooded from the j)rairie region, pai'taking to some extent 
of the character of both. The eastern border, on the Lake of the Woodi and the Win- 
nipeg, is of the crystalline formation, of an uneven surface and densely wooded. Its 

western, on the Reil River, |tre,seut.s wide ]iriiirie oin'uin;,'s, and for a distance of aliout .'?() 
miles back is of an alluvial soil. Iniinediatcly to tli(! westward of Lake of the Woods, 
and l>ut slightly elevated above it, tlieris is a marshy plateau, seantily woixhid, from wliicli 
the Roseau River flows westward to Red River, tlu; White ^loutli River northward to 
th(! Winnipeg, and several inconsideralile streams (iastward to Jiae Plat, and the Lake of 
th(? Woi)ds itself. Wt'stward of this plateau the land descends evenly to the jirairie 
horderinj,' on Red River, and to the northward it declines very gently to Lake Winnipeg; 
another river, the IJroken Head, taking its risi; ou the slope Ix'tween White Mouth River 
and Red River, about six. miles to the t-astward of which lattt;r it Hows into Lake Winni- 
peg in a reedy marsh." 


/iff Ilicur E.fploniiij ExiinUllun, II. )'. Hind, Vol. 1, j). 10(1. 

'• Issuing from the Lake of the Woods through several gaps in the northern rim of 
the lake, the River Winni|icg tlnws through numerous tortuous channels for many mih-s 
ot its course in a north-easterly direction. Some of the channels unite! with the nuiin 
stream ten to Hfteen miles below Rat I'ortage, and one jtursnes nearly a straight course 
fur a distance of G.") miles, and joins the Winnipeg below the JJarriere Falls. The 
windings of this innnense river are very alirnjit and opposite, suddenly changing from 
ncn-th-west to south-west, and from south-west to north-west for distances exceeding '10 
miles. Li its course of ltj.'{ miles, it descends .") l!) feet i)y a succession of magnificent 
cataracts. Some of the falls and rajtids j)resont the wildest and most picturesipie 
scenery, displaying every variety of tumultuous cascade, with foaming rapids, treacherous 
eddies, and huge swelling waves, rising massive and green over hiilden rocks. * * 

The riv{!r freipumtly expands into large deep lakes full of islands, bounded by ])rocipitous 
dills or rounded hills of granite. Tin; fort at Rat Rortagc is beautifully situated on an 
island at one outlet of the Lake of the AV^oods. It is surrounded with hills about :20() 
feet high, and near it some tall white and ix-d pine, the remains of an ancient forest, ai-e 
standing amidst a vigorou.; second growth. The rock about Rat Portage is a chloritie 
slate, which soon gives i)lace to granite, without any covering of drift, so that no ai'ca 
callable of cultivation was seen f.util we arrived at Islington Mission." 

The Great Loae Laud, hij Capt. W. F. Butl-)\ F.R.G S., p. 141. 

* * * " A man may journey very fai' through the lone spaces of the earth 
without meeting with another Winnipeg River. In it nature has contrived to ]ilace her 
two great units of earth and water in strange and wild combinations. To say that the 
Winuiiieg River has an volume of water, that it descends .'{(JO feet in a distance 
of ItiO miles, that it is full of eddies and whirlpools, of every variation of waterfall from 
cliutes to cataracts, that it expands into lonely pine-clitled lakes and far-reaching island- 
studi'led bays, that its bed is cumbered with immense wave polisheil rocks, that its vast 
solitud(\s are silent and its cascades ceaselt;ssly active— to say all this is lint to tell in liare 
items of fact the narrative of its beauty." 

Soil and Yeuetatiox, Timuer, ifcc. 

Append!.': No. 3 to Journals of the Le(jidative Aisemld//, C'uimJa, 1858. 

* _ *_ * "Opposite McKay's Mountain the clay banks of the River 
(Kaministiquia) -were about la feet high, and continued to rise on one side or the other 
until they attained an elevation of neaily (iO feet, often, liowever, retiring from the 
present bed of the river, and giving jilace to an alluvial terrace, some eight or ten feet 
in altitude. 

' a1)out 30 
1! Woods, 
0111 wliicli 
tliwaril to 
t! Lake; of 
IP ])mirio 
S innijifg ; 
iitli River 
CO Wiiini- 

11 rim of 

any miles 

the main 

lit course 

ills. The 

^'iuj,' from 

jediii,;,' 20 



* * 

teil on an 
bout I'OO 
brest, are 
no area 

le earth 
)lace her 
tliat the 

dl from 

■ island- 
its vast 

in hare 

e Kiver 
le other 
lom the 
ten feet 

" The low tahlo land is thinly wooded wilh small pine and the soil is poor and dry ; 
the alluvial valley sustains elm, aspen, halsum, poplar, ash, huttornut, and a very 
luxuriant profusion of grasses, vetches, and climliinj,' plants ; among whicii the wild hop, 
honeysuckle and convolvulus, are the most conspicuous. The rear jiorlioii of tiie valley, 
with an admixture of the trees just named, contains l)irch, halsam, white and hlack spruce 
and some heavy aspens. The nnrlerl)nish emhraces hazelnut, cherries of two varieties. See. 

* * * (1) The lianks of Dog lliver an; altogethei alluvial, for some di.stanco 

lip the valley, with the occasional exceiitiou of the ahrupt .sand clitl's, noticed, which coiiio 
upon the river and soem to form the termination of ridges, which traverse the valley at 
nearl}' right angles to the course of the stream. * '■''• '■'■'■ The banks of 

Havanne lliver are altogether alluvial, and diminish gradually from ten feet in altitude, 
near its source, to the level of Mille Lacs, at its entrance into that extensive and beautiful 
sheet of water. The immediate banks of Savanne lliver are clothed with alder, willow, 
and dogwood ; behind these are- seen tamarac, pine, spruc(! and asp(ui. Near its iiKJUth 
much marshy hiiid prevails, and, at its confluence witli Mille Lacs, is characteri/.c<l by a 
large expanse of rushes and (jthcr plants common in such situations." 

lied Hi V Hi' Ej-ploring A'xpeditioii, htj II. Y. Iliad. Vol. 1, p. O"). 

■•' ■''• '■'■'• " If, in the course of time, mineral wealth should be found to exist 

in profitable distribution al)out Mille i^acs, there would bo no scarcity of arable soil 
between the; low hill ranges of that beautiful but desolate lake to suj)ply the wants of a 
mining population. * Among the trees remarkable for their aize, 

cedar, ash, white and red pine, with birch of two kinds may bo mentioned." 

Ibid, p. lOi. 

" Much good pine timber was seen on the islands, near the northern part of Lake 
of the Woods, and, if conclusions may be drawn, from the accounts which Indians gave 
us of their ganlens, it is very probable that extensive areas of excellent laud exist." 

Ibid, p. no. 

" Wheat sown (at Islington Mission) on the 20th May was reaped on the 20Dh 
August ; in general it reipiires but U3 days to mature. Potatoes have not been attacked 
by si)riug or fall frosts during a period of live years ; Indian corn ripens well, and may 
become a valuable crop on the Lower Winnipeg. Spring ojiens and vegetation commences 
at Islington about the lOtli May, .and winter sets in generally aljout the Ist November, 
These facts are noticed, in connection with the small cultivable tract at the Mission, on 
account of the occurrence of other available areas, varying from 50 to 300 acres in extent 
between the Mission and Silver Falls, about 18 miles from the moutli of the river. From 
Silver Falls to where the river Hows into Lake Winnipeg, poor and rocky liud is the 
exception, alluvial and fertile tracts, bearing grovos of heavy aspens and other trees, 



'' The hills surrounding Mille Ijacs here and there bear pine of fair dimensions, while 
in the narrow and shallow valleys between theiu there is every indication of hardwood 

over lai'ge areas. 

(1) Tho words in tliese extracts are exactly tho same as iu Mr. Hind's Exploration, vidi Red River 
Jlvploring Expedition, pp. 47-8, &c. 


Appendix Xo. 3G to Jonrnah Lrgislalh'c, Asxemhlif, \t^h\). Ik'rporf, hy S, ,/. D(iirnon an 
the Cowitrj between, Luke Superior and Had liicer. 

*' Deuso forests cover the whole of this rcj^ion, and the most vahiable kimls of wood 
are Heoti in various places and in considerahlo (juantitics. Elm is to be found on Rainy 
Kiver, and white |)ino of a fair size and <(0()d (luality, abounds on thi' eastern sIojk* to 
Lake Superior; hut it is still more abundant on the western slope, on 'lo waters which 
flow towards Rainy Lake. On the Sageiuaga River, and on the Seine and the Muliyne, 
there are extensive forests of red and white pine." 

" Ocean to Ocean, '' by the Rev. Geo. CI rant, pp. L'.S-3i. 

* * " Drove in three hours (from Thunder Bay) to ' \!) mile shanty,' 
through a rolling country with a steady upward inoUne, lightly wooded for the first half 
and more heavily for the latter half of the distance. The flora is much the same as in 
our eastern ])rovince8 ; th<! soil light, with a surface covering of peaty or sandy loam, and 
a .subsoil of clay, fairly fertile and capabh; of being easily cleared. The vegetation is 
varied, wild fruits being especially abundant, raspberries, currants, gooseberries, and 
tomatoes ; flowers like the convolvulus, roses, a great ])rofusion of asters, wild kallas, 
waterlilies on the ponds, wild chives on the rocks in the streams, and generally a rich 
vegetation. It is a good country for emigrants of the farmer class. The road, too, is 
first-nite, a great point for the settler ; and a market is near. Whatever a settler 
raises he can easily transport to the ready market that there always is near mines. * 

* * For the next three or four miles the .soil ln-camc richer, the timl)er heavier, 
and the whole vegetation mure luxuriant. * * * Xhe valley of the I'iver 
(Kaministicjuia) is acknowledged to be a .'<i)lendid farming country. * * * 
Timothy grass was growing, to the height of four feet, on every vacant spot, from 
chance seeds. A bushel and a half of barley, which was all a squatter had sown, was 
looking as if it could take the prize at an Ontario Exhibition. * Everything 
about this part of the country astonished us. Our former ideas concerning it had been 
that it was a barr'-ri desert ; that there was only a horse trail, and not always that, to 
travel by ; that thi.- mosrpiitoes were as big as grasshoppers and bit through everytliing, 
whereas, it is a fair and fertile land, undulating from the intervals of the rivers up to 
hills and rocks 800 feet high. The road through it is good enough for a King's higliway, 
and the raostpiitoes are not more vicious than in the woods and by the streams of the 
lower provinces." 




is 1 

Overland Journey Round the World, by Sir Geo. Simpson, 1811-2. Vol. 1, pp. 3G-37. 

"The River, (Kaministiquia) during the day's march, passed through forests of elm, 
oak, pine, birch, ikc, being studded with isles not less fertile and lovely than its banks ; 
and many spots reminded us of the rich and (juiet scenery of England. The paths of the 
portages were spangled with violets, roses and many other wild flowers, while the currant, 
the gooseberry, raspberry, the plum, the cherry, and even the vine, were abundant. All 
this bounty of nature was imbued, as it were with life by the cheerful notes of a variety 
of birds. Compared with the adamantine desei-ts of Lake Superior, the Kaministiquia 
presented a perfect paradise. ■'' ■■' '■'•'■ 

" The mines of Lake Superior, besides establishing a continuity of route between the 
east and the west, will find their nearest and cheapest supply of agricultural produce in 
the valley of the Kaministiquia." 


Dtiioiion on 

luls of wood 
ill on Kiiiiiy 
■rii hIojx* to 
r'liters which 
,ho Mttliync, 

Appendix XiK "0 to Jonrnnfn Leijixfat'ii-p. An^einhJi/, CatKula, IS')!), lu'porf hi/ S. .7. 
Diiii'soii on llie Ciiiintri/ firdf'cn JaiL'' >^iijifrio'' and Hal Ii'iii:i', 

ile sliauty,' 
;he first half 
B same as in 
y loam, and 
egetation is 
borrit's, and 
wild kallas, 
rally a rich 
oad, too, is 
8r a settler 
nines. * 

icr 1 

the river 

spot, from 
sown, was 
t hail been 
ys that, to 
ivers up to 
's higliway, 
ams of the 

>. 3G-37. 

sts of elm, 
its banks ; 
iths of the 
16 currant, 
lant. All 
a variety 

tween the 
roduce in 


" Laki' of the WooiIh, lil;e nil the other lakes on the line of route, is interspersed 

with islands, and in some of these the Indians have grown maize from time immenioiial 
niid have never known it to fail, so that f.'ie elimate cannot Ije unfavorable for agricul- 
tural operations." 

licport of Pro'jress C. P. /*//., IH't. Appoidijc C, hi/ J. Mucoun, j). 58. 

* * * "I could se« nothing in the flora to lead mo to doubt the feasibility 

of raising all the cereals in the valley of the Kaministinuia. '•' The .soil 

is api)arently of e.xcellent rpiality, and has much the aj pearance of the river bottom of the 
>v'--t. After i)a,ssing tlio ^latawin, the boil changes to a reddish clay, but there is no 
change in the vegetation. The flora of the whoh; region indicates a moist climate with 
tt sutiiciency of warmth to bring seeds in all cases to i)erfection." 


Captnln PaUisr.i'a Eyploratio)in, P>. X. America, p. 0. 

" The summer temperature is high, but does i ot reach the same extrerre as in 
Canada; its duration is, liowever, jirolonged by the alt .'rnations caused by the influence 
of large landdocked sheets of water, which do not tend to produce an equalized climate 
like that on a sea coast, but merely ])rolong the effects of the two half-yearly extremes of 
heat and coM " 

Ap/nnidir. Xu. ?> to Journcds of thr Lrr/iahilive Ansnithli/, Canada, 1858. 

" The average period of the Kiver (Kaministiipiia) freezing, is from the 3rd to the 
l.ltli of November, and it becomes free from ice between the 20tli and 23rd April." 

Aj>j)cndix X'u. 36 to Journals Le'jl'<Jafie>i Axscmbh/, Canada, 1859. 

" Blodget in his isothermal chart, showing the mean distribution of heat for the 
summer, places the line of 00^ to the north of J^ako of the Woods, and that of 05° at Fort 
Garry. " '■' '■• That a great precipitation of rain takes place at and near 

the highlands, which separate the waters flowing to Lake Winnipeg from those that run 
towards Lake Superior, is evinced Ijy the magnitude of the rivers, as compared with the 
area they drain. The climate, howe\er, .■■•.eems to be milder on the western slojie of these 
highlands than on the eastern." 

Arrfie lixplorimj Ex/tp.ditlon, l>i/ Sir Joliu PicJutrdsun, vol. II, pp. 227-8. 

" I'henomena indicating the progress of the scasois at Fort William : — 

Thermometer at noon 39" F. 

Temperature Gl" in middle of tii'' day. 

The sap of the .sugar maple began to run. 

Fii-st wild ducks seen. 

Uutterllies, blue flies and gulls noticed. 

General thaw co.nmences. Ground frozi n to a depth of 3 ft 9 inches. 

River (Kaministiquia) partially open. 

River free of ice. 

" Feb. 


" 31arch 


" April 


i: It 


li (t 


it tk 


l< u 


" TVTriv 



" May 


" Juuo 




(< (( 


" Aug. 


(( It 


« u 


(( (( 


" Sept. 


u u 


" Oct. 


" Nov. 


(( (> 


" Dec. 


(( it 


Tlie birch tree and maple budding. 

Swallows building. 

]?avley just coming into car. Potatoes in flower. 

liaspberries rijicning. 

Ued currants and blueberries perfectly ripe. 

Barley ripening. 

Peas (juite ripe. 

Swallows have disa])]ieared. 

Leaves of birch and asjien .-liango color. 

Potatoes, cabbage, turnijts and caulillowors nipped liy frost. 

Leaves of the birch and aspen falling. 

Small lakes frozen over. 

Piver (Kaministiquia) covered by sheet of ice which broke up again. 

Ice driving about by wind. 

Thunder ISav frozen aci-oss to Welcome Islands." 

C\rAini.n'iES for Sktti.kmknt. 

Appendix ^0. ■') to Journals Lejislatice Assevihh/, Canada, L^oS. llcport hi/ }fi: Dausoii. 

* * * a ipjjg country about Thunder T"". -, and the lower part (.f the Kami- 
nistiquia, may be regarded as in every way suited lui- a considerable settlement. The 
hi'di region again, across which the route lies for about 1(H) miles, from Dog Lake to tlie 
western end of th s Lake of a Thousand Lakes, may be coKl, but there is nothing in the 
growth of the wood, or in the appearance of the soil, to indicate that it is not als(t, in 
many places, suitable for settlement. However, the climate is lietter on tlie western 
slope of these high h\mh between the Lake of a Thousand Lakes and Painy Lake. 


" About Painy Lake, and from thence to Painy Kiver and the Lake of the Woods, 
following from the latter the pro])osed route arn'oss to Ped lliver, the country is as well 
.•alMpti'd for settlement as any other part of North America. The climate is good, the 
soil, iu general, fertile, water power is to be had in abundance, and in the woods tlicro 
are many kinds of valuable timber." 

PllI.l)lN(! IMATKltlAL. 

Mi: S. Flem'inj hi Report of Pror/re'^s, C. P. Uailwtnj Surrn/, >7\, p. .'bj. 

" With regard to material for building purposes, I havi' every reason to believe that 
no great difficulty will be exjierienced on this score. The woodland region fortunately 
[lossesses an aliundant .supply of timber, suitable for railway work, au'l will lie al>le to 
furnish all that may be requited iu the praiiio region." 

Appendix iVo. .30 lo Jvurnah, Legidalice Asscndiiif, Canada, Ls.")'.!. Jlr^iurt li// .S. ./. 

Dnwsoii, (.'. A'. 

"Stone of all kinds, lit for building purp(),s"s, is to be f)und on r„ake Wiuuij'eg; 
limestone ajjpears on Ped Piver, and is very ab\indaiit on the .Manitoba and Winnipegoosis 
Lakes; sandstone and limestone occur on the Assiniboino, about ir>0 miles west of 
Fort Garry." 

Jr. Dairaon. 

f tlio Kfiiui- 
'iiiciit. Tlio 

I-nko to tlio 
thing ill tlio 
; not also, in 

li(> western 


tlio Wooils, 
is as well 

s good, tli(! 
ootls thcro 


icliovc that 
li(^ al)h' to 

■/ In/ S. ./. 

W'iiiuiiieg ; 
H WCHt of 


Second Hcport of the SrJiu-f Comiin'ttrc on Immujrulion n.tul CuloiihatHDi. 
Comiitniii', lMJ',1. Kci<U'i:cc hij Ml'. S. J. Dnii'soii. />p. 1 1-1."). 

Hniaw o;' 

" K'/// QtifstiiDi. — Wliat aiv (lie mineral rosoiircos of (he country other than loal, 
already referred to i Ausirei: — fts mineral resouret's are as yet hut very imjierfe -tly 
known. In the part [ have myself explored, near Kainy l,ake and oth.'r plaecr,, thero 
are good indieations of gold and silver, and the former is now heing worked in >iiat 
vieinity in the I'nited States. 'I'lie vieinity of the J/ike nf the Woods, tiie Winnipeg 
Kiver, aiul 1,'enerally the east sid<^ of Lake Winoijicg, ahound in indications of min 'ral 
wealth, including ii'on, lead, jilumoago, A'c. The gnat chain of the Koi-ky Mountains, 
forming a ])i-olongation of tiie Curdillcnis (if tlie soutli, and wiiicli seems to he the grealest 
auriferous aud argentii\'rous helt in tin; world, continues its richness thioughout lh<^ 
I'enti'al Stales and territories of tin* I'^niiui. and Montana (hounding us'to the south a'nng 
th(( H)th i)iirallel, a yet undeveloped territory cxci'pt as regaiils the gold and silver a [\\v 
miners and ' pi'ospcctors ' have lieen working <if iaie yeais). Sftuus e\cn to surpass in 
rii'lnu'ss any of tho j)i'e\iously discovered mi uing regions ; aiul although its mines v ere 
only discovei'cd a very few years ago, it is already yielding ahuut >^ll', 011(1,0110 (twelve 
million dollars) annually. The miners and explorers of thai region hav(^ penetrated to 
the north of the houndary, and they (h'clare that our territory on hoth the rastern ind 
\vestern slopes of the mountains is ecpially rich. If this he so, and there seem; no 
reason to ddulit it, the mining iateres! will soon licciiui" a \ery large one after acce.'>; to 
th(> country has lieen opened up ; and the fict that th(^ \rry portal to the country, at 
Tiumder I'>ay, on l,:d:e Superioi-, has silver mines of most extraonlinaiy surfai'C pronise, 
whicli are now lieing de\el(iped will, if successful, wiiirh theic seems e\ciy reason to 
]K>pe, givea great impetus to enteijirises nf tliat kind. In the Nortli-W'est there are also 
large (pianti'ies of petroleum, and salt, (wiiich exists also near Lake Wiunipegoosis) is tl en; 
found almost in a state of purity. 

" 1 !'// C^>//('v//,///— .-ll;i\ ing s[tent souu' time in i!ie counhT at all dill'en'nt season • ■>[' 
the year, you can perhaps givt< the Connuittee youi' vi(>ws on the i liniate, comparing your 
]K'rsonal oliser\atioiis with general repoi't ! .1 //.wv ;•. — Duriui;' the time [ spent at I'm't 
(iarry the nn)n(hs ol' (kto'ier and Novemher presented th(> finest fall weather, Indian 
Humnier like', 1 had ever seen. There were some .severe frosts during the winter, as may 
he seen hy the register kept hy m(( ami given in my report ot ISftll, hut (he axei'age ^^■as 
not colder than heit\ and the snow never excee(U'(l 17 inches, aud averaged less than a 
foot in depth. On tho 'Jth of April ploughing commenced. Vegetation progressed \erv 
rapidly soon after, and hy the middle of May we were fairly into sunnuer. My impies 
sion at the time was that we had upon the whole ahnut (lu> saiu(< cliinat(^ as KingsiMji, 
Ontario, perhaps a little colder in winter, lait with liner weatl'er in (he sjiring and fal! - 
which is, of course, highly fa'.orahle to agricultural pursuit.'-', i-'ui'ther to (he west t he 
clim.ate Itecoines still milder. The climatology of iiie C(i\intry and the indiu'uces hearing 
thei-eon, and a com])arisuu hetwi>en different parts i)i' it and flair c(ninter[iai'ts in l']uroiie, 
seems to me (o he very fairly put in the followin;; extract (Voiu thi- examination of Mr. 
Vv'ni. ^li'D. Dav.-.son liei'on' a ('inimiiltee of Parliament in Tonmto in |S(i7. After sin-w- 
ing the ellecl of an a]>proach to (lie Pailie across this I'ondnent from the east as heing 
of (h(^ same generfd cliar;icter as ;tu a]iprc)ich ti> (he Atlantic to tho eas( across Asia. 
and Kurope, in its ameliorating ii Muent'c upon climate, which is not therefore solely 
govorncMl by latitude, he ju'oceeds t.o say— other conditinns heing eipial — that as ** Tlie 
" I'.Hh parallel of Xoi'th i<atiuide (which is t'a; seutliern li(analary of our Western t( rri- 
" torieh), passes lu'ai'ly a degree south of tiie sout'iermost imint of Mngl iml, thiough tlic 
" environs of Paris, through the Southern Trovine s of (iermany, and less tiiau a degree 
" north of Vii'iina, thei-e is therefon' no reasoii, a ■ n'.;.irds ciinrite, why the lower courae 
" of the Fraser Ikivor, or the ui)per cimrso of the ( oluml)ia, in I'.i'itisli territory and in 
" tlip Batnp hititudes, fihonld not rival tho hanks of (he IJIiine, the Mon^ie or tlu^ Moaclle. 


" There is no such reason why the valleys of the Nujiga, the Elk, the Saskatchewan, the 
" Red River and the Assiniboiup, shouhl not yield their golden harvests as rich as those 
" of the Weser, the Elbe, the Oder or tlu; Yistula. 

" The <'eogra]>hical dilliculties between theso. localities, in relation to those influences 
" bv which climate is atlected, are indeed such that it would require some very strong 
" facts, sustained by a concurrence of all the most credible testimony to prove that the 
" above comparison is too fivoral)le to the places 1 have named on this continent. The 
" facts established, however, by all disinterested authorities, prove the reverse." 

TuuxDEU Bay Mines. 

lieport of the Commimonnr of Crown Lawh, Ontario, 1870. Append ic Xo. 22, li;j 
L. B. Borron, Mining Inspector, pp. 31-2. 

"Silver bearing veins have been discovered in ten or twelve different localities 
between Thunder Cape and Pigeon River, indicating a field sufficiently extensive to con- 
stitute; a very important silver mining region, should the lodes or veins turn out well in 
depth. None of the veins hav(,' been sunk upon to a greater depth than sixty feet or ten 
fathoms, a depth very inconsiderable in a mining ])oint of view. We have beyond doubt 
veins containing very rich bunches or ])ockets of silver at or near the surface. That near 
Silver Islet, Thunder Cape, has produced this fall, a quantity of ore which if nearly so 
rich as reiwrted, places it in the meantime in the foremost rank of silver producing mines, 
and although the depth yet attaineil does not exceed ten or twelve feet, it is said to be as 
rich if not richer in the bottom of the slope than it was at the surface. Whether any 
considerable number of these silver veins will sustain profitable mining operations carried 
on by a large force of miners and extended over a long term of years, like many such in 
Europe, remains to be seen." 

Altitide of Watershed. 

Captain PaUisers Exploration of B. iV. America, p. 29. 

" Extreme observed altitude of watershed abeve Lake Superior 902 feet." 


Mr. Sauilj'ord Fkiniiig in Rfpurt nf Prorirc^s C. /' /.'. Snrvri/, 1S7I, p. .'32. 

" In j)assing through to Lake Superior from the west, a rise of 817 feet has to be 
overcome in 300 miles, and a descent of 970 feet in about 11(1 miles. The Grand Trunk 
Railway, between Montreal and Portland, running easterly from !^[ontre^l, makes an 
a.scont of 1,300 feet in 144 mile.s, and a coiresponding descent in L')3 miles. Comparisons 
of this nature do not take into account intermediate undulations in either case ; Ihey are 
presented simply for the puri)ose of bringing out the salient features of the route found 
for the Canadian Pacific Railway. They suggest that the works of consti'uction for this 
line will not lie heavy, and that it will be ([uite possible to secure remarkably easy 
ascending gradients, in the direction of the heavy tralUc. * * * 

The information obtnined suggests that it will be possible to secure maximum easterly 
ascending gradients, between Manitoba an<l Lake Superior, within the limit of 20 feet to 
the mile, a maximum not lialf so great as that which obtains on tJic majority of the 
railways of the Continent." 

cliowan, the 
icL as those 


e influences 
t'ery strong 
ive that tlie 
inent. The 




nt localities 
sive to con- 
out well in 
J feet or ten 
yond doubt 
' That near 
if nearly so 
icing mines, 
aid to be as 
rhether any 
;ious carried 
any such in 

has to be 
rand Trunk 

makes an 

; Ihey are 
route found 
on for this 
•kably easy 

11 in easterly 
2G feet to 
nity of the 

Physical CiiAnACTERisTtrs. 

Caj)tai)i Palliser's Ejcplwatlon in B. y. America, folio, pp. G-7. 

" Immediatel/ to the west of the rocky district already referred to, succeeds a chain 
of lakes, the principal of which is Lake Winnipeg, which has the same altitude above the 
sea level as Lake Superior, viz : GOO feet. From these lakes to the Rocky Mountains 
the central region may be considered as a plain, gradually rising until it gains an altitude 
of 3,000 feet at the base of the mountain chain. Tlie surface of tliif: slope is marked by 
steppes, by which successive and decided increases of elevation are effected, accompanied 
by important changes in the composition of tiie soil, and consequently in the character of 
the vegetation. These steppes are three in number. The first may be said to spring 
from the southern shore of Lake of the Woods, and trending to the S.W., crosses Red 
River considerably south of the boundary line ; thence it runs irregularly in a north- 
westerly direction towards Swan River to meet the North Saskatchewan below Fort a la 
Corne. The general altitude of this first or most easterly prairie steppe may be estinuited 
at 800 to 900 feet above the sea level. 

" T! ' socond or middle steppe, conterminous with the limit of the first just described, 
extends westward to the base of the thir<l steppe, which may be defined by a line crossing 
the United States frontier, not far from tiie ' Roche Percce,' in longitude 104" west ; 
thence passing in a north-westerly direction to near the elbow of the South Saskatchewan, 
and northward to the Eagle Hills, west of Fort Carlton. The mean altitude of this 
second steppe is about 1,600 feet above the sea level. The third and highest ste])pe ex- 
tends to the base of the Rocky Mountains, and has a mean altitude of 2,700 feet. (The 
highest level being at tho boundary line, thence northward, then a continuous fall.) 

'• The composition of tho plains being, to a great depth, of soft materials, these 
steppes do not influence the river channels, so that the rivera rising in the Rocky 
Mountains the plains with an uniform current, uncontrolled by the sui»erfioial 
features of the country. These rivers have, generally s[)eaking, fornKid deep rather than 
wide valleys. * * * Xhe central (American) desert extends but a .short way 

iiito the British territory, forming a triangle, having for its base tho 19th parallel from 
longitude 100" to 114" W. ; with its apex reaching to the ili'ud parallel of latitude. Tlie 
northern forest, which in former times desceniled more nearly to the frontier of this 
central desert, have been greatly encroached upon, and, as it were, pushed l)ackwards to 
the north through the effect of tVeipient fires. Thus a large portion of fertile country, 
<leuuded of timber, separates tho arid region from the forest lands to tho north. * * 

'' All the rivers which intersect tho jilains east of the Rocky Mountains, (and south 
of latitude i^i) with tho exception of tho Athabasca, flow into Lake Winnipeg and thenco 
into Hudson Bay. '•' '•= 


" Liiko- Wiimipv\c,', wliicli is tlu; jirlnuipiil roscrvoir in which tlio Avators of tlioso 
rivers collect, has its outlet by Nelson Jiiver to lludsou Hay. It exteiuls from latitmlo 
r)t)U' to olA" N., hut from lying Hoiiu'what ohliciuoly, it is about 2D0 luihis in length. 
Lake Winnipeg communicates with several other slunits of water, of wl.'cli Manitoba and 
Winuipegoosis Lakes are tlie most coiisiileral)l('. None of tliese lakes are deep, and many 
])arts of thom nvi' oxtreme!}^ .shallow, but still they present line stretelies for future steam 
iiavig.ition, and fr.)m tlie facility of access which tliey give to tie! timbered disti-icts, tlu'y 
will doubtles.s prove of great value in opening up and settling the country." 


Geohifjlcal Snrvi/ of ( (laada, iSTi-'y. Hqjorl of Mr. A'. Bd!, pp. 40 to o,'*. 

" Li the i^raiiie regions of tlu; North- West territory, loose dejiosits of Post-Tertiary 
age cover the surface <^'tlie country ahucst universally, and they are usually of consider- 
able depth. Tliere are immense areas having the same general ehnation, or without very 
great or sudden changes of level, yet, with tlu^ exception ot the lirst prairie ateppe, there 
is a remarkable sciircity, or perhajis ubs(»nce, of extensive strat.itii'd dciposits of sands and 
clays, sucii as occur in the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Tlii! bulk of tlu; superficial 
deposits is of the nature of boulder clay or unnioditied drift, which is spn^ad alike over 
the older i-ocks from the lowest to the higliest levels. In those ))ortions of the territory 
which have come under my (nvu ol)servation, the materinls of the drift ajijiear to be made 
up of the deliris of the rocks existing in si'ii immediately beneath or a short distance to 
the north eastward, togethei' with a gnatei- oi- less proportion derived from those lying 
further olf in the same direction. As a I'ule the softer or more clayey jiart has come froiji 
the underlying strata, wliile the hardiu- jK-bbles and boulders are tiie furtherest tra'isported, 
still, in washing out the finer ingreilients it is always found that much of the incorjiorated 
sand Hiid gravel is of fop-ign origin. * ■# * j,j n'ferenci! to the composition 

of the drift, more than half of its bulk, on an avenige, consists of local material. On the 
first and second prairie stei)pcs, the most abundant constituent of the transported portion 
is Laurentian gneiss, while tlie riMuainder is made uj) of light-colored unfos.siliferous linu;- 
stones, sujiposed to be fSiluriau and J)evouian, t(^gether with a ]>roportion of Jluronian 
schi:5ts, which varies in different localitie.s. On the third stei»[)e, however, smooth jjcbbles 
of iinely granular ([uartzite predonunate. •■ '■■ ■•'■ Tiiere are also pebbles of 

dark fine-grained dioiite, light-colored limestone, and some of dark fine-grained mica 
schist, and of wiiite translucent quartz. -■■ * ■''■ While the eomj^ositiou of 

the lioulder clay of the first and second ])rairi(^ steppes, and also to some extent, that of 
the third ste])pe, as well as the course of the glacial striie on the hard rocks on the east 
siiio of the i)rairies, Wduld indicate that the drift had ])een mainly from the north-ea.stward, 
the above evidence sliovvs that a lai'ge ])rop(3rtion of the transported material on the 
higliest levels has eoine from thi; north or west. A part of what now is found in some 
localities may have been moved first in one directionaud afterwards inanother, whilstthe bulk 
of the older drift, including, perhajis, even that on the third stepi'e, has probably come 
fron. points between uorih and east. The (juartzite ]iebbles of the third stej)pe were all 
thoroughly waterworn and appeared to be most abinidant on and near the .surface. The 
ui)p(a* 200 feet, or thereabouts, of the south bank of the South .Saskatchewan at the lied 
Ochi-e Hills, consist of clayijy drift, in which boulders of Jiaurentian gneiss occur, while 
the surfaces of these hills are str(!wn Avitli smooth (puirtzite gravel and cobble stones. At 
the distance of loO miles to the south eastward, between the Dirt Hills and Woody 
.Mountain, the proportion of quartzibi gravel on the third step[)e has diminished consider- 
ably, anil i^aurentian lioulders have become very numerous on the surface. 

" Between Fort Garry and Fort Ellice, Iluronian lioulders are scarce. * ■•' 

Both boulders and pebbles from rocks of this formation are, however, conspicuous for 

■s of tlieso 
im lutituile 

ill length. 
.iiitoUa ami 

ami many 
iturc Kt(>ani 
'I'ii-ts, tlk'y 


)f considfU"- 

itliout very 

L'ppe, there 

:" sands and 

; sui)erticlal 

alike over 

lie tei'ritory 

to 1)1) made 

distance to 

those lying 

1 come tVoui 


ncor] )orat(Ml 

.'oni position 

1. On the 

ted portion 

orous linuv 

" Jluronian 

oth peliblos 

)el)l)les of 

nod mica 

osition of 

it, that of 

I the east 


i.d on the 

in some 


ilily come 

were all 

ice. The 

it the lied 

cur, while 

ones. At 

d Woody 

1 ciiusider- 

icuoiis for 


tlieir abundance in the drift in the banks of the Assiniboine for some miles above and 
below the junction of the Shell River, and in the banks of the Culling River, in the 
neighborhood of the Fishing Lakes. They are also noticeable on the surface all the way 
from these lakes to the Touchwood Hills. * * * In the three prairie 
steppes there is a marked dirterence in the general asjiect of the surface of the country 
and in the character of the river- valleys. On the first steppe, the surface is usually level 
or undulating in long gentle sweeps, and the beds of the principal streams do not probably 
average more than thirty feet below the level of the surrounding country. On the 
second steppe the surface is rolling, and the river valleys are usually from 150 to 2U0 
feet in depth, while on the third, the hills are on a larger scale, and either closely crowded 
together, or they rise liore and there to considerable Jieights overlooking less rugged 
tracts. The princii)al river-valleys on this steppe are from 200 to .500 feet deep. The 
' Coulees,' as they are termed, form a curious feature of the third steppe. These are 
ravines or valleys with steep sides, often 100 feet or more in depth, which tei-minate or 
close in rather abruptly, often at both ends, forming a long trough-like depression ; or one 
of the extremities of the 'Coulee' may open into the valley of a regidar watercourse. 
The Coulees sometimes run for miles, and are either quite dry or hold ponds of bitter 
water, which evaporate in the summer and leave tliin incrustations of snow-white 
alkaline salts. 

" The avei'age depth of the river-valleys of the first and second prairie steppes is not 
aflected by the general descent of the country through which they run. From Little 
Boggy Cre<'k to the Aitow River the Assiniboine must fall four or five hundred feet, yet 
the banks of the valley maintain the same general height and the same character through- 
out the whole distance. Similarly, the fiiU in the Calling River from the Sand Hills 
Lake to its junction with the Assiniboine, cannot be far from 500 feet, and still its 
valley lianks have the same average height throughout. The fall in the Red River from 
Moorhead to Fort Garry, is upwards of 200 feet ; but in the whole distance the banks of 
the river have a nearly uniform height of 20 or 30 feet. * * 

'' The great valleys of the third steppe cut entirely through the drift and far down 
into the underlying Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks ; those of the second steppe appear to 
correspond in a general way with the depth of the drift, while on the lowest steppe, th? 
streams have merely cut through the modified deposits resting on the drift, which latter 
is occasionally exposed at low water at the foot of the banks, or in the bed of the stream 
at swift places and rapids. 

* * * << The stratified clay, silt, sand and gravel of the Red River and the 
lower Assiniboine vary in thickness from almost nothing to 80 or 90 feet so far as known ; 
and a variable thickness of boulder-clay is interposed between these deposits and the 
older rocks, which lie beneath them all. * '■' * During the past summer a 
number of new wells have l>een dug or bored through these deposits in various parts of 
Manitolja. After passing through the black loam at the surfiice, which varies from I to 
6 feet in depth, light gi'cy, drab, and more frequently yellowish, somewhat sandy clays 
were passed througli, when hard pebbly and bouldery clay, or, in some cases, probably 
solid rock was reached. * * * Some of the superficial clays around the City 
of Winnipeg have been found, within the last two years, to make, under proper skill, 
' white ' brick of an excellent quality, resembling those of Toronto. The princi[)al 
buildings in the city are now being constructed of these bricks. In other places around 
Winnipeg, red l)ricks have been made from clay dug near the surface. In the district 
l)etween the south end of Manitoba Lake and the Assiniboine River (oast of a line drawn 
from Prairie Portage to Westbourne,) all the wells have passed through sand ; none of 
them required to be dug to a greater depth than about 20 feet to find good water." =•= * 


Geoloijical Survey of Canada, 1873-4. Observations bij Mr. Selwi/n, p. 21. 

"Extensive exi)osures of palaeozoic rooks, which sire supi)osed to underlie tlie super- 
ficial deposits of the tirst ])rairie stcj^pe, occur on many of tlie islands andalon^ tlie wliole 
of the western shore of Lake Winnipej^. Tliey form the Grand Rap J of the Siuskatchewan, 
and crop out at intervals along tlic river as far up as Cumberland or Pine Island Lake. 
* In the comparatively few localitie:; where the rocks composing it iiave 

been examined they appear to be characterized, like tlie formations of the same age in 
Western Canada, by dej)osits of salt and petroleum giving rise to copious springs of these 
valuable materials. And there seems but little doubt that Canada has her salt and oil 
bearing regions, surpassing in extent and j)roductive capacity any hitherto developed on 
the American Continent. * '•'■'• * 

"Westward from the summit of the aficent to tlie second prairis steppe, which is 
marked by the long range of low hills already mentioned extending north westerly from 
Pembina Mountain to Basquia Hills, and which attains an avei-age elevation of 1,G00 
feet, the country, on the route which we travelled, especially after crossing the Assini- 
boine River at Fort Ellice, is generally undulating or rolling and often hilly. Some of 
the hills rise to from 200 to .'500 fi'ct and occasionally tc as nuicli as 400 feet above the 
general level of the i)rairie, and afford from their summits extensive views of the 
surrounding country, which everywhere presents a park-like aspect ; belts, patches and 
clumps of woodland with iutervenir.g richly grassed meadows or wide stretches of open 
undulating prairie, inters2)crsed with countless lakes and pools ai'o seen on all sijles, while 
the wonderful variety and beauty of the flowering plants, roses, lilies, gentians, sun- 
flowers, larkspur, a beautiful jnirpio aromatic mint-like plant, and a host of others lend 
an additional charm to the beauties of this picturesquely lovely landscape." 

Assuiiboine a)ul Satikafuheioan Exphyruuj Expedition, by II. Y. IfinJ. 
Journals Lryis/ative Asuemhhj, Canada, 1859. 

Appendix No. 36, 

" The most striking pecidiarity in the arrangement of the different formations, from 
Red River to the South Bianch, and from the 40th parallel to the main (north) Saskat- 
chewan, is their undisturbed and horizontal condition. With two or three exceptions, no 
appearance of local disturbance was observed throughout the whole region traversed. 
The rocks dip, generally, with a very gentle inclination from the north-east to the south- 
west. Sometimes it is not only impossible to detect any dip by the eye, but the level 
fails to show the smallest deviation from jierfect horizontality. * * * 

From the Saskatchewan at Grand Rajiids to Red River, exposures of Silurian rocks are 
everywhere mimerous on the west shores of the great lake. '■^'- ■•' =■' 

Salts springs occur on the east flank of Dauphin Lake, within ten miles of the outcro]) 
of the cretsiceous rocks on the flanks of the Riding Mountain, which leads to the inference 
that the carboniferous group is totally wanting in the region where it might be supiwsed 
to exist, between Lakes Manitoba and Wiiinipegoosis and the range of high land forming 
the castei-n watershed of the Assiniboine." 

Appendix No. 36, Journals Leyislutive Asmmbly, Canada, lip.port of Mr. S. J. 

Baioson, 185!». 

" The country westward of Red River, as far as we have explored it, presents three 
divisions, which, although presenting many features in common, are yet of a character in 
some respects distinctly diilerent. 

" Of these the great alluvial flat, extending from the 49th parallel to the Saskatcliewan, 
rounded to the eastward and north-eastward by Lake Winnipeg and the wooded region 


3 the siiper- 
r( the whole 
ilancl Luke, 
ing it have 
same age in 
iiys of these 
salt and oil 
iveloped on 

le, which is 
isterly from 
on of 1,G00 
the Assini- 
■f. Some of 
t above the 
lews of the 
patches and 
lies of open 
sifles, while 
iitiaus, sun- 
others lend 

dix Xo. 3G, 

tions, from 
•th) Saskat- 
jeptions, no 


the south- 

tlie level 


rocks are 

le oiitcroi) 
le inference 
)e supjMJsed 
nd forming 

.S'. J. 

lents three 
laracter in 

led region 

between J\c\\ Uiver and the T/iko of the Woods, and on the west by the hiijh lands wliich 
extend from the l)oiiudary line tu the IJastjuia Moiiiit; in, on tlie Saskatchewan, may he 
regarded as the first, it has a Itngth of 3 K.) miU.'s i ml an average width of GO or 70, 
and may cinbraec an area of "JO.KtO s(|iiare miles. About one-third of tliis extent is 
chiefly open ])niirie land, and tin; remaining two-thirds mostly wooded. From I'embiua 
to Lake Winnipeg the prairie land vastly predominates, but, from thence north-westward 
to the Saskiitchewan. the forests gradually ix'coine jnore dense until they cover tlie entire 
face of the countiy. 'llio wliole of this region is veiy level, ami, if exception is made of 
the lands immediately bordering on Lake Wiiuii|)eg and the Saskatchewan, the soil is of 
an alluvial description, and so rich, that, as experience has shown, wheat may be grown 
for 2U successive years without exhausting it. A ci)nsidei'!ible ])ortion of the area is 
occupieil by swamps and hikes, but the swamps, so far as I had an ojiportunity of observing 
them, are mere mai'shes with a bottom of alluvial soil, similar to that of the dry praii'ie, 
and so firm that horsi s and cattle can wade through tli';m in almost any direction. They 
seem to owe tlieir existence solely to the extreme flatness of the country, and as they are 
at a much higher level than tlie streams, which all run in deep channels, they might be 
very easily drained ; indeed, with a proper sysceni t)f tlrainagi-, the whole of this gieat 
alluvial Hat, might/ be brought under cultivation, except, of coiu'se, where it is periodically 
overHowed, and the extent to wliich it is sul)ject to be so is (juite insignificant as com- 
pared to tiie whole area. Of the 1 ikes, the Manitoba, the NVinnipegoosis and Shoal Lake 
are the principal, and these may occupy an ai'ca of about 2,700 sipiare miles. 

" Tlie streams which flow through the ])rairie are .all l)ordered more or less by forests, 
in which oak and elin of fair sizo are to l)e met with, although not in very great 
(piantities. h\ tlie wooded, of which, however, less is known, poplar predominates, but 
on the borders of the lakes and streams, larch, s[)ruee, bircli and oak are to be found, of a 
size and (quality available for economic purposes. 

*■ " The second natiu'al division embraces the hilly region which forms the south- 
western boundary or einbatdcnumt of the great alluvial flat which Ikis just been described j 
it extends from the 4l)th parallel to the Saskatchewan, a distance in a north-westerly 
direction of 300 niiles, and may have an average width of -10 miles. 

" This region is of a character more varied, and, perhaps, on that account more in- 
teresting than any other part of. the country. High rolling banks and elevated platearx, 
covered with dense forests, alternate with wide spread valleys of imsurpas-sed fertility. 
Numerous streams, taking their rise among tin; hills, run with a rapid course towards the 
Assiuilioine on the one siih', and to tin; ^lauitoba and Winni[)egoosis Lakes on the otlier. 
Of these the principal are the Dauphin Kiver, Duck River, Swan Ki ver. Red Deer River, and 
the Wauketsequapawoo, or Floating Ice River, which flow into the Winnipegoosis Lake ; 
and Shell River, Birdtail Creek, Arrow River, Rapid River and Oak River which run into 
the Assiniboine. The hills are known as the Riding Mountain, Duck Mountain, Porcupine 
Hill, Thunder Mountain, &c., of these the Porcupine Hill and Thunder Mountain alone 
dovserve the name of hills, tlu^ Duck and Riding Mountains being nothing raoro than 
(devated plateaux of great extent, penetrated by deej) glens. As seen fi'om the Winni- 
pegoosis Lake, the Duck JNIountain presents a i)erfectly even outline, rising to a height, 
{>erhaj)s, of 500 or GOO feet above tlu; lake. Porcupine Hill, or range rather, may have 
an altitude of 1,">00 feet aliove the suri'ounding country, while Thunder Mcmntain is but 
a higher swell in the undulating ridge which connects this range with the Duck 
Mountain. When first seen on ascending the valley of Swan River, Thunder Motnitain 
has a very striking resemblance to the Montreal Mountain, and it acquires additional 
interest from the fact that the Indians n^port coal on its eastern declivity. 

" Througliout the whole of thia region wood in in sufficient abundauce to supply the 



wants of settlers for gfiKU-ations to como. Tho hi^'li lands are in pfonoral densely woodod, 
and the valleys present aliout an equal extent of woodlaiid and prairie. 8alt springs 
occur in vari(nis jilaces on the shore of Winnipegoosis Lake, and in the lower part of 

Swan Kiver, 

The lianks of th<! river near Swan Lake ai e of au 

alluvial mi], liut so low that they nnist occasionally be overllowed. As we ascend they 
lieconie higher, and the growth of timhei- indicates a soil of unsurpassed fertility. 
* * * The flats give way to high rolling banks, and wide prairie openings 

appear among tiie forests. As wo jjroceed the countiy becomes still more o])en ; and to 
judge by the jirogress of vegetation, and the black mould thrown up in coiinthfss hillock.s 
by the moles, tho soil must be v(^ry rich. Where landslips occur in the immediate banks 
of tho river, they exhibit a face of yellow loam, or stiti' clay, curiously stratilicd, and 
showing tlie presence of mineials iu the water which oozes from betw<»en the strata. 

* * * " We |)a«s through a beautiful country, presenting about nn equal 
extent of woodland and prairie. As we pioceed the openings become larger, and the 
wood less frequent. The \alley seems to be about 30 or 40 miles iu width. '•• '■■ 

"I shall consider as the tliird grand division the vast prairie region, extending 
from tho broken gi'onnd just dpscril)ed, westward to the sources of the Assiniboine, 
bounded on tho south by tho 4"Jth parallel, and on the north by tho Saskatchewan 

" Regarding this region iu its general aspect, it is ap|)arently level or but slightly 
undulating, with an inclination to the eastward. It is, liowever, at a areat elevation 
above tho valley of tho Red River, even on the borders of the hilly tract, and gradually 
increases in altitude on proceeduig to the westward, the sources of the Qn'Appelle taking 
their rise in a country probably 5uO or 600 feet above the level of Red River. Througli 
this high plain the stieams run in valleys varying from 15U to 20U and even 300 feet 
below its general level. These valleys vary in width from a qmirter of a mile to two or 
three miles, and have commonly a pretty uniform direction, but the streams wii# 
through them in an exceedingly tortuous course. The plains, although at sucli an 
elevation above the streams, are much the same in a))i)earance as those in the 1o\t 
alluvial valley of Red River, and present a soil apparently of as great fertility. Wood 
is not, however, .so abundant, but on the immeiliate borders of the Assiniboine, it is 
sufticiently plentiful to supply the wants of a new settlement." 

Appemlix Xo. 3G, Journal of the Legislative Assembly, Canada, 1859. Report of 

Mr. S. ./. Dawson. 

" A range of highlands, it will be seen, extends south-eastward from tho Basquia 
INIountain on the Saskatchewan, in latitude 3")^ 30' north, to the United States boundary 
line. This range has, in all probability, at some period, formed the south-western 
embankment of a great inland sea, which covered the valley of Red River, and comprised 
witliin its mass Lakes Winnipeg, Winnipegoosis, Manitoba and the numerous smaller 
lakes which are spread over the great alluvial Hat in which they lie. The country, 
bounded on one side by this range, and on the other by Ijake Winnipc^g, and the high- 
lands to the eastward of Red River, is an almost unbroken level, sloping very slightly to 
the Red River and Lake Winnipeg. 

" Part of this extensive tract is open pi'airie land, but by far the greater poition is 
densely wooded. A line drawn north 75° west from the confluence of Red River with 
Lake W^innipeg to Lai Dauphine would pass through about an equal extent of woodland 
and prairie. From thence northward, a forest but r.irely broken by prairie openings, 
extends to the Saskatchewan. To the south the country becomes more open, until on 
neiii-itig tho Assiniboine, the wodtla entirely disappear, and nn apparently boundless 


'ly wooJod, 
iilt springs 
iVtn" part of 
e me of au 
scoiul they 
I fertility, 
e op<inin;;;3 
on ; and to 
(!.SH hillocks 
liate banks 
atiiied, and 
the strata. 

ut nn equal 
n\ and the 

, extending 

)ut slightly 
t elevation 
1 gradually 
lelle taking 
ni 300 feet 
e to two or 
earns wiiil 
\t such an 
in the low 
ty. Wood 
)oine, it is 

'port of 

10 Basquia 


•us smaller 

e country, 
the high- 

slightlv to 

portion is 

River Avith 


3 openings, 

n, until on 



prairie spreads out on eithcu- sidj. Tho streams, however, are all bordered more or less 
with wood; a heavy grcnvtli of oak, elin, basswood, .te., extends in uiauy places for a nilo 
or two from the banks of the Assinilniiue 

" Proceeding by the road from lied River to Manitoba Lake the country for the tirsL 
22 miles or so proseuts tlie appoirauce of au unbrolceii level, witli cliiiiips of Iroes rising 
hero and chore, like islands in an otherwise bouiidleis ocean. Further on, th<.< vood 
becomes more frequent, and sometimes the prospect s(?ems bounded by forests ; on 
a])proachiiig tli(>se, however, other prairies open up and other wooils appear, and in this 
way prairie and woodland alternate all the way to Manitoba Lake ; although the ground 
seems lovtil it is not j)reeisely so, but sliglitly rolling or undulating." 

Cmhidian Explonng Expedition, by II. Y. Hind. Vof. 1, Chap. XI, p. 23.'}, 

" The pniries of Red River at Fort Garry are about 80 feet above the level of I<ake 
Winnipeg. They form the southern j)ortion of a v ist region of lake, swamp and raai"sh, 
which is IxjUiuhid in a vi-ry well detined manner by tlie Pembina Mountain ami its 
continuation to the Haskatcliewan, which river itcmsses a few miles below the Nepowewin 
^Mission, opposite Fort a la (Jorne. Peml)ina Mountain forms the western limit of an ancient 
sea or lake coast ; its direction is ])artly shown on tee map as far as the Assiiiil)oiu(>. On 
the precipicous eastern tlank, of the Riding and Duck ^loun^aius, it occurs in the for n of 
a ridge. * # * '^1,^ whole of the country of Peml i Mountain, and 

its continuation, as described above, with the exception of tlie Assinibome and litsd River 
prairies, is low, swampy, and in great part occupied by Laki.'s Winnipeg, Wiiuni)egoosis, 
Manitoba, and other bodies of water of less magnitude, having an area exceeding in tho 
aggregate 13,000 square miles. Rising above Peml)ina Mountain in the form of stoi)s, 
are two other terraces, best seen on the east an I west Hanks of Riding and Duck 
Mountains, but obliterated in tho valley of the Saskatchewan anil Assiniboiue by the 
denuding forces which have swept over the whole of this region. '■• * * 

" Surveying the country in the direction in which the great rivers flow, these vast 
plains slope gently from a low height of land near the south branch of the Saskatchewan 
with an easterly trend to the Assiniboiue. * * * North-east of the Assini- 

boiue the country rises almost impercei)tibly for a distance of lo to 35 miles, as far as the 
base of a series of hill ranges lying parallel to the general direction of the river valley, 
before it makes its easterly bend ; it then rises by successive steps and slo]>ing ))lateaux to 
a summit altitude of about 1,000 feet above Lake Winnipeg, or 1,G00 feet above the sea. 

" These hill ranges are known by the names of the Riding and Duck Mountains. 
On their eastern and south-eastern flanks they show an abrupt and brok(>n escarpment 
and within the space of five miles the country sinks from 1,600 to GSO feet above the sea, 
or within 80 feet of the level of Lake Winnipeg. 

" At the foot of thos'j hill ranges, and (last of them, lie the great lakes Winnipegoosis 
and Manitoba, which are separated from Lake Winnipijg by a low, marshy, and nearly 
level ti'act, having an elevation rarely exceeding 80 feet above it. * * * 

" The outci'op of the difierent formations in the valley of Lake Winnipeg, as far as 
are known, follows the general direction of tli;? rim of tho basin in which they arc 
deposited with remarkable uniformity. Conforming totlu! direction of the Laurentian sy.stem 
exposed on the east side of Lake Winnipeg, and consdtuting the Laurentide mountains, 
the Silurian series .stretch from Pembina on the i'Jth parallel, to the Saskatchewan on 
the 54:th and thence towards the Arctic Sea. Following its outcrop, tlio Devonian series 
is symrnetrically developed within the same distant boundaries j but tho most singular 

nt\\ tolci'iihlf 

feature of this vof^ion is, tliut the soft crotncoous shalos should nlso conform, witii tolcraiiU) 
cxiictiK <s, to tlui ex'i'osctl ('(Iges oi' tl o uut'oMsiliferous ri'ii of the givat Imsiij in which 
they li( . * ,^ # 

" iJcsiiU's th(< iiii|iosiiicj riiili!.;,' ami Duck ^Mouiitiiins tlio Touchwooil Hills may bfc 
eiuimcr itcd as wry iiii|iort:int and sti'ikiu.; in a rcLjioii svliistt m irkcd chara ■tcristio is 
that of a gcTitly sloping plain. These hills lie l)otwe(m the head waters of the Assinihoiue 
and the South Urancii ; tlu' cievaHon of the hin'hest j cik, th'i Heart Hill, pi-o lahly does 
not exceed 70(i i'eet above tlie g(Miei-al level of the great plain. The course of this I'ange 
is from north-east to south-west, and it forms the prominent of several ranges which 
lie parallel to oni- another." 

The Great Lone Land, /»/ Cai^l. W. V. Ihdhr, F.R.G.S.,}) 217. 

"About midway between Fort E.lice and Carlton a sudden anil well-defined change 
occurs in the cliaracter of the com try ; the light soil disapiiears, and its ])lace is succeeded 
by a riih dai'k loam covered deep in grass and vetches. Ut-autifii! hills swell in slopes 
more or less abrupt on all sides, waile lakes frin^'ed with thickets and clumps of good 
sized poplar balsam lie lapped in their fertile hollows. 

'• This region bears the name of the Toii'hwood Hills. Around it, f-' into endless 
space, Kti"tch immense plains of bare and scanty vegetation, plains seared with the tracks 
of coiuitless bull'alo which, vmtil a few years ago, were wont to roam in vast Imrds 
between the Assinilioine and Saskatchewan. * * * There is something 

unspeakably melanc'ioly in tlu^ aspect of this portion of the North-west. From one of 
the westwanl jutting spui'sof the Touchwooil JHlls the eye sees faraway over aninniiense 
plain ; the sun goes down, and as he sinks u])on the earth the straight line of the horizon 
becomes visible for a moment across hi? ijlood-red disc, but so distant, so far away, that it 
seems dream-like in its innueusity." 

Geological Survey of Canada, 1874-r). Report of Mr. J. 11'. Spenser, p. GO. 

" Porcupine IMountain forms as a continuation of the chain of high ground which 
marks the eastern limit of the second of the thrtie great prairie steppes of the Noiih-west 
'J'erritory. It rises to the height of about S()0 feet above 8\van Lake. Between the base 
of the mountain and the lake is a belt of about 12 miles of low gi-ound, consisting of open 
juarshes, or ' nuiskegs,' tamarac swamps, ct-c, while the remainder of the interval is 
densely wooded with aspen, balsam-poi»lar, spruce and willow. On the slo])e of the 
mountain I saw balsam-poplar six ieet in diameter, while, in some cases, the spruces 
reached a thickness of nearly fo\u" feet. 

^ '•' * " In many exposures along Swan Kiver there is but a thin covering 
of drift over the iniderlying cretaceous rocks. Ijetvveen the foot of the eastern slopes of 
the Duck and I'o'-cupine Mountains and the lakes, the Devonian limestones are covered 
by only a few feet of drift. The foUowi'.g s a .section, in descending order, of these deposits, 
as tliey occur in Swan lliver opposite Thunder Hill : — 

ft. in. 

'* Surface soil 3 () 

"Bed of Laurentiau boulders and })ebbles 2 

" Stratified coarse .sand G 

" Bed of Laurentian bouhlers and pebbles 2 

"Stratiiied coarse sand () G 

" Laminated clay , 1 

" Homogeniotis clay with pebbles. 3 



ill whicli 

1h tnay bo, 
ti'i-iHtic is 
iil)ly does 
llii.s ^ilnJ^(^ 
'U'H whicii 

eel cliaiifjo 


in .sloju's 

)S of f^DOd 

to endless 
tlio tracks 
v-ast lu'i'ds 
m\ one of 
n immense 
le horizon 
ay, that it 


nd wliich 
n the base 
g of open 
nterval is 
)e of the 
le snniccs 

n covering 

sh)pe3 of 

•r covered 

e deposits, 



" Near this section, beUiw Tliiuulcr Hills, aro spriii^H depositiu;; yellow ojlin'. A 
little further down I observed other springs at which tlie process of peti'ifying wood, moss 
and leaves was going on. Here there were blocks of calcareous tufa, soiiK^times mi'msiii-- 
iii'^ several cubic yards, whicli hal Iteen form v I at tlie plao wliere tin-y aro found. 
Tlio thickest vertical section of limestone beds on th" river am tunted to about l') feet." 

Ski'tch of the Xorth-west of Aincriat, hif A irhht>ihop Tar/n', ]>. 13. 

"The great expanse of the prairies tells i)lainly tliat their geological formations must 
vary. The prairit<, which touches the dtM(!rt. includes, like the nei^rldiDriug country, 
secondary formatioi, while towards its extremity it liis transition rocks, for exam[»le, the 
calcareous strata of Red River and coal tiidds of th<i S iskatchtnvan. Tlie Silurian system 
occurs in its neighltorhood and somotim"s runs into old red sandstone. Extensive depo.sits 
of sulphate of sotla are found in the neighl)orhoo(l of tlu; calcareous strata and eisciwhere. 
The valleys of rivers and the drying uj) in tii'^ forests, everywliero multiply recent 
formations. There are thick alluvial l)eds there, a:idtUos;; bosomj covered witli vegetable 
dejwsit, sometimes also of great depth." 

Appendix yo. 3G to Jonrmls of tin', Le/idafiv^ A-ifieitihlij, Curi'i In, iSoO. Report hij 

Mr. A. W. U'"".. 

" The western shores of Lake Winn!|iogoosis, in common with the other lake^ through 
wliicli I passed, is much l»ott(!r a laptod for settlement tli in the eastern one, iuasmucli as 
the hind is higlior, and the cliuiite, if anytliing, a little better. In crossing Like 
Winnipegoosis from east to west, a distance of only about 12 miles, I fouud vegetation 
somewhat further advanceil tliaii on the side I had just left, the soil is also better, inas- 
much as that it is higher. Timber, such as maple, elui, oakand [)oplar cov.-rs the country 
to the water's edge. I visited several places wliere sugar had b3eu made and saw 
specimens of that article equal to any that I had ever seen in Eastern Canada. 

" Tlie Duck Mountain, whicli occupies almost the entire background, commences to 
rise not far from the lake shore, keeping a gentle ascent for I') or 20 miles back, whei'e 
it attains its greatest elevation, a height of (iOO or 700 feet above tlie levtil of the lake. 
The entire face of the mountain is a succession of gentle slopes and Hat table lands, and 
the summit itself is an extensive plateau of alluvial soil covered with a line growth of 
timber." * * i^ 


Cnnu'Iian Ejploruif/ Expediflon, 1)1/ J/. Y. UlnJ. Vol. \, p. 211. 

"The western and south-western slopes of Riding and Duck Mountains snpi)oi-t 
heavy forests of wLite spruce, birch, aspen and DOjdar. The trees are of large size and 
often exceed U to 2 feet in diameter, with an available length of 30 to 50 fe(>t. On the 
summit plateau of the Riding Mountain?, the white spruce is the largest tree ; here it 
attains vast dimensions, and is found in quantities sutKcient to give to this region a great 
economic value. The wooded area over which timber of the four kind of tree?: 'iiiumerated, 
is found on the Riding and Duck Mountains, has a length of 120 miles, with a breadth 
of 30 miles. In the valley of the Assiniboine is an extensive and valuable forest of oak, 
elm, ash, maple, poplar and aspen, with an average breadth of four miles ; its length is 
about 30 miles. ■■' * All the afttueuts of the Assiniboine flow through 

deep ravines, which they have cut in the great plain they drain ; these narrow valleys are 
well clothed with timber, consisting chiefly of aspen and balaam-poplar, but often varied 
with bottoms of oak, elm, ash and the ash-leaved maple." 

Ihid, IK 1215. 

"Tlie Touchwood Hill nuij^r, toj,'<'tli(!r with Hiimil piiriilh-l ruiiyo.s, such a.A tho 
rhoiisant Mouiitiiiii ami Kilo Hill, avciaijiiig twenty lailcs in lt'ii<»th l»y ton in breadth, 
arc in ^^roat i)art covered with asjien t'oresUs, hut the trees arc },'eneraUy .small. At the 
Moose Woods, on tho Sonth HasUatehewan, forests of aspen i»e;,'in to appear ; they con- 
tinne with occasional admixtures of hirch and oak, more rarely of oak and elm, as far us 
tho (Jrand Forks ; hero the spruce becomes common, and with aspen, occupies tho 
excavated valley of the Saskatcliewan for many miles. The hill banks and the plateau on the 
south side of the rivt;r, for u tUstance of three or four miles south, sustain the Banksian 
))lne, which disappears as the soil changes from a liyht .sand to a rich and deep vegetable 
mould, supporting detached groves of aspen and clum[)S of willow. * '• ■■ 

The south i)ranch, from tho Klbow to tho Moose Woods, Hows through a treeless region 
as far as rehites to the ]irairie on either side ; but in tho ravines leading to tho river 
detached groves of small timber occur. The boundary of tho prairie country, properly 
so called, may be roughly shown by a line drawn from the great bend of the Little Souris, 
or Mouse llivor, to C2u'Ap]»elle Alission, an<l from tlie Mission to the Moose Woods, on the 
South Branch." 

IhU, p. 240. 

"Issuing from the Duck Mountain are numerous streams which meander through a 
beautiful and fertile country. This area may be s;iiil to commence at the two creeks, ten 
miles from Fort Pelly, thence on to Pine ('reek, fifteen miles further. Tho vegetation is 
everywhere luxuriant and beautiful, from tho great abundance of rose bushes, vetches, and 
gau(iy wildtlow(ir3 of many species. After passing Pine Ci-eek tho trail to Shell liivor 
))ursues a circutuous route through a country of e(Hial richness and fertility." 


Had, 2>. 24U. 

"Valley of the Saskatcliewan. — 1. Tho country between tlie Ltnujiy Hill of the Woods 
and Fort a la Corne, or tho Ne|»owewin ]\Iission, including the valley of Long Creek and 
the region west of it, bounded by the south branch of the Main Saskatchewan. This area 
may contain 600,000 acres of land of ti.e hrst quality. 

" 2. Tlio valley of Carrot Eiver and the country included between it and the ALiiu 
Saskatchewan bounded on the south side by the Birch Hill range. There is a narrow 
stri]) on the great river, al>out ;") miles broad, where the soil is light and of an inditlerent 
(piality. The area of available land probably does not exceed 3,000,000 acres. 

" 3. The countiy about the Moose Woods on the South Saskatchewan. 

" 4. The Touchwood Hills. 

" 5. The Pheasant Hill and the File Hill. The aggregate area of these fertile districts 
may be stated to extend over oOOjOOO acres. 

" Assuming that the prairies of Red River, and the Assiniboine east of Prairie Port- 
ago contain an available area of 1,500,000 acres of fertile soil, the total quantity of arable 
land included between Red River and the Woods on the south branch of the 
Saskatchewan will be 11,100,000 acres. Of land for grazing purposes, the area is much 
more considerable, and may be assunied ccpial in extent to the above estimate of 
arable land." 

ell as tlio 
u hroadtli, 
I. At tlu! 
they con- 
1, iis far as 
cupies th« 
teaii on tho 
t; Baiiksiaii 
I vegotaltlu 

less rej?ion 
i the river 
y, properly 
ttlo SouriH, 
lods, on tho 

• througli a 
creeks, ten 
'fetation is 
.etclies, and 
lihell liiver 

the Woods 
Creek and 
This area 

1 the Main 

IS a narrow 


ilc districts 

airie Port- 
ly of arable 
nch of the 
■a is much 
stiniate of 



Ri'port of Pro(/rc8s, Canadian Pacific Uallwaii, 1871, j>. 37. 

" Procecilins towards tho Totichwooil Hills, wo mot gontlo slopes covered witli tho 
uspeti, with occasional siriall lakes, fringed liy willows, many of them saline. 

" Much of tho land has Ixion devastated l>y fire, and it is tlior .ttliat this cause, rPi)oated 
fri'i|uently, has, after a scries of years, resulted in the entire destruction of the heavy 
wood whicli, it is lieiioved, onco covered the surface of tiiese prairies. TIk^ luspcns, 
liowever, quickly grow up, five or six years' life making tiiein sulHciently largo for 
fencing purpo,ses. . 

•' Altout 110 miles to the north-west of Fort Kllice, th(» Touchwood Hills are m(;t. 
These are mere undulating eminences, partly wooded, with reniarkahly good soil and 
a[>parently well adapted for settlement ; they gradually descend on the western side. 
Sonw ditliculty was found in this neighhorhood in ol)taining water. * * 

" Scarcely any rivers are mot; it is observable, however, that several running streams 
arc found fin-ther north. 

" Tlu! route, on which we were travelling, explainr, this feacure of physical geography, 
for we were on the watershed between the Assiniboine and the South Saskatchewan. 
We found that this part of the route is generally without timber, but it contains spots 
where slight wooded knolls are met. Apparently level, in reality there is a considerable 
ascent, as the country is travelled westward. 

" From Fort Garry to Fort Edmonton, there is a rise of 1,400 feet in a distance of 
nOO miles by trail, while a farther rlso of 900 is experienced before tho base of the 
mountain chain is met. Tluis the total additional elevation of 2,300 is s^fread over 1,0!)(I 
niiles. * * Iti some portions of this, heavy rolling ground is found, and 

tho soil varies in riclinoss. Crravel is present in some of the higher ridge.", and it is 
conlidently believe 1 that there wouM be ballasting olttainalde for railway puqKises 
without great dilliculty. 

"Before reaching tho south branch of the Saskatchewan, the couk.iV is .m agreeable 
mixtin-e of woodland and prairie with several lakes of moderate dimension,^! and with a 
rolling succession of knolls. Tho landscape was usually pleasing, the .soil excellent, and 
wo saw abundant wild flowers. Very many of tho lakes are brackish, yet they often 
adjoin fresh water lakes ; the latter wo found invariably at a higher level. At the foot 
of a ridge they are more frequently saline ; on mounting the slope they pi'ovo to be fresh." 

A.walbolne ani Suikatcheioiii UwpJorlnj Expedition, hy Jlenri/ Vou^a III ml. Report of 

Progress IV. 

" Tho south bi'anch of tho Saskatchewan is a noble rivei', varying in width from half 
a mile to 300 yards, for a distance of 100 miles from the Elbow; it then gradually con- 
tracts its channel and chanires its character from a i-iver ftill of sandbars and mud-flats 
l)ursuing a comparatively straight course, to a rapid and uniform torrent of water, sweeping 
down the narrow but deep valley which it has excavated, from one bank to the other in 
magnificent curves, until it joins the North Branch. # >;: * Xhc Main 

Saskatchewan is a river of very imposing magnitude. Like the South Branch it occupies 
a iiarrow, deep valley, varying in width from one and a half to throe milos, extending a few 
miles below the Nepowewin Mission. It flows in grand curves from side to side, and its 
general level is about 300 feet below the country through which it has excavated its 
channel, after which it enters the low region. 


* * " III the large eK{) of country, over which our exjilorations have 

oxtondctl, the area of laud of the first finality, uain(>ly, of Mack vegetable mould, reposing 
ou gn'.vel oi' clay is far more extensive and iuntortaut than we anticipated. It is dis- 
tributed as fiiUows : — 

"1. On the South liranch of the Saskatchewan, from the Moose Woods to the 
Xcpowewin ^Mission, and according to the (h'scription of half-breeds familiar with the 
country, a soil of ('(jual excellence extends to the valley of the Swan lUver. The immediate 
banks of the Saskatchewan are of a poor, sandy or gravelly soil, but ou the ]>rairie plateau 
three miles from the rivei-, the ricii soil connneiu'es, and in the part over which 1 passed 
has a breadth of (iO miles. 

" 2. The Toucliwood Hili range, having an area exceeding 1,000,000 acws ; for beauty 
of scenery, richness of soil, ami adaptation for settlement, this is by far the most attractive 
area west of the Assiniboine. 

" 3. The soil is of lirst rpi.ility in the valley of Swan River, and over the whole of the 
east watersiied of the Assiniboiiic, witli the exception of tin- country near its banks. 

" I. The valley of Wiiite Mud Kiver is generally f>.'rtile and invltinjf. 

* * * " Tiie ratio wliich land of excellent ijuality beai-s to land of 

ludiU'erent o;- woi-tiilcjs (|aality in the i-cgious just referi'ed to. is largely in favor of the 

■■'■ * •■ Ititliiig -NCountiiiu is timbered witli heavy ■as[)en. On the level 

oiintry drained by the Saskatchewan, from the Moose Woods to the Ne[)Owewin Mission, 
tiu! timber is small, but on the Toucliwood Jlill range tlieroare some tine aspen forests." 

Gvvhiij'iciil Snrvi II (,; ('aimdii, 1S7.'34. Observations hi/ Mr. Srhiyn, j>. 2S. 

'•■ * "The beauties of Touchwood Hills have been so graphically 

described by Professor Hind, that I cannot do better than reproduce whiit he says of this 
really lovely tract of country. Professor Hind say.s, under date l.lth August,' 18.')8 : — 
' In the afternoon we liegan tli(> ascent of a gently" rolling sloiie at the foot of the Touch- 
wood Hills ; patches of willow appear hen; fringing .small are;is of good juisturage. At 
() p.m. we reached the summit jiiateau and then pas.sed through a very beautifnl undulating 
country diversified with many pictures<|ue lakes and aspen groves j)os.scs8ing soil of tlit? 
best (piality and c.ivered with tlie most luxuriant herbage. There is no timber visible on 
the west side of the lanire with the exception of small aspen and burnt willow bushes. 
All the wild flowers, so l)eautiful and numerous in the valley of the Long Creek, are 
met with on the summit ]>lateau of thi^ Touchwood Hills, of even larger growth and 
gnater profusion. Little prairie opiMiings fringed with aspen, occur liere and there 
through whiih the trail passes. We then come suddenly on the banks of a romantic 
lakelet, on which ducks with their young broods are swimming, and white cranes start 
from tlu'ir secluded haunts at the unexpected intrusion. The breadth of this U'autiful 
plateau is about four miles, its level above the salt ]irairie to the west lu.ay be about 500 
feet. The range appears to consist of a .series of drift hills, many of which rise in rounded 
dome-Hhaped forms from the summit j)lateau.' 


"The above description is applicable to nearly the whole of the country between tl 
old j)OHt and the Little Touchwood Jfills Fort. ()n the flanks and summits of of tl., 
ridges and rounded <h)me-shaiK!d hills there are many large angular, evidently ice-borne, 
blocks and of buff-colored Silurian limestone, with others of gneiss, n'lica scliLsts, 
diorite and other cry.stallinr rocks. 


tions have 
, reposinj^ 
It is (lis- 

ils to tlio 
with tliu 
•ie plateau 
1 1 passod 

for beauty 

)ole of tlio 

to land of 
vor of the 

[I the level 
II Mission, 

ivs of this 

:h(' Touch - 

ge. At 
soil of the 
visible on 
w bushes. 
Creek, arc 
rowth aiul 
and there 

anes start 

about fiOO 
n rounded 

^tween the 

lost of the 


ca schLstH, 

•^^ '■■' * " Travellin,!:^ all day over tlio ' Great Salt riain,' (alluded to before 

as a projection of the United States barren lands), a treeless imurie. In the depressions 
for the last six miles dwarfed poplars and willow bushes from three to live feet lii^h 
jn-evail. The soil is a blackish loam, rather sandy, on a subsoil of rather white looking 
gravel. Limestone and gneiss in large and small blocks are jiretty thickly distributed 
over the surface. 

"This district contains .some saline lakes and brackish water, described as follow.s 
by I\Ir. 8ehvyn : — 

" llapid evapoi-ation during summer .md probably a considerable amount of ))ercolation 
through the sandy drifts i-emoves the remainder, and these causes an; (piito suiHcient to 
account for the geni'rally saline charact<'r of the mnnerous lakes and pools. Many of 
these saline lakes are as much as three, foui- and five miles in length, and occasionally 
from one to two miles wide. They occur (utlier in isolated irregular basin-shaped hollows 
or forming chains of lakes in ratln-r broad valley-like depressions extending many miles, 
but closed in on all sides by romided drift-formed hills with grassy .slo])es. When occurring 
this way the lowest lake in the chain receives the drainage of the others, and I observe(l 
in all such cases that while the waters of the uppermost was i-ither quite fresh or only 
slightly brackish, that in the lowest lake would be intensely salt and Ijitter. 

* '■■ * "Mount Carmel (liig Hill) ri.-cs about 140 or ICO feet above the 

road at its base, and from its summit an extensive view is obtained of the sm-rouiuling 
country, f!S])ecially to the W(>stward, in which there is a general fall towards the vnlli'V of 
the South Saskatchewan. Blount t'armel seems to be entirely compos(!d of drift, and on 
its flanks and summit, which an* partially covered with asi)en and willow copse-wood, 
there are numbers of large angular boulders ot butl'-colored limestoTUi holding fossils, 
garnetiferous gneiss and mica schist and slatv diorite. In some directions as far as the 
eye can reach similar hills and ridges follow each other in endless s\iccession, and a]>parently 
without definite arrangement or parallelism. From the lowest depressions to the summit 
of the highest ridge is often not less than .'^00 feet, and from ]Nlount Carmel I count^nl 
fifteen distinct lakes and pools, whih; many more wens only concealed from view by 
interveniuir ridses. '■'■' Kainv Hills are low drift hills interspersed witJi 

many lakes, ]»ools and clum[)s ami patches of copse-wood, with intervening open grassy 
plains." * * '•' 

Canadian Krjiforiitj 'Krpc'Htlnn. />'/ //. )'. //iir/. Vof. ]. p. 107. 

**=>'• The valley through which the small tributary of the south branch 
flows, .separates the Lumpy Hill of the Woods from the west flank of thn Birch Hills ; it 
is rich in alluvial meadows, ponds and lakes. A view from Lumpy Hill is very extensive. 
The altitude of this eminence is about 400 feet above the general level, and from its 
summit an undulating o]>en c(Mintry, dotte(l with lakes ami flaid-:ed liy the IHrcli Hills is 
visible towards the east ; south and stmth-west is a lake region, also north and north-east. 
These lakes are numerous and large, often three miles long and two broad. Sevenloen 
large lakes can be counted from the Lumpy Hill : I'lW ranges vl' bills can also be discerned 
in several directions. The must imjiortant of these are the IMoudy Hills, the Womly 
Hills, far in tla* |)rairie west of the South Uraneh, and the chain of the Birch Hills 
i-unning from the Lumpy Hills easterly. The virw extends (n the liorder of the wooded 
land ; beyond is a treeless prairies The so-called wooded land now consists of widely 
separateil groves of small aspens, with willows in the low places. Aluch of the soil on tlio 
south and of Lumpy Jlill is snndy and jioor. ]-ow hills and long ridges running 
north-eant by ennt, and south-west by south, diversify the general level character of the 
prairies as 6t>bii ffom Ltiuipy Hill. * * 

" After traversing ii very undulating country, in wliicli are low ranges of hills and 
conical mounds with limestone boulders on their suuunits, we arrived at Big Ilill, a point 
of some intei'est, for south and south-east of it lies a boundless unilulating jji-airie. * 

''' The limit of the so-called ' Wooded Country,' is about 70 miles from the 

Korth Branch in an air line, and 30 miles from thi; South Branch. 

" Frosn the summit of the Big Hill the ' Buffalo Cart I'lain,' and ' Lake Avhere the 
Moose died,' are visilile; both i\oU-x\ localities in the wild iiistory of these legious. 
South-east of the Big Hill the trail winds through a dreary labyrinth of douie shaped 
hills, many of them covered with bouldci's. •' '• * 

" In journeying from the Lumpy Hill we crossed three • belts of wooil ' bi foi-e Jirrivijig 
at the great ])rairie west of the Touchwood Hills. Th»'se belts, which consist of groves 
of small aspen, following a low gravelly ridge about a mile broad, and having a north-east 
and south-west direction, are .sei)arated by ))rairie valleys which sustain in their lowest 
parts a good soil and fine pa.sturage. Each belt diminished to a point some ten or fifteen 
miles south-west of our track. The j)oints of these belts are \ isible from the summit of 
mounds on our trail, not more than oO feet high ; beyond them is a treeless prairie, 
stretching away to the South Branch. The * belts of woods ' become broader in a north- 
easterly direction until they merge into the woodetl country between the Birch Kills and 
tlie Saskatchewan. There are many delightful sj)ots in the belts, the herl)age is as clean 
as a well-shaven lawn, the clumps of aspen are neatly rounded as if by art, and, where 
little lakes alive with wat(!rfowl abound, the scenery is very chai-ming, and appears to be 
the i-esult of taste and skill, rather than the natural featun's of a wiM aiul almost 
uninhabited country." 

danaduDi Kinloiing Exiiedltlon, hij II. Y. lUiul. Vuf. 1, //. ['•>'). 

* "Our route lay on the flanks of the Biding and Duck i\lountains, 

and through a country adnurably adai)ted for farming purposes. I'onds and lakes are 
very numerous off the flanks of the Biding Mountain, Ijut as far as our oppoitunities 
una!jled us to judge, the whole country, with the exception of narrow ridges, posse.s.4e3 a 
rich black fertile mould, supporting very luxuriant herbage, and on the mountain an 
ample supply of tindjer, consisting chiefly of aspen of huge dinuMisions. The liiding and 
Duck Mountains consist of a succession of slopes anil terraces on their south-western 
sides, the ascent being almost imjierceptible to thick inii)eneti'able forcist which covers the 
highest plateau. On Birdstail Ci-eek cretaceous shales, identical with those on the 
Assiniboine, crop out in different places.*' 

JIml. Vo!. l./.y). 386-393. 

"At a j)oint 53 miles from the Elbow (South Saskatchewan) \e made a careful 
section of the river and found its breadth to Ije one-thinl of a mile (28 chains) ; its 
greatest depth was ten feet on the east sidi.', but on the w»'st side tlu.'re is another 
channel with nine feet of water. 

"Approaching the !Moose Wouds we passed for several hours betwi'en a series of low- 
alluvial islands from ten to twelve feet above tho water. They sustain some fine tdm, 
balHam-iK)plar, ash, ash-leaved mii|)le, and a vast pi'ofusion of nu'saskatomina. The river 
valley is itoiinded by low hills leading to a jirairie plateau four to eight miles back. The 
country here furnishes an excellent district for the estaiilishment of a settlement. The 
hpot where we cjiuiped for the night is an extensive, ojien, undulating nu'adow, with long 
rich grass, and on the low elevations rose-bushos grow in the greatest profusion. It is 
only ten feet from tho water, yet it dobs nbt flfipcir to be flooded in tho spring ; wator- 



lills and 
, a point 
ie. * 

Tcm the 

here llio 

1 egiuus, 


of gVOVfS 

jir lowest 
or lifteL'ii 
miunit of 
18 prairio, 
a a uorth- 
II ills and 
s as cli'an 
nd, where 
cava to Ito 
nd almost 

lakes aie 
)0ssesHes a 
untain an 
liding and 
covers tlie 
tse on the 

;i careful 
hains) ; its 
is another 

nies of low 
e fine elin, 
Tlio river 
niek. Tliu 
ueut. The 
with long 
iion. It ib 
ng ; water- 

marks and ice marks are nowhere to be seen above four feet from the present level of the 
broad river. 

" The region called the Moose Woods is a dilatation of the Saskatchewan, flowing 
through an extensive alluvial flat six miles in breadth, and cut into numerous islands by 
the changing course of the; stream. This flat is bounded by sand hills, some of w' ich are 
nothing more than shifting dunes. The woods are in patch'is, and in the low land consist 
of balsam-poplar, white wood and as[ten. Small aspen cliimi>s cover the hills. 
The river continues to flow through a broatl alluvial flat for about 'i") miles. Its water is 
very turbi;!, like that of the Mississippi, holding uuich solid matter in mechanical 

" Bt>yond the Moose Woods the banks dose upon the river, and have an altitude 
not exceeding GO feet. The breadth of the str -am contracts to 250 yards, with a curr-'ut 
fully three miles an hour. On the east bank the prairie is occasionally wooded with 
clumps of aspen, on the west side it is treeless, and shows many sand hills. Nothing but 
a treeless, slightly undulating prairie was visible; many large fragments of limestone not 
nnich water-worn lie on the hill banks of the river, which are about lOO feet in altitude. 
Frecjuent soundings showed a depth of ten or twelve feet. A little timber dis])lays itself 
occasionally on the east bank below the level of the jjrairie. The banks exposed occasion- 
ally yellow drift clay with numerous boulders ; the soil of the i)rairie appears to improve 
as we progress northward, and the grass is no longer stunted or withered. Little rapids 
occur at the bends of the river, but there is always deep water on tlu^ other side. 

*• * '• In many places close to tht; water's edge and rising from it in a 

slope for a space of '2'> to ."50 feet, the fallen boulders are i)ackod like stones in an 
a'tiflcial pavement and are often ground down to a uniform level by the action of ice. 
This pavcnuMit is visible for many miles in aggregate length at the bends of the river, 
* * * Sev(!nty-live n>iles fiom the (Irand Forks the balsam-s|>ruce begins to 

appear in groves. The river winds between high wooded banks with low points and 
wooded bottoms on one side, high cliffs also wooded with aspen and spruce groves on i\w 
o|)posite bank. Tiie flats are covenul with a rich jirofusiou of vett.-hes, grasses and rose 
bushes. * * We passed swiftly through a good country, well fltted for 

settlement, as far as we could judge from soil anil vegetation. Low islands are numerous 
in the river, and extensive alluvial flats spread out in an expansion of the valley." 

IfED KlVhK. 

(h'l'r/iiitd .liiiiriif^ lliiuiiil ih^' Woi'hl, I'l/ !iir O'ljoiyr SitDpttoii. ]'<>/. 1, p. Oi). 

" On entering Jvcd liiver from Like Winni|M'g, tiie shores, for the lirst ten miles, 
are low and swampy, aliounding in wild fowl of every kind ; but, farther up, they rise to 
a height varying from .'iO to 'lO feet. (.)n tlie eastern m- right bank there is an abundance of 
po[)lar, birch, elm, oak, i^-c, jtines also being plentiful a few miles back ; while -he 
western side, generally speaking, is one vast jirairie, with scarcely any timber. 

" The soil of lied Jliver settlement is a blaik mould of consideral)le depth, win -h, 
when first tilled, jiroduces extruoi-dinary crops, as nnn ii, on some occasions, as forty 
returns of wheat ; and even after twenty successive >tius of cultivation, without the re'ief 
of manure or of fallow, or of green crop, it still yields from from l') to "i") bushels to the 


Captain PaUiners Explaratioii in B. X. A inertca, /olio, p. 8. 

" Rod River lias its sovirces in tlie smiih! district of niurslies and lakes from which 
flows also tliH Mississippi. TIk; course of Red River is slightly west of north to when* it 
falls into Lake Winnipeg. At S or 10 miles from the laki; the land on the hanks of the 
river become sulliciently elevated to he available for agriculture ; it stretches back for 
many miles on either hand in tine rich savannahs or lightly timbered country. Indeed, 
the valley of Red River being rarely eontined by lofty banks in any portion of its course, 
is valuable for settlement the whole way up stream and foi* a considerable distance south 
of the international line." 

Lake Winnipecj. 

Appcnillx Xit. .'5 to .fiinriKih Legiihiflvo, Assninhfi/, (.'anmla, ISof*, Ctip. VII. 

" The altitude of this extensive sheet of water above the level of the sea is (528 feet. 
* Liike Winnipeg is L'G t miles long, by an average of 'Mi wide. It C(>r- 
tainly contains an area of exceeding !>,(H>0 scjuare miles, and is ]n*obably one half as large 
a<,Min as Lake Ontario. Connected with Lake Winnipeg by navigable channels are two 
other large bodies of water, Lakes Manitoba and Winnipegoosis, being together as long as 
liuke Winnijx'g and having about half its breadth. * * '■' Lake Winnipeg 
once reached, c(jmmunication with the int(M-ior becomes an easy matter. The numerous 
rivei-s which unwater the valley of this great lake, with an area of 400,000 square miles, 
ai'e most of them canoe, or boat routes, for many hundred miles up their streams. Lake 
Winnipeg is very shallow at its southern extremity and the marshy shores abound with 
fresh water shells." 

Lakes Manitoba axu Winnipegoosis. 

27if h'rif Ui'd-r Coiiiitrij, Hudson lia;/ and the Xorth-Weat, fj>/ A. J. Jln-sell, C. A'., 

( 'lip. Xr. p. 48. 

" These lakes are each 120 miles in length. The greatest breadth of Maiutoba is 24 
nules, and of Winnipegoosis 27. Taken together they extend 220 miles from north to 
south. They enclose between them and Lake Winnipeg a peninsida of 2.')0 miles in 
length by lOO miles in greatest breadth, which is cut across by the Little Saskatchewan. 
This peninsula, though as large as the Kingdom of Denmark, counts for little in the 
Nor'- West. It is reported to be a low flat country, abounding in lakes and marshes. On 
its coast on the north-east shore of Manitolja, Mr. Dawson states that from the marsh 
which Iit>s behind its high shingle lieach, a rich alluvial soil rises gradually to a moderate 
height, not subject to be flooded. As it is a limestone country and thickly wooded, the 
soil must necessarily be very fertile, where there is depth enough of it ; which shoidd at 
least frequently be thi' case in a low le\el country. Round tht? south end of Lake Mani- 
toba, for a circuit of about 50 miles, the soil is that of the richest description of prairie 
land. The few settlers consider it even sujK'riur to that of Red Rivei-. It is an undu- 
lating country of mingled woods ami prairie. 

"The White M>id Rivi-i-, a stream of about 80 miles in length by its, which 
has its sources in the soiitlicrii skirts of tiie Riding Mountains, ami flows eastward to the 
south end of Lake .Manitobi, is described as passing through an exceedingly beautiful and 
fertile country of prairies, thickly intei-speixed with woo<is, the soil of which is a rich 
sandy loam. This very rich prairie laml stretches southwards to the Sand Hills on the 
Assiniboine, and eastward to Red River. Between the upper end of Lake Manitoba aud 
tho Riding Mountains, nxiA ftrrtitnd Laki' li.Ulphiti, flidfo irt nntch ribh ground, nhH mitoh 
of li ib v%m!l'fthy." 


roiii which 
to where it 
inks of the 
13 back for 
r. Indeed, 
' its cours(% 
ance south 


is <;28 feet. 
\(\ It cer- 
lalf as large 
lels are two 
r as long as 
t; Winnipeg 
e numerous 
juare miU's, 
uus. I^akc 
bound with 

;, C. A'., 

litoba is 24 
11 north to 
.')() miles in 
little in the 
irshes. On 
the marsh 
a moderate 
jfooded, the 

I shoidd at 
Lake Mani- 

II of prairie 
is an undu- 

urse, which 
ward to the 
lautiful and 
h is a rich 
ills on the 
mitoba and 
nttH much 



In re])ly to a letter re([uesting information concerning the capabilities of riveis in 
the North-West for navigation, Hon. Donald A. Smith, M.P., wrote as follows : - 

"Hudson Bay Hol'se, Montreal, 28th July, ISTC. 

" The information I have received on this subject is to the effect that the 
Saskatchewan River is navigable by steamboats drawing '1\ to i5i feet of water, fr«)m the 
head of the Grand Ilapid, some four miles from the point where that river empties into 
Lake Winnipeg, to the Rocky Mountain House, a distance of eleven hundred to twelve 
Jiundred miles, from about the 1st of June till the middle of September. 

"The ice on the Saskatchewan, at Edmonton, generally bnsaks iij) between the ir)th 
and the 20th of April, and by the 1st of May the river may be said to be clear all the 
way down to the Grand Rapid. For three or four yeai-s back the water has been 
sulHciently high, as early as the lOth to the 15th of May, for the passage of steamboats ; 
but, as already mentioned, this cannot be depended on before the beginning of June ; 
and it is very seldom that Lake Winnipeg is sufficiently clear of ice to enal»le boats to 
reach the mouth of the Saskatciiewan before the 8th to the Kith of the latter month. 

"The interruptions to the navigation of the Saskatchewan, with one excei)t:on, that 
of Cole's Falls, are comparatively unimportant. The tirst occurs about two miles above 
the Grand Rapid, at the * Roches Rouges,' where the current is very strong, the next 
being at the ' Demi Charge,' about eiglit miles further ; again fit the ' Thoburn,' or 'Nepo- 
win Ra])id,' some thirty miles below Fort a la Corne, there is a very strong current, but 
not such as to require the use of the M^arp to surmount it. The Coles' Falls immediately 
above the junction with the South Branch of the Saskatchewan, a chain of fourteen rapids, 
extending over about twelve miles, occur. Of these, three are much interruj)ted by 
boulders, which it is believetl could readily be removed at little expense, giving a good 
channel. After this there is no gi-eat strength of cuiTent until Cross Rapid is reached, 
about half way between Fort Pitt and Edmonton ; and above the latt<'r i)lace the navi- 
gation is easy for fifty miles, after which, throughout the greater part of the distance to 
the Rocky Mountain House, the current is very strong, but still such as can be i-eadily 
overcome by a boat of good jiower. 

" From Carlton upwards there nre a good many shifting sandbanks, rendering the 
channel in some })lace3 tortuous. Of these the ])rincipal occur off the mouth of Battle 
River ; but with good pilotage a good channel is always to be found between them. 

" The 'Northcote,' a steamboat of about one hundred and fifty feet in length, last yeai' 
jtroceeded from the Grand Rapid to Edmonton with a full cargo, and she is at present 
gone on her second trip this season to the same place. 

"The ordinary Hudson's Bay freight boats, the dimensions of which are about thirty- 
two feet keel, or from stem to stern forty-five fet^t, with a breadth of beam of ten feet, 
carrying from four to five tons of cargo, and drawing when loaded about two-an<l-a-half 
feet of water, have navigated the Saskatchewan for many year^. These boats are wari)eil 
uj) the Grand Rapids from Lake Winnipeg, the depth oV water and Ijreadth of channel 
in these rajtids l>eing amply sufficient, and the only difficulty of surmounting them being 
the gi-eat force of the current. Eight men are employed in tracking a l)oat of this 
description, in every case the greater portion of the cai'go being carried across the 

" Between Fort Pitt and Curlton, wood for fuel is scarce, and not'easily obtained ; but 
with this exception it can without ditUculty l»e procured along tho whole extent of the 

"Coal is also found at several ])()ints fioni Fort Victoria (aliout ninety miles below 
Edmonton) U])wards, and at ei,i(hty miles aliovci Kilmonton it crops out in a large mass, 
Uw seam being represented as being n])wards of lifty feet in thickness'. This coal has 
for many vears be(»n used l)y blacksmitlis, and found to answer their purpose sullicientiv 

"Tliese few remarks are hurriedly tlnMwn together ; but I shall be glad at any time 
to furnish sudi furtlier information as it may be in ni}' power to give on the subject." 

The llt'd llivi'i' CoHiitn/, lIinhon'H liaif ami Nort/i-West Ti'rritoncxJ"/ A. J. ll/tsseff, C.E. 

/>■ •">-• 

*' As tlie Little Saskntcliewan, the outlet ot Lake Manitoba, is a fine, navigable 
stieam of ToO feet in breadtii, and tlu^ Waterhen lliver or Sangissippi, which connects 
Lakes Maiiito'.,.., and Winnip(>goosis. lias a broad channel not less than three feet deeji at 
low water, tliey ])resent together with tli(>se lakes an unbroken line of water communi- 
cation from Fort Garry to Mossy Portage, at tlin Jiead of T/vke Wiiinipegoosis, a distance 
of about .">()() miles. 

" Mossy Portage, which is only about four miles and a (piarter in length, through 
low ground, connects the head of Lake Winnipcgoosis with Ceijar Lake on the Saskatelu'- 
waii, abovi' its great rapids. A slioi't canal there wotild unite tlie navigation by these 
lakes fi'om Fort tbirry with that of the lliver Saskatchewan, (from Cedar Lake upwards) 
wliich for nearly a tliousand miles [jn^sents no greater obstructions to navigation than are 
to be found on the lUver Oliio. Tliis wo\dd form a line of water eoriinuuiication about 
1">0(» jniles in length from Fort Carry to the foot of tlie Rocky Mountains. 
Tlie area drained by the South Saskatcliewan is greater than that of th<» llhine, and tlie 
watershed of the Kocky jSIountains drained by it is greater than that of tho Alps, drained 
by tho JIhine, and the excess of its vohune wor.ld be much ifreatt-r were it not for the 
extent of dry prairie land it jiasses tlirough." 

incd ; but 
nt of tilt! 

ilcs below 
irgti mass, 
< coal lias 



any time 

^sc/f, c.j:. 

't deep at 
a distance 

1, tlirnngli 
1 by tliest! 

I tliaii are 

ion abdnf 

md the 
s. draineil 
t for the 



Miuutvha and the Xorlh-West of the Doinuiion, by Thus. S/ience, pp. 18-22. 

" The natural division of the seasons in the valley of Luke Winnipeg is as follows : — 

" Spria<j.—\\n-W and May. 

" Sammnr. — June, July, August, and part of September. 

*' Autumn, — Part o£ September and October. 

" Winter. — November, December, January, February, and March. 

" The i)eculiarity of s}»ring is stiikingly represented by the early and rapid advance- 
ment of temiK'iature in May. It is the excessive cold of the long winter season, embracing 
five montha of the year in this latitude, which reduces tin; annual mean, being 34" 38', 
while that of Montreal is 42^ 03' ; but Blodget claims that the whole Sa.skatchewau 
A'^alley has a climate very near as mild, in its iinnuid average, as that of Wisconsin, 
Northern Ntsw York, and Ontario, which would give it a winter mean of 15 degrees. 
The nu!an for the three months, December, January and February, at Fort Garry, in 
Manitoba, is 1G° 85' ; at Montreal, IG" 83'. In April and May, the mean temperature 
rises to 3'J ' 83', and 58' 4(i', being about et{ual to Toronto. The winter climate grows 
rapidly milder in thtt same paralh;! westward, even where there is an increase of elevation, 
and in the Saskatchewan Valley, almost rejjresents the climate of Ontario. 

" The buffaloes have wintered in myriads on the nutritious glasses of its prairies, up 
to as high a latitude as Lake Athabaska ; and the Half-breeds and Indians camp out 
in the open plains during the whole of the winter, with no shelter but a buffalo skin tent 
and robes, and horses of the settlers i-un at large and grow fat on the grasses which they 
pick up in the woods and bottoms. 

" The averagt! fall of snow is about six inches per mouth. The snow falls in small 
tpiantities, at ditl'erent tinu's, and is rarely blown into drifts so as to imj)ede travelling. 
With the new year commences the extreme cold of our winter, when, for a few days, the 
mercury ranges from 15 to ;j5 tlegrees below zero, falling sometimes even below that. 
'Ik'et tht! stiverity of these days is much softened by the biilliancy of the sun, and the stillness 
of the air. Thus, while in lower latitudes, they are being drenched by the cold rain 
storms, or buried beneath huge drifts of wintry snow, Manitoba enjoys a dry atmosphere, 
with bright cloudless days, ami serene starlight nights ; and when the moon turns her 
full orl)eil fact; towards the earth, the night scene of ^Manitoba is one of [teerless grandeur. 

" According to Blotlget, Indian corn is restricted as a profitable staple to the middle 
regions of the West, betwt;en i)arallels 42^^ ami 43^. Wheat is the leading staple of the 
upiKjr belt of the temperate zone, lilodget (an American authority) states, 'that the 
biusin of the Winnipeg is the seat of the greatest average wheat product on this continent, 
and probably in the world.' The limestone sub-strata of thli region, with its rich deep 


ciilcarcous loam aiul I'ctciitivc clay subsoil is always associated with a rich wheat devcloi)- 
niont, while its hot and liuniid siiinniers f'ultil nil the cIiiiiatoh>gical couditioiis of a first- 
rate wheat country. Some lields on the lied liiver ha\e hecu known to produce twenty 
fruccessive cro])S of wheat without fallow or iiiaiuire, and the yield has fretpiently reached 
as hij^h as forty Inishels ])er acre. An inijiortant feature hi the soil of Manitoha and 
the is, that its earthy mateiials are minutely pulverized, and the soil is every- 
where light, uielh)W and spungy. With these uniform characteristics, the soils are of 
dillerent grades of fertility, according to local .situations. A general ingredient of the soil 
is .sand, of which silica is the, as of all good soils. It plays an important part in the 
economy of growth, and is an e.s.«ential constituent in the organism of all cereals. We 
are told that about G7 per cent of the ash of the stems of wheat, corn, rye, barley, oats, 
iV'c, is pure silica, or Hint. Jt is this which gives the glazed coating to the plants and 
gives strength t ti.« stalk. Now this silica is an aciil and is insoluble, but readily 
combi' witi' '■■ e. t da, magnesia, jiotash and the other ingredients of our soil, and in 
this coi. ■■'"■■' :- rea''iJy available to the use of the j)lant, and forms an essential element 
in the gi -cii -J tlie cereals ; from this and other causes is attributable the superiority of 

our wheat 

•L .ther grown east or south." 

r,civ)'t II f Select CoinnnUi.c on f mniUjr alio n and Colonhation, 187G. Profcssoi' Mdcouiin 

Kv'uUiicc, i>. L'O. 

" A continuous farming country extends from Point Du Ciiien to the Assiniboin(! at 
Fort Ellice, a distiuice of '2'M) miles, without a break. Beyond this there .-ire :.'.'> miles of 
dry griivelly ground of little account for anything except pasture. Then follows a very 
extensive tract of country stretching westward to the South Saskatchewan, and extending 
indefinitely north and south. Tliis wide i-egion contidns many fine sections of rich fertile 
coi.ntry, interspersed with ])Oplar groves, rolling treeless praiiie, salt lake , saline and 
other marshes, and brackish or fresh water ponds. What is not suited for raising cereals 
is excellent pasture land. Only a few of the salt lakes would be injurious to cattle or 
horses ; and fresh water can be obtained without doubt a little below the surface. 

" The soil of this whole region is a warm gravelly or sandy loam. The surface soil 
to a depth of from one to thri'e feet, is a brown or black loam. The subsoil being 
generally either sand or gravel, consisting principally of limestone pebbles ; many boulders 
are found in some .sections. Tlu^ land between the two Saskatchewans is nearly all good. 
Prince All)ert jNIission settlement is situated in this section. At Carlton, 1 cro.s.sed the 
North Saskatchewan, and therefore know nothing ])ersonally of the immense region ex- 
tending thence west and south to the boundary. All accounts, however, agree in saying it 
is the garden of the country. CJood land, generally speaking, extends northward to Green 
Lake, a distance of 170 mil(>s from (.'arlton. How much further eastward this good land 
extends I am unable to state ; but Sir John Jiichard.sou says that wheat is raised without 
difliculty at C"uml)crliUiil House. The good arabU; land is aliout i'.'j miles wide at Edmon- 
ton, but possilijy not so wide at Fort Pitt, more to the east but further north. This 
region is bounded on the south by tlu; North Saskatchewan, and on the north by the 
watershed between it and the Pieaver and Athabasca Kivers. Within this area there 
are five settlements where wheat is raised regulai'ly without difficulty, viz. : the Star 
Ilission (Church of England), (10 nules north of Carlton on the Green Lake I^oad ; Lnc 
La IJiche Mission (P. C.), 100 miles from Foil Edmonton; Victoria Mission (Wesleyan 
Mission), 80 nules east of Edmonton ; and St. Albert Mission (P. C), 9 miles north of 
Edmonton, and at P'dmonton itself. Edmonton seems to be the coldest point in the 
district in question and suflei's most from sunnier frosts. 

" Next is a very extensive district forming the watei-sheds between the Saskatchewan 
and Peace Iliveris, and through which the Athabasca Kiver flows for its whole coui-se, 

iJed Pi 
and tin 

it develoi)- 
of a tii-st- 
ce twenty 
ly roiiclied 
iitol>ii and 
11 is e\ei'y- 
oils arc of 
of the soil 
jmit in tli(f 
•cals. We 
u'lcy, oats, 
plants and 
ait readily 
oil, and in 
al element 
lerioritv of 


inilioint; at 
25 miles of 
ows a very 
I exten'^'inj; 
rich fertile 
saline and 
iing cereals 
;o cattle or 

surface soil 

jjsoil beini; 

[ly boulders 

y all good. 

rossed the 

region ex- 

in saying it 

•d to Green 

1,'ood land 

led without 

at Ednion- 

n-th. This 

rth by the 

jirea then; 

the Star 

load ; IjJie 


north of 

oint in the 

ole coui-se, 


and from which it receives its waters. This region is all forest and consists of nuiskcg 
(swamp), spruce and poplar forests. Very little is known of tliis region, but the soil 
wiiei'e I crossed it is generally good where not swam])y. West of Kdmonton, where tlio 
railway crosses this section, there is said to be much swanijt, but ix'tween Fort I'itt ancl 
the Forks of the Atlial)asca there is scarcely any swamp, although it is nearly ail forest. 

" Next conies the Peace River section extending along tho Rocky ^^oul Ins from a 
little north of Jasjjer's House to Fort Liard, lat. Gl north ; and from tla t\ mer point 
to the w(vst end of Little Slave i^ake ; thence to the Forks of tho Athal»a . and down 
that Iviver to Athabasca Lake, and from thence to Fort Liard. The upper part of this area is principally ])rairie, extending on lioth sides of the Feace River. As wo 
proceed to the north and east tho prairie gradually changes into a continuous jioplar 
for»\st with here and there a tew s|)ruces, indicating a wetter soil. The general character 
of tiiis section is like that of ^Manitoba west from Portage La Prairie to Pine Creek. 

" Wheat was raised last yeai- at tho Foi'ks of tiie Athabasca, at the French Mission 
(Lake Athabasca), at Fort Liard, and at Fort Vermillion in this section." 

Canadian JCrpJorlng E.i'iied'itioti, htj " Y. Hind. Vol. -, p. L'.Tl. 

"It is a pliysical reality of tho high<;st in')orcai to the interest of British North 
America that this continuous belt can be .setth ■ and ■. tivated from a few miles west of 
tho Lake of tlie Woods to the passes of the '■*• rikr Mountains, and any line of conuuuni- 
cation, whether by waggon road or railroad, ,<.is''ri'. through it, will eventually enjoy the 
groat advantag(( of being fed by an agricultUi.'al \ puLition from one end to the other. 

"No other part of the American Ci, ; ut possesses an approach even to this 
singularly f ivorable disposition of soil and climate, which last feature, notwithstanding 
its rigour during the winter stvison, confers, on account of its humidity, inestimable value 
on Rritish Anuuica, south of the r)lth parallel. 

" The Uiitural resources lying within th(> limits of tho fertile belt, or on its eastern 
boi'ders, are themselves of great vahui as local elements of future wealth anil prosperity ; 
but in view of a communication the continent they acipiire paramount imi)ortance. 

"Timber available for fuel and building ])urposes : lignite coal, though not eiiucl to 
true coal, neverthi'less suitalile for many of the different objects to which true coal is 
applied ; iron ore widely distributeil, of great purity, and in consideralile abuudance ; salt, 
in quantity sullicient for a dense population. All these crude elements of wealth lie 
within tho limits or on tho borders of a region of great fertility, and drained by a river 
of tho first-class, navigal)le liy ste.imer, during several months of the year, for .'(UO miles 
of its course, and Ity batteaux for nearly dou'ole that distance." 

(The Hudson Ray Company's stciaincr has, since this was written, in 1S7.") and L^7(^ 
navigated successfully about a thousand miles of the North Saskatchewan.) 

The lied I'ui-cr Country J,>i A.J. Un^^^rll, C.I-:.. I'. \\:k 

"On our route by the North S iskatcliewan and Yellow Heiul Pass, v/e have a con- 
timialiy and pre-emiuenily fertile country for l,.''>Oi) niih's from the commencement of the 
Red River prairies to t!ie base of th" r.ojky Mountains at Jasper House, and of the 
remaining 7(51 miles to the head of Jiuto Iidet, nearly one-half apparently is cultivable 
land. Mr. Waddington's description of the country between tlie mouth of the Quesadle 
and the coast range agrees with the i>vourable account of that jilateHU (juoted from IMr. 


I3arnstou's report in CS.ininaiulpr Miiyne's work on Uritish ('oliini])ia, and tho unusual 
I'lvorahlo churacttn" in tliat very mountainous country, wliich he ;,nv<'S of the j^fi-eat region 
extending northwards to tlio l\iver Skecna, the lioundary of Uritish Coluniliia, cor- 
nsponds witli the dosoription given of it iTiterseoted, in re])orts ot extensive explorations 
referred to in tho same work and published in Imperial parlianu'ntary papers. 

" We see, therefore, tluit we ])Osspss a route to the Pacifie through our central prairie 
country and ]5ritish C'ohnnliia, that besides traversing the Hocky JMountains far more 
favoraidy, at half the elevation of the lines through tiio Ignited States, is as remarkable 
for jiassing through a great extent ol' well watered, fertile country, as they are for the 
general aridity ami uninhabitable barrenness of a great part of the coinitry they traverse. 

" The superiority of our route across to the Pacitic, over .iny otliei- on tho continent, 
is still more evident, when we consider that it has in adtlition to the foregoing the further 
advantage consLsting chiefly of navigable waters. 


" This advantage is, in its nature, a double one. Fii-st, the much lower rate of cost 
of transjiort by the navigable waters. * '■''■ Secondly, what to us is of 

great inii)ortance, especially in the coninu'ncement, that in the navigaltle waters wo have 
the gri;ater part of the route ready, without cost of construction, except on a very small 
projiortion of it." 


Flirts and Fl<jvre» rr.hfuiff to Vtincouvfir a InhiwI and Jhitixh Columlnif, l>ij J. JJespard 
Pemherfon, Snrreyor-Geiieral <>/ Vcinroitrer'n hhtinf, />. 117. 

■■' * " An isothermal line drawn across the continent would, of course, 
be far from straight, but the general obli(puty of such a line may be judged of in this 
way : — If such a lino w ere drawn from New York it would pass throiigh Lake Winnipeg 
to Fort Simjtson ; in other words, if New York were, with respect to latitude, similarly 
placed on the Avest coast. Fort Simpson, a thousand viiles north of it, would enjoy a tem- 
perature e(jually favorable with it." 

Ai>iiend!.c Xo. oG, to Jinir)ittf!i Legislnt'irc Assnnfi///, Coidilir, li^.lD. 

DltU'KO)!, C.E. 

nc/iorf 1)1/ S. J, 

"According it) the isothermal charts of liOrin Blodget, thelities of e(pial temperature 
for the summer should have a north-west direction from INsd Kiver. Now, admitting 
this theory to l)e correct, the climate of Red Deer Kiver and Swan Piver, other circum- 
stances being the same, should be ecjual to that of Red Kiver Settlement. But I am of 
opinion that it is superior, inasmuch as these rich valleys, whi!;; they are at but a very 
slight elevation above the valley of Ked River, ai-c removed from the influence of the 
coM winds from Lake Winnipeg, which prcjudiciallv affect the latter in spring. As an 
instance of the change of climate which is {)roduced by the difference of elevation in this 
legion, J may mention that the vegetation in the middle of June, was' much further 
advanced in the valley of Swan River than at Foit Pelly, which is some distance further 
to the south, but at a greater altitude by some 400 feet. 

" While on this subject, I rpiote from P.Iodget's climatology some of his remarks on 
tlie climate of the North-west territories, which I am confident will be read with interest. 

' " By reference to the illustration of the distribution of heat we see that the cold at 
the north of the great lakes does not represent the same latitude further west, and 


10 umismil 
■oat region 
niliiii, oor- 

ml pvairio 
far nioro 
10 for till! 
' travei'so. 


ite of cost 
o ns is of 
s we have 
•ery small 


of course, 
of in this 
, similarly 
joy a teni- 

hif S. J. 

er circnni- 
t I am of 
lit a very 
u'C of tho 
As an 
on in this 
1 lurthei 
ce further 

marks on 
I interest. 

lie cold at 
west, and 

that hnyond them thf thermal lines ris(? as hij;li in latitude, in most Ciises, as at tli(* west 
of Kurope. Central Iliissia, the Baltic district, and tht» Hritish Islands, aie all rt-produci'd 
ill the i^'tMicral structure, tlioiiL,di the exceptimis hn-c fall ii'^'aiiist the adviMita^'f. svliile 
there they t'avor it, through the immediatt; iiilliieuci- of the (Julf Stream. 

'"('Ii'nat(* is iiidis|iiital>ly the dei'isiv(^ condition, mid \\h"ii \vc tiud the isotlitTinl 
off)!) for the summer rising on the interior American plains to tln^ (list paiallel, or fully 
as high iw its average position for Kurope, it is impossihli- to doiilit the cxistcucc of 
favorable climates over \ast a"cas now iiiiocciiiiicd. 

' "This favorable comparison may Ix^ traced fm- the winl»'r also, and In the aveiiigis 
for the year. The exceptional cold of tint mountain plateaux and of the coast lieluw the 
l.'5rd parallid, marks tint advantage more or less to thos(^ who approach these areas riniii 
tho western jiarts of the Central States, and from tho coast of California, l>ut though tla* 
distinct mountain ranges remain high at the north, the width of their hase, or of tho 
plateau from which they rise, is much h-ss than ;i( the ll'nd parallel. The elevated tr: cts 
are of less extent, and the jmtportion of cnltivalile surface is far greater. 

'''It will he seen that the thermal lines for each season are thrown iiortliwird 
further on passing Lake Superior westward, in the charts of this work, than in tlmsi of 
the military report prepared liy the author. At the time those were drawn the nuinlx'r 
of the ohservations heyoiid the limits of the I'nited States wen^ so small that the 'till 
expression was not giv(!n to the statistics then used, in the fear that .some correction would 
ultimately be found to apply to thcin, reducing the extreme northwanl curvatures t ley 
indicated. Jjiit a further collection and comparison warrants the position now given to 
(ho thermal lines, jilacing them furtlun- northward than before, ami extending them in a 
course due from Lake Superior to the ."iSth parallel. For the extreme seasons, 
winter and summer, this accurate diagonal extension of the thermal lines across the iiieas 
of latitude and longitude is very striking. Tla? bull'alo winter in the upper Athabascu, at as safely as in the latitude of St. Paul's, Minnesota ; (ituf tlie s/irinif o/n'iis ft )iriirh/ 
the siane tlmi nfowj the Iniianii'ie flu- nf' ji/inii.-< /'rmn St. J'tnil's to .\f'ii:/ii?in!e liirrr. 

' " The (piantity of rain is not less iniportmit than the measures of heat to all purp-)scs 
of occupation ; and for tin; plains east of the Kocky Mountains there may reasonably be 
some doubt as to the sntHciency ; and doubts on the jioints whether th(! desert belt of 
lower latitudes is prolongeil to the northern liiiii^ of tiie ]ilaiiis. If the lower deserts are 
due to the altitudt! and mass of the mountains simply, it woiihl be natural to infer tlieii- 
existence along the whole line, where the Itocky .Moimtiiiiis run p:irallel, and ret.ain their 
altitude ; but tho dry areas are evidently due to other ciuises ])riiiiarily, toul fhri/ a, nut 
foinid ii/iore the \~ith jiitinllil. in f(irt. It is decisive nf the general (|uestion of liie 
surticiency of rain, to tind tli(> entire surface (jf the upper plains either well grassed or 
well wooded ; and ree(>nt information on these points almost warrants the assertion thai 
there are no barren tracts of con seipieiice after we pass the liad lands, and the coteaip: of 
the Missouri. Many jiortions of these plains are known to be peculiarly rich in grasM's ; 
and probably th<* tiiit>st tracts lie along the eastern base of the mountains, in positions 
corresponding to the most desert -like of the phiins to the south. The higher latitides 
certainly dill'er wiilely from the plains which stretch from the I'latte [southward to the 
Llano Estacado of Texas, and none of the references made to them by residents or 
travellers indicate desert characteristics. Tiiiltalo an^ far more abundant on the north-'rn 
Itlain.s, and they remain through the winter on their ext'.-cine bord(>r, taking; shelter in the 
belts of woodland on the ujiper Athabasca and I\ace Ivivtrs. (Jrassy savannas like tl.ese 
necessarily imply an adequate supply of riiin : and there ( be no doubt that the cor- 
respondence with the European plains in like gedgr.iphical position — those of eastern 
(iermany and Russia — is quite complete in this respect, if a ditl'erence exists, it is in 


fiivor of tlio Aiucrinin i»laiiiH, wliich li;iv(' !i ;,Trat«'r pioi'oi-tiou of Hurfaco watorH, both an 
liikt'M and riviis." ' 

" After rciuarkiug on tin- rcj^inu west of the Rooky Mountains, ho goes ou to say :— 

' " Ni'xt is tho area of tho plains rast of the IJocky Mountains, not h'ss remarkalii«> 
than the first for the al»seni!e of attention hci-etufon' j,'ivt'n to its intrinsic vahie as a |>ro- 
(hu'tive and euitivalile reiiion, within easy reaeh of einiu'i'ation. Tins is a \ve(l;L,'e shaped 
tract, ten di-^n cs (tf KMii^'itmie in width at its hase alt»n;,' tiie }7th parallel, inclined north- 
westward to conform to tin' trr'n<l of tlic Ifoci Mountains, and teiiuinatinj,' not fai- from 
tho ()()th par^dlel in a narrow lint>, which still t. '■"Mids ahmij the >[ackenzie for thre(! or 
four de;,'rees of latitiith , in a climate harely tolcrai •. . I^onl Selkirk l)ej,'an his ell'orts at 
colonization as early as"), aiid from pei-sonal ki ywled^'e he then claimed for this ti-act 
a capacity to support thii-ty millions of iidialiitants. All the "grains of the cool teniperato 
latitu(h's anr produced ahnndantly. Indian corn may lie ;,'rown on lioth branches of tho 
Saskatchewan, and the cr|-ass of the [ilains is singularly abundant and rich. Not oidy in 
the earliest exploration of these plains, liut now, they are the ;.;reat resort for buffalo 
herds, which wiih the (hunestic herds, and th<* horses of the Indians and the colonists 
remain on them and at their woodlani! borders througho\it the year, 

' " The simple fact of the |)resonco of these vast lierds of wild cattle on jdains at so 
hit;h a latitu<le, is ample proof of the climatoIoi,'ical and pi-oductive capacity of tlu) 
country, (f/ f/nse jiliiiim, a/o/ thrir iruoil/.(nt<l boi<(<rg, the, valaahlc surfiwc inedsuieK j'uUi/ 
Jive /luiuhid lliDHsdiid sijnare vnlf.n."' 

'• To the above I may a(M, that tlio talented author in his isothermal chart, showing 
the mean distribution of lieat for the .suminei, places the line of (10 degrees to the north 
of the Lake of the Woods, and that of (i.") degrees at Fort tJarry. The .same authority 
gives a summer of 9.") to Toronto, and of VK) to L'umlu'rland House, in latituch- ."> t degrees 
north, the e.vtreme northern limit of tho region to which my descriptions refer." 

Occiin to Ocrdii, hi/ A'- r. O'i'd. Jf. Grant, p. 171. 

" Speaking generally of ^Manitoba and our Xor'west, along the lino we travelled, it 
is impossible to iloubt that it is one of the tinest pasture countries in the world, and that 
a greiit part of it is well adapt(!d for cereals. Tho climatological conditions are favoral)le 
for both stock raising and grain produ'.-ing. The sprint; is nearly as early as in Ontario ; 
the summer is more humid, and therefore the ^'rains, and root crops grow better ; 
tho autumn bright an<l cloudless, the very weather for harvesting ; and the winter has less 
SHOW and ftiwer snowstorms and though, in many parts colder, it is ln;althy and pleasant 
because of the still dry air, the cloutlless sky and bright sun. The soil is almost every- 
where a peaty or sandy loam resting on clay. Its only fault is that it is too rich. Crop 
after crop is rai.sed without fallow or manure." 

Ilepoit o^f the &lect Cuianilttee on /iniii!(jiat!oii ami L'olutiiuitlon, I/uusc of Commons, 
Vanwla. 1870. J'lo/iscior Jfitcouti!^ £cideitce, p. 215. 

"At Battle Iviver, Indian corn has rijiened three years in succession, and my obser- 
vations tend to show that the summer temjierature at this point is gi'eater than it is 
higiier up. 

" At Vermillion, hit. HS" 24' [ had a long conversation with old Mr. Shaw, wlio 
has had charge of this lort for sixteen years ; he .say.s that frosts never injure anything 
on this part of the river and every kind of garden stuff can be grown. Barley sown on 


tliP 8th May, cut Gtli Au^iust, nud the fiiipst I ever .saw. Many eiirs as iO!\</ an tay Imncl 
ami tilt' wliolc crop thick ami stout. Jn my opiiiioi. tlii.s is tin- finest traft of i-ountry on 
the rivt-r. The guuerul h-vcl of tho country is ii-ss than 1 00 fuet ahovo it. 

"At liittln lied llivcr I found ovcrythini,' in a voiy forward state. Cucinnliers 
started in tlie open air were fully riix! ; Windsor pole Inums and peas were ripe, 
Auj,'ust ir»th. Fort ("hipweyan, at the outranco to Lake A thai lasea, has very poor soil 
in its vieinity, lieinj; lar;(ely eoniposeil of Kami ; still, lient I obtained fine s.imples of 
wheat and l)arley — the former weighing; •L'S lbs. to the bushel, and tho latter .")(< liis. The 
land here is very low and swampy, bein<{ but little elevated al)ove the like. At the 
French Mission, two miles aliove the Fort, oats, wheat ami Imrley were all cut by the 
■JOlh August. C'roj) rather light on the ground. 

" Q. What tiuu) docs the season open so that spring ploughing and seeding can be 
nari'i(>d on '{ 


"^■1. About the i!Oth of April ploughing can commence on Peace River, and from data 
in my possession tho same may be said of the .Sa.skatchewan regions generally. 

•• It « a curious fact that spring seems to advanct' from north-west to .south-east, at a 
rate of about l-'.')0 miles per day, and that in the fall winter begins in Manitoba and 
goes westward at the same rate. 

" Q. Ifave you any knowledge of the temperature aiul how the thermometer ranges 
tluring the year ( 

" .1. The following data s(dectcd from various sources will throw considfa-ablo light on 
this (jue.stion. It is worthy of note that Halifax, on the .sea coast, is nearly as cold in 
spring and summer as points more than twelve degi'ces further north. 

" Spring, summer and autumn temi)prature at various points, to which Is added the 
mean tempei-atun; of J uly antl August, the ttnu n/ieniwj month.'*. 

Latitude Summer. Spring. Autumn. July 

north. and Au;L:us't. 

" (!umberland House r^lVM r)L>-r.2 X'riH I'.L'TO (\\-2r> 

" Fort SimiKson <il r.l .'i'.l'bS I'lrtU! 27-;U Qi-'M 

" Fort Chipweyan ■OS'tL' .'iS-TO 2 J-TD ;{ I S'.i OOtiO 

" Fort Williani 48i>+ :)!)-i)l 'Mi'u :57-S() V,0-rr2 

"Montreal 4.");il 07-lM) :<!)•():? •l.*)-l.S (;s-47 

"Toronto 4:}-4(l r,l-4.3 4l'-:54 4(rSl (;G-.-)l 

" Temiscamingue 47-15) 0")ii:'> ■■{7-.")S 4(l(J7 (U>-[:\ 

«' Halifax 44-3!) 01-00 :U(17 4007 OG-.l.') 

" Belleville 44-10 tem]icrature nearly that of Toronto. 

" Dunvegan, Peace River. . . . 50-08 average sununer six months. 

" Rdmonton n.'V-'U .... :5'J-70 

" Carleton r)->--)U .•'.VTO 

" Winnipeg 4U-r)2 0470 ■Ml•l^^ 35-2!) 05-32 

" Any unprejudiced person making a careful evinination of the above figures will bo 
struck with the Ligh temperature ol)tained in the interior. Edi um ion has a higher 
,;*pring temperature than Montreal, and is eight degrees farther noiiit .nd over 2,000 het 


;il)ovt' the sea. Tim ti'iiiju'ratmos of Carlctou ami Ktlmoiitou are taken from Captain 
I'alliscr's cxjiloratioiis in tlic Sa.skati'licwau cuwntrv, diiriiiL,' tlit- years lf<r)7 anil 18")^!. It 
will 1)0 seen that tlic tcnipcraturi's of the months when yrain ripens is about nearly etpial 
throughout the wliule homiiiioii iVoni Minitreal to Fort Simpson north of (!reat Slave 

•• (^>. Do you eonsider the country uilajited for stork raisiuL', ami how many rnonths in 
the vear is it ii'-eessarv to kefp stock luuler shelter / 

'• .1. Tin! country, in my opinion, is well suited for stock-raisini^ throu;,diout its whole 
extent. The winters ai'e certainly cold lait the climate is dry, and the winter snows art; 
lij^ht, lioth as to di'pth and weiijht. All kinds of animals have thicker coats in cold 
climates than in warm ones, so 'hat the tliicker coat counter-lialances the ".greater cold. 
Dry snow never injures cattle in Ontario — no other kind ever falls in Manitoha or the 
Noith-West, so that there can he no troidile from this cause, t'atth' winter just aa well 
on the Athabasca and I'euce llivers as they do in Manitoba ; ami Mr. Grant, who has 
been liviujL,' on Hat Cnn'k, ]\Ianitol);i, for a nundier of years, .says that cattle give less 
ti'owble then! than they do in Nova Scotia. Horses winter out without feed other than 
what tliey pick up, fiom I'eace liivi!r to Manitoba. Sheep, cattle, and hoi-ses will reipiire 
lt!ss attention and not reijuire to l)e fed as long as we now feed them in Ontario. Owing 
to th( li^Iit lain fall the inicut grass is almost as good as hay when tht; winter .sets in, 
which it docs without the heavy rains of the (!ast. This grass ivmains good all winter as 
the dry sn(jw does not rot it. In the spring the snow leaves it almost as goo<l us ever, so 
that, cattle ciin eat it until tlii' young grass appears. From live to si.K months is aliout 
the time cattle will reipiire to lie fed, and shekel- will altngetlier depend on the farmer." 

J/ilil. Mr. ll'in-i/ McLcuJ'ti Kci'h'rtCf, i>. II. 

" (J. What parts of the cmritry have you travelled over in the Northwest, and have 
you made particular oii.^ervations of the soil I 

'• .1. 1 have travelled over the country, fmiii ."iO miles east of J'ortago, Lake of 
the Woods, to the summit of the iJocky Mountains, aiiout l,J."i(t miles, and have imuh' 
daily iceords of the (piality of the soil travelled over. Taking the country from Winnipeg 
to I'ort I'clly I'y the usuid trail, and from Fort Felly to Lac Ste. Anne, o(> miles west of 
I'Mmonton, along thi' line of the Pacitic iJailway, 1 estimate that the proportion of soil 
siiital)le for wfttlement is \'.\ per cent., moderately fair soil IT) per cent., and poor sandy, 
cl;iy and gravel, li* per cent. The liiml I consider suitabl(« for settlement is very much 
KUp.rior to any lands now to bi! had in Ontario; the lu.vuriance of the gra,s.s and pea vim! 
to the south and eiust of Kdmonton, excct! Is anything 1 ever saw. The soil consists of 
rich black Inam of various depths, overlying clay and gravel. I have lieen told by settlei's 
from Ontario, that they picfer the natural for hay to the best timothy ;"they siiy 
that stock thrives better ii|n)ii the natural hay. IMy horses UvimI entirely upon the 
found every d;iy, fmm the end of May to the middle of October, and diti their daily work 
of fiom l.'i to :'.0 miles. Ilei'me and after those ilates they got a few pounds of oats or 
liarloy — only thive horses wer(> lost, and that on the return trip from the itocky 
Mointaiiis. The clay and sandy .soil is si\itable f,,r gr.i/ing; 1 s.iw mi jiart of the country 
entirely delicient of pasture. 

" Q. |)o you onsiiler the climate healtiiy and 'uv igoruLiiig ; oris it subject to fever 
uml epidemics f 


m Captivin 
I Ksr)8. It 
early ctiuiil 

■ rent Slave 



IS lU 

It its whole 
• snows art! 
)ats ill cold 
rt'ator cold, 
jlia or till- 
ust as well 
;, wlio has 
le give less 
Dtlicr than 
vill reiiuire 
c Owing 
er sets in. 
1 winter as 
as ever, so 
is is alioiit 

, and ha\e 

re, Lake of 
lave made 
l(^s west of 
ion of soil 
>oor sandy, 
\ ery nnich 
(I |teu vin(( 
consists of 
by settlers 
; they siiy 
II the grass 
ilaily work 
of oats or 
,hu Jlocky 
he country 

ct lo fever 



" .1. r consider the climate of the North-west Territories to l»e most healthy and far 
superior to many parts of Ontario and tiuehec. Although very cold in winter, there are 
no su(l(l(!n changes — there is .seldom u thaw from autunwi till spring. The .sunnner is 
very enjoyable, and the all- on the plains very fine. There were some cases of fever in 
Winnipeg, Imt there is no doul)t that they were caused by want of drainage, through the 
compact underlying cli'.\, and fiom want of proper sanitary regulations." 

" 77('' CannilhiH Di/iiii/nuii,'' bij C/tiir/>\s AfarttJidf/, p. 170. 

'•To assist distinctness of apprehension, the old ITudson's I'ay and Nortli-west 
Territories may be divi(h'd int(^ tliice great .sei-tions : - First, the barren, frost-bound, 
polar north. Second, eastw.ird of llett Ki\ei'. a wide region oi Ldvcs, swani})S, disjoinLed 
streams, woods, and of ro(;k full of ore, esteudi-ig bi'yond l.,ake 
Superior. Third, the fertile i-egii)n of plains extending west of Itcd Kiver for l.UOO miles 
to the! of the Jtocky ^lountaius ; the country destined to be the granary <»f the 

''Th(! coiMitry contained in lliis last division is of \ast extent. From its eastern 
bouiulary, the Lake of the Woods, to tlu^ sources of the Saskatchewan in tlas west, it 
stretches SSO nules. Its lireadth, reckoneil from the Biitish boundary line, is 7(iO miles, 
it includes an are.i of lS(),(tOO sipiare miles, an e.vte?it of ciamtry ei[Mal to of ( 
I'ritaiu, France and I'russia united. TIk! greater proportion of the land a)ipeai"s to be 
well littcd for cultivation : many great districts possessing a richness of soil tin]>aralleli'd. 

"Till' soil is a tine alluvial deposit, or frecpiently a i>lack vegetal)le compost. Jlot 
vegetaitles, melons, and certain fruit.s, grow with an extraordinary luxuriance. (I( 
crops of liarley, oats, and rye are raiseil even 1)V the poorest skill where any .-ittempts 
at farming havt; been nuide. Wheat will yield lifty bushels to the acrt>, but reijuires more 
cai-e than the [teople know how to give. 

" .Ml the rivers from the Ih'itish l)oundaiT line flow northwards. Thi^ whole 
country tilts that way. Lakes ami Winnipeg^ at the noitli and northeast of 
this division, are estimated at but (JdU feet alio ve the sea. The ell'ect of this depression of 
level on tilt! climate is very great and wholly favorable. The isotherm.d lines stiike 
directly upwai'ds from the Lakt! of the Wt)ods as far as Peace lliver and .Athaliasca Lake. 
The rigour of a northern winter is mitigated. The increased heat of summer rapidly 
ri;ir'ns all grain. It is jjossible that the warm current of the I'acilic, striking upon the 
( 'ohiiuliiaii coast may aid in modifying the climati- of the north-west of America, us the 
(luif Stream is popularly supposed to temper that of Kngland. .\t any rate, the resem- 
blance holds, that in the north-west of America, as in the north-west of Furope, the climate 
is naturally less severe than in the eastern extremities of these continents in the same 
degree of latituile. in Keil Liver, and in other districts oidy IS inches of snow fall. 
lL)rsi!s and cattle keep in good condition through thi! winter without shelter. No snow 
ilrifts tH'cur to imjiedt! railway comnmnication. 

"We have in a very great iiait of this centnd prairie country an open nr summer 
season of seven months." 

Hi'IKiii oj (In: Select CoitnntttC'' On liin)i!i/nil!on (tml ColonrjiliDii, Ifaitsr nf ('oniimunt, 
('(oiihla, b'*?.''). Jfr. .Udlroia McL'od's Kri'lrnn; jiji. IS-L). 

" Assuming it to be unnect\ssary to luaki! any specilie statement as to the cl!m:ile of 
the Ifudson Fiay Fiasin -no part of which, to any extent large enough for settleuient, can 
be well consideriHl as fit for agricultural purposes—l almll merely say, that though severe 



it is not unlu'altli' , and is i|uit(! (■luliiraMf liy persons ('iit,'ai^e(l in tlic Hudson Bay ("oni- 
l>any's service— no worse, in I'aet, than that ol' (.'anaihi, east of tlic meridian of Quel)ee. 

"Tiie \Vinrii|)e;^ Uasin, escn at Norway i louse, at its north end, and of lif(! at wliich 
I liavo distinet roeoUeetiou, is on the ^\ hole not more severe than that of Lower Canaiiu 
between Montieal and Qneliec, 

" In tlie SaskalcJK wan N'alley — say the North Sasi;atehcwan — at Fort Carlton I 
know that my ^'rnndfather (matpvnal <,'randfather), Chief Kaetor i'ruden, who huilt Vovi 
Carlton, and for many years held ehar;,'e of that district, raised easily all ordinary kinds 
of jjarden vegetables rai.M'd in ohl Canaila, and all ccicals, and, (with some diliieulty, how- 
ever, owing to occasional summer frost) e\;n Indian corn. 

" As to irlti'iit, it has foi' many years past— ahout til'iy, as I see liy letters to my 
fiither from an unch; of mine (Chief Trader Harriot), who liifit took it there, and according,' 
to sulise<|iient reports lieen constantly raised, cNcn at Lake .\ini, Keyond Kdmonton, 
Mliere there is a i'onsid('i'al>le m ttlenirnt of old retired servants of the <'onipany. On the 
Athnhasea, further north, at loci l)i(r Lake, where then; is an old and eonsideralile 
.settlement, it has never failed, and llie climate and locality are uuKst favorulile for it. 

"Still fmther north, nn tlu! Piaee lii\er, tliife hundred ndles nearer the North 
iVile, it is raised, and I'rofessor Macouii has just l)roui,dit )is a specimen of it, ' OS llis 
to the hushel,' which is one pound and three-(pi;irters more than the wheat (from «)ur own 
('ounty of I'ontiac) which took the secoml i)iizo for wheat at thi' World's Kxhihition at 
I'aris in lJ?<!7. The fact tells its own tale as to climate in those hi;^her latitudes of ours. 

'• ^Ve have nioieover an e.vact and reliahle iccord, in careful and thermometrical 
rcLfistry, at a central point, viz., l)iuive;L;an. of the climate of tlie Teace |{iver re^jjion, one 
kept Ity my old friend and client when I practiced at the J'ar in -Montreal, havid Thomp- 
son, iLStronomor of the old North-West Company, and to whom the mapping of those far 
northeiii lands fi'om Hudson I5av to thi' Pacilic is maiidv iliie. 

"riii; TUiiMi'soN- iiixiisTKK— i)iN\ r.ii.w, pi:.\( !•: iii\i;ii." 

LiititiuluSG S'N. Lnnyitu.l'' 117 i:! W. 
Mnntli. '— Fidir. .M..ntli. " ' Vixhr. 

" April .'{7'(i Novendier I l-.j 

".May .")| Decemlier ... I 

" June (i iri .lanuarv i 7 


().■) Keliruary 


"August (it) March l'l'-.") 

" Sept em her .">."» 

Cctoher 1(1 

" Me.-m r)|S7 

" Mean of ."1 summer months (iL'-ol) 

Mean of winter M-I'J 

-Mean of the vear '.\')\>\ 

" .\s to the peiiod of cultivation (from Ajiril to Octolier) it is a fact worth noting 
that Hunvegan, Toronto and (.Jueliec do not vary niorc^ than lialf a di-gree in mean tem- 
peratiM'e, and that as to Halifax, the dillerenco is only I" (ill' not far from two degn'cs 
in iavor of hunvegan. .\s to the winter cold of Dun vegan, its steadiness und drynesii 
inv, for hoth man and lieast, liett(!r than that of .any other place in the Dominion. I 
never waw any ]ier.son irom that region hut who was improved and .strengthened in 
health and body, and i may say mind, by the life; a re;^on of essentially strong life. 


Bay Coiii- 

['(! at wliic'li 
or CiUiiulii 

CmiUoii I 
Imilt Koit 
iiiiry kinds 
Jiilty, liow- 

tors to my 
I accoiiliii;,' 
,'. OiitliP 
lur it. 

the North 

it, ' t;s ihs 

III our DWii 
iiihitioii iit 
I'S <it" oms. 


(•j;ii)|l, OIKJ 

ill 'riioiii])- 

tliMM' far 


+ 7 
!.-,•:, I 

til iioliiij,' 
ncan tfiii- 
i\) ih':;r('('.s 
il (h-yiicsi 
inioii. I 
th('iM'<l ill 

"As to the diioati' of IJritisli ('oliiiiihiii, it is to lio ohsorviMl that on the whole, it is 
iiioistcr and warmer than that on tin? eastern siile of tlie Itoeky Mountains in the same 
latitudes, hut loeal ea\ises, viz., the speeial pliysical features of the country, with its al- 
ternate of ruj,'i,'ed mountain ranj^e, and eomparative level, vary it mueh. in its southern 
half, the altitude of the raseado or coast ran;,'e seems to wall ort' from tiie interior tho 
vapours of ocean waters, which watt-rs nevei- vary heyonil oO" to .')"2" falir. tiie whole 
year throu;,'h, while on the northern half of it, or at least lietween latitude.! .'iM" and 
r»(»", there is a freer play of o(;ean vapour, with its over-fertili/inL; intluenco over tho. 
whole lireadth of the eoimtry to tho Rocky Mountains, and even heyond, through the 
I'eacn River Pass and other passages in the lowered range in those latitudes. 

" I'etween latitudes ."i.'i " and nO", exclusive of mountain heights, it may ho called 
mildly Canadian, and with !i gnsater forco of vegetahle growth." 

Snow Fali,. 

Ass!,n'fii)liir itii'/ S(ls?i(ltc/iiii'itii Kxjilori inj ICi'ii'ililiiiii, uj/ II. )'. Ilnnl. I'u/. /. p. I '1. 

* '• Snow falls on tiie Toiu'iiwood Hills to the depth of two feet and 

a-lialf ill the wooils, and in the pr.airit; where aspen groves are numerous, it is not unfre- 
(piently found one foot ami a half deep. In the great treeless prairi(;s to tin* south where 
the hei'li.ige is short, the snow is driflcil od' l)y winds. The climate of the Touchwood 
Hills is evi(h'ntly very humid. Thunder storms appear to travel in the direction of this 
range and occasion a copious precipitation as they p, over it." 

H'/ioit of Si'Ic.ct C'nininif(ci' on Jiinnit/nitioit, tiiul i'o/otti'nlion, IS"'!. I'ro/'issor Muanni'ii 

Krlddire, lloune of dunmons^ Caiuula. 

" Q. Kroiii your knowledge of the country lietween >ranitol(a and tlie Kocky Moun- 
tains, hy I'eace lliver as to t\w winter anil the snow fall, can railroads he ojierated a.H 
well as ill the Province of Ontario I 

" .1. i liolieve that the snow dilViculty will ///•/•(/• he so great as in Ontario, hpcause 
(he snow fall is more than one half less throughout th" whole region, and the evaporation 
of the snow cau.sed I ly the increased of the u r more than coniiieiisiites for the 
occasional thaws in ( dilario.'" 

Ilinl. Iloii. Mr. SiilIii'ilituif.-< lu-'ttli'iici', {>. ',)',). 

'"We have on-asional frosts; generally one frost ahoiit tlie first, of .Fiine, hut seldom 
severe enough to do any material injury to the growing crops, and showers are freipient 
during spring and summer. The average depth of snow throughout Manitoha is ahont 
■JO iiiche.'\ and is ipiile IIl,'!!) and loose."' 

I'.ojMNc Oi'i:;; vrroNs. 

Givh'jicd! .S'ff/tcy, 1^74-'), ;i. .3. ,iinniii(ir^/ ll'.jjort bj Mr. I'^'uliri/n. 

* * * "The localities where the-e operations were carried out arc at Rnt 

'reek, (1) and in the vicinity of Fort P^lliee, on the .-Vssinihoine, and on Swan Itiver near 

Fort l'(d]v. 

So far as they have gone, they Ifad to the conclusion that 

(I) Rat Cree'ri i8 GH niili'S west nf Fot (i;uiy, "it tln' llr.'<t "f I.iwosit pmirip step. 


no iHfliculty will bo fouiul in obtaining' a poo<l sniiply of wattT on any part of tlio wcHlcni 
plains at a nioilcratt' depth I'clow the snrface. A sutlicient dopth has n(jt Itccu loachod 
cither at Fort Ellieo or at Fort Telly to prove the coal l)eiirin<; strata. At Jlat Creek, 
however, the snpcrfi(>ial <leposits wen* penetrated at SS feet, and the unth'rlying rock 
hored through to a ilepth of llili fecit. * 

"The cream colored limestone shown in this section is certaiiiiy of Devonian or 
Silnrian aj^e. * * The dark jj;rey line-<,'rained rock beneath the liniestou*! is 

unlike any rock that has, so far as 1 am aware, been observed crojiping out in this re- 
«.'ion. '■'•'■ In any case, the finding of these rocks at Hat Creek, tog-'thor 

with other ascertained f ids in coiniection with vhe distrilmtion of thi^ ditl'erent forma 
tions, ]U'ovo that neither coal nor lignite beds are at all likely to occur biMieath any por- 
tion ot the Ivvcl country which constitutes the first jtrairic steppe." 

Till': Deskiit LaM)S. 

Jt'jiorl vj the liihi-t Coiiunilter. on, /mm!(jratlo»t and L'o/iini'.dliiiii, lltnise. nf Coiiiiiiont, 
('(I Hilda, 1S7<I. ProJeKHiir MaamiCs I'^rideix'f, /i. I'd. 

" Q. Could, in yoiti- opinion, the arid ]iortion of the Central Prairie region, and pai- 
ticularly tliat part supposed to be an extension of the ' American I >esert,' lu; utilized for 
sheep grazing or any other agricultural purpose ? 

"J. Ijiramie Plains, ui Wyoming Territory, aro spoken of by all American writers 
as eminently fitted for sheep and cattle farming, and our (ixteiision of the 'Dt'sert' has, 
from all accounts, a lietter climate — is at least I.OdO feet lower in altitude, and from the 
able JiejKn-ts of Mr. (Jeorge Dawson (lf^7t) and ('aptain Palliser (IS.jS), 1 am led to in- 
fer that o(tr jiart of t 'Desert,' besides being first-class pasture latid, contains nuuiv 
depressions well suited for raising all kinds of grain. Mr. Dawson spcicially remarks 
that its soil i.H generally go<»d, but that the rain fall is light. Speaking of the worst part, 
he says, ' It scarcelv supports a sod,' but tills tract is not fifty mil(\s wide. This is the 
winter home of the liutl'.do. ami hence catMe jind slieep imii li\(! on it in the winter with- 
out difliculty. I have seen the Jiaramio I'lainsand the cattle upon them— I have exami- 
ned the lk)ra of both ri>gions. and believe ours is warmer in wintei' and ceilainlv not so 
dry in summer, 

"Mr. Ceorge Dawson, speaking of this region, says: 'In July of last summer, 
(b'^Zn), I .saw a iiand of cattl< in the vicinity of the liine. soutii of Wood ]\Iountain, 
which had strayed from one of the I'nited States forts to the south. They were quiti; 
wild, and almost as <litlicult of ap])roach as the buffalo; and notwitiistatiding the fact 
that they hi.d come originaily from Texas, and were unacciistomed to frost and snow, 
they had i)assed Ihrougii the wint^'r ;Mid \ver<' in ca|iital condition.' ( 'niiment is uii- 

'• Whatever desert region there is lies between the Sourisand the Milk l!i\ei- on the 
lioundary, and the <^u' Appello an<l South Suskatehowan on the north.'" 

ibid. i]fr. flenry McLmd's Evidence, p. 41. 

" V- Would you inform the Committee whether, in your opinion, the arid portions of 
(lie country would be suitable for stock falsing ( 

" A. J ptiss. 1 over no part of the North-west that could be called arid, or any that 
wo'i'?^ not bo ijiutable for stock-raising. The large (piantity of shelter to be found is a 


tllf Wt'Klcill 
'(Ml lOilcluKl Creok, 
ilyiiig rock 

)cvoiuiiii or 
iiuostoin! is 
in this re- 
k, toj/othor 
■flit I'unuri- 
til tiny \H)r- 


II, and |iai- 
utilizctl for 

can wrilcrs 
cscrt ' lias, 
III from tlic 
1 led to in- 
ains many 
y remarks 
worst pari. 
This is th(! 
inter with- 
avo exanii- 
inlv not so 

it snmniei-, 
wcro quite 
\<^ the fact 
ami snow, 
iiont is mi- 

ser on (lie 

jjjreat adranta^^n for winter pasturing. If horses are in fair condition in tlio fall, they will 
live out all winter without any attendance, and he in <,'ood condition iu spring." 

CdHtiJian Explorliifj Expedition, b/j If. V. IIiii,'f, VoK //, //. •23."i, 

'' It is inipossihle to examine a correct map of the North American Continent with- 
out lieini; iiiii)re,<?si'<l with the reinarkahhi itiflneiice which the Great American Desert 
must excrci.s(! ujion the future of the United States and IJritish North America. 
The important fact has been noticed that any railroad constructed within the limits 
of the United States must i)ass, for a distance of 1,"JOO miles west of the Mississipiii, 
through nncultivable land, or, in other words, a comparative de.sert. Ah)ng the ."{•Jnd 
parallel this desei't is least, and the detached areas of fertile soil greatest in quantity, hut 
tlie aggregate nuniher of scpiare miles of cultivable lands amounts only to 2,301) in a dis- 
tance of 1,210 miles. The northern limit of th» (.rrcat American Desert is an imaginary 
line drawn from the Touchwood Hills to the Moose Woods on the South Branch, then 
BoutU of iJattle River, as far as long. 112', when turning south it sweeps along the Hanks 
of the llocky Mountain in long. llo'. Nortli of this limit of the Great American Desert 
thei ; is a broad atrip of feililo country, rich iu water, woods and pasturage, draiiuid by 
the North Saskatchewan and .-.ome of its alUuents, and being a continuation of the fertile 
prairies of Hod River, the eastoin watershed of the Assiniboine and Ked Deer lUver, 
with the outlyhig patches called the Touchwood Hills, File Hills, &c." 

Ill I'ort of the Gi'iihupi innl Uct^oiircra of t}i<' rrifion. in th<' riclnit// of the \'Mh jKiralh'J, 
from Lake of the Woodi^ to the, lioek;/ Jfountaini. B>i (•'. M. Dan'^nn, (/eoloijint to 
lite B. X. A. IloHiilari/ ('o)n>mi>sio)i, 1^7"), p. 2S'.t. 

/'= * * "The explorations in connection with the boundary survey hav(^ 

served to show that this country, formerly considered almost absolutely desert, is not — 
witli the exce])tion of a limiteil ar(>a — of this character ; tliat a part of it may be of 
future importance agriculturally, and (liat a great anni is well suited for p;istor;il oreupa- 
tioii ami stock farming. 

"The fertile region at the b.ase of th(> llocky Mountains, according to Palliser ami 
other explorers, narrows somewhat al)OUt TiO miles north of tin; line, but tin i spreads 
eastwanl, while the mounlaiiis trend to the west, and include a great jueu of fertile 
country in the vicinity of the North Saskatchewan, the more northern position of which 
is nion? than compensateil for, by its decreased altiluile, and the lower and more o]ieii 
mountain passes to the west. 

"This fertile belt to tin' north must form *" liasis for the seltleiiiciu. ;is I utilization 
of the w(>stern plains. Tiie cm'tus-cuvered de.s' tract does not seem ti< slictch far to the 
north of the lino ; l>ut tlnMv is an extensiv« n'jjton of the third jirairie .steppe south of 
the fertile belt which is de.^.'nlied as havin i ])i>or snil. with scanty lierbag<>, and no 
wood, <'\cept on northern exposures." 



pi lit ions of 

r .any that 
found is a 

n,id, i>. 280. 

* * '•!' '• The ijuctioii of w.iti supply :.eemed some years ago a ditlicnlt 

one in th" Ked River Valley. Great areas <.f le\el and fertile prairie, lie far from any 
stream, or are only tra\erscd by coulees, whi< h diy up louiph'tely during summer. Tlio 
structure of the country re'iders the existence of surface springs almost an impossibiUty. 
This ap|)arent difliculty is, however, being soN -d in the most satisfactory manner ; as it is 


fouii'l tli.'it tlic'i'o !iv«' fi'W ro!,'iniis vlicic (M'lliii.uT wi'lls of infidcnitc tl(']>tli do not siicfocd 
ill tiiiiliiii; iUiipU' sii|i|i!i('S <it" watci' ; and this not only I'ar fi'iiiovt'd from tlio rivciN, Imt in 
tiifif ininicdiato vicinity, tlioii^di the water level of tlie stream may In- eonsitleralily lower 
llian tljat of the liottoni of the well." 

Till' XoiUi-]V(Kt r(f<s(t;/i' 111/ L<iii<l.l>:/ Visroiiii/ M!/f()ii and Dr. <'lif(i<llt\ p. II. 

" Kroni Red River to the Rocky MoinitainK, alon;,' the lianks of the As.sinilioine .'ind 
the fertile l.elt, of tlie Saskatchewan, at least (lO.dOO.OOO of acre.s of tiie riclu'st soil lie 
ready f >r (lie farnici' when lie shall Ke .'dlowed to enter in and jiossess it." 


(,'i'iil(iijir<i! Siirrii/ nf (.'iiini'ln, ]S7I ."». Hijiarl hij Mr. ./. IT. Spin^ir, /». (IS. 

* * * "The miiier.ils of ei'ononiic \alue whicli came nnder my Jiofice 

consist of clay, iron-stones, liirnite. jteat and salt. Jn many places alonj^ Swan River and 
in the Porcn|iinp Mountains, day iron-stones are aWnndant. The}' are of concretionary 
charactei', containing; a consideraMe (|nanti(y "t" calcareons matter ;Mid In loic^ to the 
liiiionite gron[> of iron-stones." 


1 1 'hi I', ^i'.t. 

'■' "■•' •' A fi'w iiiiKs licinw the Crossini; on Swan River, two lieds of peat 

are exposcil in the liank. the thickest of whi-h measure IS inches. AI)ov(> it is afoot of 
cl ;y, and then '..• incite;-, more of prat, (he lattei' liein.^' Imricd Iiy a few tcet of snrface soil." 


//'/./, /'. (V.). 

'•Salt was foi'aierly made from t!ie l/iine spriiiifs near the month of I'lell Rivt r. The 
salt sprinL,'s ;it tli(^ SiUtli end of Lake \Vinni|iei,'oosis have lieen worked f tr a ion^ (iiiie. 
.\( these sprin;,'s tlie saline waters percolatt^ t,hroiij,di (he drift, which in (his re<.;ioii covers 
lint tl'inlv the Devonian limestones and d''sti-ovs ves^'eintidu for soni" distai:'-i' amnnd." 



lot suocpcd 

•('n<, Imt in 

lillilv lower 


'. II. 

ilioiiic aii'l 
I'st soil lie 

F1!()M TliK 

sorriT SASK ATciriiWAX ciiossrxc to 

Till-: J J ( ) C K V .M (> L N r A 1 N S. 

my iiotioo 

Ikivcr and 


)ii'' U) the 

t'ds (if |it'at 
is ii foot of 
irfacc soil." 

i\t I-. I he 
ioii^ liiiif. 
;i<!U ooAci-K 

I'rporl i>/ J'ri>(jir.:i, Canadttiii J'adjir lliti/trcn/, 1S7I,/'. .">S. 

'•'riic crossing; of tin; Soiilli SMslcaLfhcwaii is al»>ut, li.'iO v.-irds wide, tlic liaul<s arc 
alioiit 17l' fret liit;li ; tl\o eastern liiiiik, however, lias (lie LCr<'ater elevation; aspens, 
sanis, j)(i|ilars, and small wliite Itiicli are found on its lianks ; the \;iiley of tlieri\er, 
liowever, exleiids over a mile in widtli. 'I'Im- Nnrtli Saskati'liewan is IS miles distant, 
and it is here that Fort Cailton is e.->iaiilished. Uetweeii tho two rivers, the eoiiiitry as- 
snnies the a|i|iearanoe of a le\el platean elevated aliont ."UXI feet altnve the streams. 'I'he 
soil, aithonnh li,:,dit, is of ;^iiod <'haraetei' ; thi; no'.-th river at this jioint is somewhat 
iin.adei- than the south liriiiieh. 'i'he streams unite near the l').")ih (h"free of loii'dtude 
and diselrir/^e into Lake Winiiipejj. ( Inly one rapid ot" any i,'reat importance is met in 
this dislance. Itolh these streams seem to form natural arteries of comnHinieation 
tiirou^h the country where they ha%t' their ccair.-^e. 

"The eouiitiy on the North Saskatchewan is l>ut little wooded, l>ut it aliounds in 
^r.'isses, and the soil appears to he j,'ooil, in sonu' places somewhat sandy and arii!. The 
t'ontour of the land is ii'rcLjular, with ]n]\:, < f eonsidci'alde elevation, at the l)a.-.e of which 
lakes are freuuenllv to lie met, j'eneralr-' r-jfcof extcmled area. 

'• From I'ori I'itt eontinuin;,' idoni; the Noiih Saskatehewan. the soil iin|)roves, and 
We met white sprne<-, tam.irae, and po[ilars, with thii'k and luxui-iant j,'rasses. I''ire- had 
piis.setl over nuich of the country. As we came within a hundreil miles of Kdmontnn, 
the coiintrs liecanu^ more hilly, and tin- hillsiili's were eovereil with heavy wooil. The 
lloia continued ihe sam ■ as on the i-astern prairii-s, Ijut it was here snmewhat more lux- 
uriant; a ^'ood deal of low birch ami seruh pine, plans /lankaiinia, is met in this locality. 
At Kdmeniun the (|'ie>,tion of coal lirst presents itself; some fratjments wei'c du'j; out of 
the river Imnk. Aithoui,'h they hurned in a hlacksmilli's forL,'e, evidently they were of 
an inferior ([Uality; lietlei" samples were reported 1 y the ollicers of the lluilson's l>ay 
I'ort, as havin;,' Keen found luLfher up the rivfr. 

"All the rivrrs we cros.sod lietwotrn I'rairie Torta,i,'o .and Kdmonton are marked hy 
the charaoteristii- of rnnniu'^ in wide nnd deep \ alleys; this pi'culiarity would appear to 
extend Lfenerally to the prairie re,i,Mon of the noith west, except, perhaps, the lower por- 
tions of it arountl Lake NVinuipe,;,'. However small th«i stream which runs throui,di 
them, the vallevs have the same charaeteristicri. The circumstance su,t,''^ests no 
engiiieerin;^' dillicully, hut it points to heavy in construction where rivei's are to 
he crossed, and the necessity of care and judgment in layiiii^ ilwwn the route, so as to 
keep the expense within as i.iodi'iati' limits as jiossihle. 

"Look in;,' hack over the thousand ndles of pi'airie country travelled since 1(m vim,' 
the wooded district east of .Manitolia, it is worthy of note, that alisolutely level plains 
furmeil no jijreat proportion of (he vast area which came under our ohservation. We 
v.t re agreeahly surprisod to lind that hy far tho larger proportion was uudidatiu.i,' and in 


tliis K'SjH'ct not unlike iiuicli of the* Proviiico of ( >iitari(>, wliilc cniineuccs of foiisidoralilt' 
cN'vation, not ;^ri'iilly infcrioi' to the nioiintiiin at Montreal, wen' occasionally niot willi. 
In many plan's small j,'iovfs and fringes of trees adorned the [tniirie ami gavo lln; land- 
s('aj)e iin ayroeuldc and park-like a|i]icarance. 

'•IJoforo reacliinj,' Kdmonton we received from fjeutlemen connected with the Jludsoii 
I'ay Company and from others enj^agod in missiomxiy laltors, most favorahhs accounts of 
the cninitry on I'eace lliver to thi; north, and still more^dowini; ilescriptions of th's heauty 
of the landscajie and t'erlility of the soil over hroad distiicts stretching away to the south 
towards the international lionndary line. 

"A few weeks after we left Kdmonton, Col. Ilohert.son IJoss travelled southerly 
throuLth the s(!ction referred to. He reported the co\intry for about .'lOO miles in h-nj^tli 
alon^,' the eastern hase of tla; IJocky ^lountains, towards the liMli parallel, and from (iO 
to N(l miles in !>i'eadth, to lie of i,'reat natural iieauty, with soil of surjtassing richness. 
Here is found the tavnrite wintering grounds for great herds of liullalo. 

■•(>n leaving Kdmonton we passed through a eouniry inter.sper.sed with hillocks, and 
we likewi.s(! occasionally met with swamps, many of which weie covered with swamp 
hav. (Jradually the country liecomcs more wooded, and the \uuhdations assume a more 
marked chaiactcu". More creeks were I'rossed, running in most cases through narrow 
valleys. The vegetation Mas pailicnlarly luxiii iaut, an<l the grass through which we 
passed was in some places from lisc to ^ix feet high. 

• hi crossing the I'endiina Kiversome 71) miles west of the llivei' Saskatchewan, wn 
found thick outcrop|>ing betls of coal. It proved much better than the Kdmonton speci- 
men, and we heard from our guides that abundance of this fuel was present ut other 
localities, some of it of still better ([uality. ■ 

" ()cca.sionally the countiy becomes more open with groves of spruce, aspen, and 
)>o]ilar, increasing in size. N'evertheless much of it is densely wooded, while iu (jther 
places the liml)cr is thin and of iufeiior ipiality. 

"The ascent u|i the Mcl.eod Kiver was continued for 70 mili>s. There was no reg- 
vdar trail, and the route of the })arty was through inuumeralile windfalls. Much of tlu^ 
soil is bog, and the banks of the river are rouLrh and rugged. I'nshing across the inter- 
mediate suuunit th(! Athabas''a River was reached. This stream runs through cliHs of 
^^andstone, shale and clay, and the \allev widen.-, by a svicce.ssion i)f terraces, rising one 
above the other. They are very di>tim'tly marked on both sides of the stream. 
* The ground alternated iu its character. The trail gradually ap]ir(»aclies 
the river and pa.sses up the valley, which is hei'e about tlve miles with'. KoUowing the 
wiu<liiigs of the river, \vo n'ached the portals of dasper Valley, entering which we wow 
literally in the heart i>f ihe nuniutains. So easy an ingress could never even have bi'cn 
hoped foi'. 

" Jasjtei' TIouHe is b\it .'{,.3()0 feet above the sea. .\fter leaving tii(> "Rlvei- Athabasca 
the path of the expedition lay along the Kiver Miette. I'he nanu; of Caledonia VaUey 
has been given to this locality (at the junetion of the Miette with the Athaliasca). It is 
rocky and rough, and the i-iver itself is a series ol falls and ra])i<ls. The lower ground of 
the valley is swampy, with an underiirush of scrub and of dwarf willows. The trail 
crosses the river seven or eight times iu a very short distance. 

"The immediate ascent t(j Vellow JI<ad Pass is not dillicult, and the I'ass itself is, 
us it were, an open meatlow." 

! mot with. 
•() Uic luiul- 

lio Hudson 
lU'foiiiits of 
tli's l)r;iu(y 

() tllO HOlltll 

1 S(tiitli('ily 
s ill tcn<;tli 
1(1 from ()(> 
g ru'liiu'ss. 

iUocks, iiiul 
itli s\viuii|i 
mil' it iiiDrc 
igli iiaiTow 
I which wo 

llltoll SlMH'i- 

iit ut other 

iispoii, :iii(l 
lo ill other 

tviis no rosj- 
liich of the 
s the iiitcr- 
I'^'h rlilfs of 

rising one 
ic stream. 

h)win,u; tlie 
.•Ii we were 

have been 


mia Valley 

,ca). it is 

ground of 

The trail 

ss itself '\- 

Report of Pro'jrcnti, Caiiaduiti Pacljic liailicai/, 187 i. Projessor Macoan's licport, p. G'). 

'•The distiviico from the South Bmncli to Curlto.' on the North Driuu-h is aliout 18 
miles. For tlio lii-st fow milos after leaving the river the soil is aandy and of poor ijua!- 
ity ; hut for the remaining distance it is excellent. Many lakes are scattered at inter\als 
over the plain, and the-se together with asjieiia aud willow.s, ^ive the ooiiutry a very 
picturea<iuc look. :;= # 

" IJetweeii Thickwood Hills ami Jackllsli Like the country is partly )»lain and 
partly rough and hilly, hut tin; gi-eater part i.s well litted for cultivation. The hills and 
ridges are either gravel or sand, l)ut alwa^'s covered with v^(^dllr(^ For '.V.\ miles after 
passing .Jacklish Lake, the «'ountry is lieautiful and the s(jil excellent, heing a light lirown 
sandy loam. From llnglish River to Fort Pitt the HUifaco of tho country is much 
lirokeii, and ranges of hills with corresponding valleys are common. ^ ' * 

l5etw(MMi Fort I'itt ami Victoria, the land changiss every few miles, and is much broken 
by hill and valley. .Many tracts have excellent .soil, and would biing immense crops of 
all kinds if not injureil i)y summer frost.s. * TIu; land around Victoria is 

very rich, and wouhl proiluce (.'normous crops. 

'• lletweeii Victoria and Edmonton, a distance of 80 milos, the soil is very rich but 
there is much wet swampy land, tie' greater part, however, seems to be exceedingly 
fertih; aud well suited for agriculture. All around Ivlmonton, the lanil is of the very 
best tpiality, though the soil in sonu* loiMlities is scarcely as heavy as couhl be wished. 
All kinds of grain, roots and vegetables are raised in abundance her(!. The country 
around Fdmonton is much su|)erior to that in the vicinity of Fort (larry, as there are lo 
marsh or salt lands, and plenty of timber aud excellent water." 

Till' lud liic'f i'uualry, Hadsoii liiv/ and the. Xorth-Wcst Territories, In/ A. J. Russill, 

'C'.A'., //. 01. 

'' The country drained by tho North liraneh of the Saskatchewan, and its extensivo 
tributary tlm Battle lliver, though incomparably more valuable than the country trav- 
(ir.sed by the South IJrancli, does not rci^uiro to h^ described so much at length owing to 
its more uniform character. ' 

" The North Branch for the greater part of its coui-se, aud the Battle River, lie in 
the great belt of country which the Canadian and Imperial exploring parties describe as 
generally fertile land of the first (juality. 

" The North Hranch, for 520 miles up, from the Forks, and the Battle River, fin- 
its whole course of 4r)() miles (exct^pting a shoit elbow of it,) traverse a rich prairie 
country more or less interspersed with woods. 

"The remaining 282 miles of the upper of the North Urancli lie in the 
Thickwood country, which, to the commencement of the mountains, about 200 milos, is 
re|)resented as abounding in marshes with patches of line land in part. In this distance 
tlu! banks of the river display lieds of ligniti* coal. Beyond it the remaining course of 
the river lies in th(! valleys of tho mountains, to the glaciers at its source. 

" The Battle River enters the North Branch about 170 milos above tue neiin Forks. 
It drains a large part o( the country between the North and South Branches. It lia-s its 
source about ten miles from the North Branch, 30 miles above Edmonton, but they are 
130 milos apart at the miildle of its course, aud between them the pasliiragis is described 
as very rich. Coal presents itself there in the banks of the stream, 250 miles from 
its mouth. 


'•'I'lic rich priiirio comitry, which covrrs tin- cKursc oC thf liitth^ Ixivcr and tlin 
lioithril} iPiiit of Itcd |)«'t'r liivcr, aiul iiu'lmlcs the; North Ihaiich iVmii tlic Korks, up to 
.'<(! miles al)()VL' Kilmoiitoii. has a Imudth ul" alioiit lOO inih's, at the l-'oiks, 70 iiiili'S at 
the month of l>attl(^ IJiviT. ir»0 mih'H at its middh- i-oiirsc, and ahmit 70 at its source ; 
lii'voiiil whicli thf licit of fertile pniirie coiiiiti-v liccomcs <,'radually narrower, and turnini; 
to the Houthward. up tho course of the lied Deer Itiver, hccomcs merged in the fcrlilo 
re:,'ion on the skirt of th(* motintains heiow l>o\v Fort on tlu) Soutii JJrancIi. It in 
lioimdcd on the north \<y tlie line of the Tliick Woods, wliieli sweeps northerly parallel to 
the course of the ^I'oith iJranch at a distance of 1(» to '20 miles iieyond it, then curvinj; 
to the southward <'rossc,s it aliout 30 miles ahove Kihnontoii. and eontinuin;; iu tiiat 
direction strike^< the mountains near I»iw Fort, makiuji,' a ciicuit from the Korks of aliout 
7(K» miles. 

"This circuit of the '["hick Woods Is tlie pivsent houndary of the proj,'r<>HS of succes- 
sive tires which are gradually pnoroacLing on iht; forests, or partly wooded country, and 
converting it into treeless piairie, unless where clumps of young aspens and poplar, 
growing up, escaju^ the ra\ages of succeeding tires." 

Citptaiii, PuWiKtrii l\.r^>/i>riilii>ii i.i /I. X. Ainrrica.Julto, jiji. lO-ll. 

"The North Saskatchewan has its siiurce iVoni glaciers in the llocky .Moiiutains in 
hititllde .""tli >»', and longitude 117.1 \V.. and from the same ico lilled valleys also ris(! 
hranclM'S of tlie South Saskatclieuau and the Colundiia. At lirst the Ncu'th Saskatch- 
ewan lias a north-easteily course until i! reaches the Snake i'oi'tage in latitude ") 1 and 
h)ngitude 1 1 1 , half way lietwecn Kort Kdnionton and Fort Pitt. It then changes to a 
south-east, direction, which it pursues inilil it I'caehes ."ill 20' at its ' KHmiw,' when it changes 
its course again with a sudden lieiul, and llo.vs to the north I'ast. 

"From the Rocky ^rountain Tfouse to Fort a la Corue, the North Saskat<-hewali 
traverses tho jilaiiis iu a valley that varies in deiith from lO(» to ;>(«> feet, and never 
rxceeds two miles in width. The alluvial flats, which form the finest (piality of land in 
this ]iart of the country, ar.' often well timhcred, hut from tlm manner in which tlie iiv(!r 
winds from side to side of the valley, the points,' as they art; teiined, are seldom more 
than two or tliri'c miles in extent, 

" Hy inspecting the map it will he ol)served that tho general course of the liver is 
hounded liy hills which sometimes recede to a consideralth^ distance. These hills rise two 
to four hundred feet aliove the general level, and skirtini; along tlx'ir liase thei'e is often 
to he found areas of land of fine (juality, while the whole distance, sometimes to .'{(• 
miles hetween the hills and the river, is fine grazing land, and as it all lies within the 
limit of the partially wooded lielt of country, thert; an- Milufl's' that will afford shelter 
to stock. 

"'I he richnes.-, of the natural jiasture iu many jilaces on tin; ]irairies of the second 
level along the North Saskatchewan, iind its trihutary, Matth? Kiver, can hardly lie ex- 
agg(!rated. Its value does not consist in its being rank oi- in great (piantity, hut from its 
fine (luality, comprising nntritions species of grass(!s and oarices, along with natural 
vetches in great varit>ty, whicli remain throughout the winter .sound, juicy, and fit for th<' 
nourishment of stock. 

"Almost everywhere along the coui-se of tho North Saskatchewan are to he found 
eligilih; situations for agricultural scittlenuiiit, a surticiency of good soil is everywhere to 
lie found, nor are thes<; ailvantages confined to the neighborhood of the river ; in .several 
districts, such as N. W., of Carlton, we<l fine land fit for all iiuriM)ses, I)oth of 


r ami tlio 
iks, ii|) to 
iiiilfs at 
in source ; 
kI tiiriiiiiii 
till' t'fi-tiln 
leli. It in 
|)iir;ilU>l to 
I'll nirviii;,' 
<i ill tliiit 

LS (if illioilt 

, lit" siiecos- 

iiiid'y, ami 

il li(i|i|;ir, 

iiiutaiiiH ill 
y.s also iis(! 
1 Saskiitcli- 
If ') I aii<l 
laiij^t's to a 
it cliuiiirt'S 

ami ii(!V('r 
of land ill 
•li tlic river 
Idoiu iiion^ 

lio riMT is 
lis ris(^ two 
•re is often 
•qnal to lU) 
witliin the 
)\i[ shelter 

the seeoial 
nlly lu^ ex- 
ut from its 
th natural 
I lit for the 

o lie found 

rywhere to 

ill several 

ios, Ijoth of 

|t:i lure and tilla;;e, extomliii^ towards tli< Tliiok wood Mills, and also to he foiiml in tlaj 
reifioii of lh«> lakes between Koils I'itt and ijliuonton. 

"lualnioHt evt>iy direi'tion round Kdnionton the land is line, cxei'ittini,' only tlio 
hilly e()untry at the higher levels such as the Meiiver Hills. Kveu there, howt^ver, there 
is nothiiiLC like sterility, only the surface is too mui-h lirokiMi to he occupird while more 
le\('l counlry can he oiitaiiied. * # * 

" 111 the upper part of the S,i.skatcli"wan country coal of fiir ipiality orcnrs alaiiid- 
aiitly, and may hereafter lie found vtMy useful ; it is ipiite lit to he tMiiployed in the 
smelt ini^ of iron from the ores of that mi-tal, which also o(;curs in lai^^'c (piantitics in the 
same strata. Ihiildini,' stone is wholly al>seiit till (piite close to tlnj Kocky -Mountains, 
liiit Itrick earth and potter's clay may he ohtaiiied in nrmy parts of the country. The 
climate is more irre;{ular than that of Ked Kiver. The winter is much tlu' same in its 
duration, hut the amount of snow that falls decreases rapidly as we ap[troach the 

"The Noi'th Saskatchewan frec/cs i,'eni'i'ally altout the iL'tli No\ emlic;-, and hreaks 
ii|) from till! I7th to the •JOth of .AiU'il. l)iirin'..( tlm winter season of live months tht! 
means of travelling,' and transport are yreatly facilitated hy the snow, the ordinary di'pth 
of which is sullicicnt tor ihc use of sleighs, without at the same time itcini,' too ,i,'rcat to 
im[K'ile horses. 

" Hetwcen Carlton and Ivlmoaton there i.s no valualde timh'i" to he fjund soutii of 
the rivcsr, the only trees ;(rowiiiii there heing small aspiui poplars To tho north, however, 
and alon;,' the river ahove and Iteiow these points, the spruce, fir, pine and l)in'h occur 
at)undantly. There is neither oak, ash, elm, maple, or any of the hardwood trees that 
are found at lied llivcr in any part of the Saskatchewan. Only a few trees of the 
sui^'ar ma[)le, from which the Imliaiis make a coarso kind of su;,'ar, heini,' found in certain 

T/ie (.'r>-'(t Lonr. Lxwl, h.j Ctpt. /■'. W. Ihul,,; F.h'.C.S., Clmptcr XW, p. '-':^<>. 

" Two thinf,'s strike the new comer at Carlton. First, he sees evidences on every 
side of a rich and fertile eonntry : and. secondly. In- sees hy many si<,'ns that war is the 
normal <'onditioii of the wild men who have pitched their tents in the land of tlie Sas- 
katchewan. '■'■'■ '■'•'• * Its l)oundaiii'S aie of tho hiin])lest ilescriptioii. It has (;n 
the north a hu'.^i> forest, on th" west a hw^i- mountain, an the south an imini'iise desert, 
and on the east an immense marsh. I'rom the forest to ihe desert there lies a ilisiance 
varyin;? from 41) to laU miles, and from tho marsh to tho mountain, SOI) miles of land lie 
s|)read in every varyinif jiliase of undulatins,' fertility. This is the Fertile Uelt, the laml 
of the Saskatchewan, lln! winter home of the hullalo, the war country of the Crecs and 
Ijlackfeet, the future home of millions yet unliorn." 

CoAI. AND LioMTr, I)!',i'osns. 

(Itolorjical Sitrr'ii, 1S7I)- 1. Oli^crriitlons In/ Mr. S<liiji„, p. WW. 

"Tho road tra^elled through the Thickwood Hills is very rough ami stoney, boulders 
having become numerous, while from th(> base of these hills to C.irlton very few are seen. 
As the mime ini|)lies the country is comparatively well wooded, and grass is everywliere 
abundant. * * There is but little change to note iu the general aspect 

of the country. * * * The ridges and hills arc composed of sand and gravel; 

the soil is generally light and \»mv, grassy margined lakes and [lools, many of tht ni salt, 














1.25 1.4 



6" — 





■m ^ 







(716) 872-4503 


abo\iu(.l, ami the surface is very ivregiilar and broken, -oresenting a succession of saucer- 
shaped dejiressions witli intervening low marmaloid iiills and rounded ridges of drift, 
with grairsy or occasionally ])artially wooded slopes, and on the surface scattered l)locks 

and boulders of gneiss and buff-colored, fossiliferous limestones 

* At 
a rich black loam on a 

Jackfish Lake the soil for many miles is of the finest fjuality 
blueish-gray clay. The surface is thrown into large hillocks l)y the moles, and gophers, 
or marmots. Fiom Jacktish Eiver westward, the country is tolerably level and thickly 
dotted Avith patches of copsewood." 

Ihkl. p. 3S. 

* '■= * " Examined the left bank of the river (North Saskatcliewan) for a 
mile and a half below Fort Edmonton. Found two thin seams of coal Avith a black 
earthy shale and layers of gray clayshale between them, the former made up of indistinct 
plant remains looking like grass and sedges. Immediately above the coal seam is a hiyer 
of brown greasy clay six or eight inches thick. Tliis clay works into a lathor-like soa]), 
and Dr. Hector says it was used by the women at the Fort for washing blankets. A 
sample of it, analysed by Dr. Hoffman in the Survey Laboiatory, shows it to be a 
hydrous silicate of alumina. * * '■'■■ The strata are generally horizontal, though 
occasionally presenting a slight dip, tliree or four degrees, to IS. 29" E. A nodular clay 
iron ore occurs in layers associated with shales. * ■•• * Striking nearly due 

south in about 12 nules we ciuue to tlic crossing of White Mud Creek, a small stream 
which empties into the Saskatchewan about 2^ miles above Edmonton. The trail we 
aj'o now following is much better than that between Victoria and Edmonton. Tlie 
general character of the country unchanged. A rich black soil ; numerous swampy 
lakes, open richly grassed prairies with belts and patches of co2)sewood with sj)ruce and 
p()2)lar trees. '■' * * 

"We reached IJattle River, crossed it. Battlt^ Wwqv is here fjuite a shallow stream, 
20 yards wide, witli stoney bed and gravelly banks about ti'U to iifte(ni feet higli. From 
tliis point to its junction with the North Saskatchewan below Fort Pitt, its general 
course is nearly east through live and a half degrees of longitude, and for a great ])ai-t of 
the distance, accoixling to Dr. Hector, it runs iji a valley from 150 to 270 feet below tlie 
l)lain. No change in the character of the country, a drift-covcn'cd surface the prevailing 

Ocohujical Survey, 1873-1. Obsrrva/ion.-i h// Mr. Srln-jjn, F. /!J,'.S., p. I'J. 

" From the Mountain House to Edmonton, and thence to a short distance; below 
Victoria, there are fair exposures of the strata at comparatively short intervals alouf tlu; 
river ; soft friable green, gray and brown concretionary sandstones, alternating with blue 
and gray arenacious and argillacious shales, with layers and beds of lignite, and bright 
jet-like brown coal, are the i)revailing features in their exposures. In the shales there 
are layers of nodular clay iron ore, liolding numerous fragments of ))lants, and contain- 
ing an average of 34.9iS per cent, of ii-on, but I ilid not see these anywhere in sufficient 
abundance to be of economic importance. At one |)lace on the right liiwik of the river, 
about 40 miles l)elow the confluence of the Brazeau Eiver, I found a seam of this jet-like 
coal, which measured from 18 to 20 feet thick. It occurred of equal thickness "in two 
exposures rather more than four miles a[iart. In the first exposure, Avhich extends from 
!)0 to GO yards in length, Imt which owing to the swiftness of the current running at its 
base, is not easily examined, the seam is almost flat, and rises from the water in a nearly 
vertical cliff", exposing 18 feet of apj)arently excellent coal. The ))ottom of the seam liei'o 
was beneath the water, and could not )»e exiindned ; above it the cliff was not accessible, 
and the rocks were concealed by slides of earth and other debris. The second exposure, 


[)f s.'uicer- 
of drift, 
0(1 l)locks 
* At 
oam on a 


whicli is no tlouht on tlio continuation of the same seam, <jccurs in an arched form, and 
shows 18 feet of coal, witli one, two to three inch partini^ of shale. The specimens of 
the seam which I collected, were all taken from the surface, and it is not unlikiily that 
beyond tlie influence of atmospheric action the coal will prove of better quality than is 
indicated l)y these specimens. At intervals, tlie whole distance from llocky Mountain 
House to Edmonton, 13/5 miles, and thence to Victoria, 70 miles further along the course 
of the river, similar rocks r-itli coal seams and nodular ironstone layers wi're ohserv(!d. 

van) for a 

h a black 


is a layer 

ike soaj), 

kets. A 

; to be a 

il, though 

lular clay 

arly due 

\\l stream 

e trail we 

^on. The 


>riice and 

)w stn^am, 
h. From 
ts general 
!at ])ai"t of 
below the 

I 'J. 

ice below 
along thv^ 
with blue 
nd bright 
ales tliere 
I contain- 
the river, 
is jet-like 
ss in two 
Ltnds from 
ing at its 
I a nearly 
ioam liero 

" Dr. Hector has sejiarated the Edmonton coal rocks from those in the vicinity of the 
^Mountain House by an intervening area which he considered to be occupied by a some- 
what higher section or division of the Cretaceous series. He did not api)arently see tlie 
thick seam of coal which I found, as above stated, below the Brazeau River, about 
eighty-six miles from Rocky Mountain House ; and another seam of five feet six inches 
thick, which I found at a jiointsome 15 miles higher up the river, as well as the numerous 
indications of seams which occur between the outcrop of the 18 feet seam and Edmonton, 
probably also escaped his notice, as he travelled partly dui-ing the night, and in the 
winter, on tlui ice, when many of the exposures along the banks must have been con- 
ceaksd by snow. TIk; observations which 1 was able to make descending the river do not 
enable me to say whether the seams retain their thickness or are connected for long 
distances, or whether the very numerous cxposui-es and indications seen in the clitf 
sections rojn-esent only more or less lenticular shaped and isolated ])atches, repisated at 
different horizons and over large arras. Dr. Hector api)e;. to incline to the latt(!r idea, 
and, in a note referring to the seams at Rocky jMountain House, he states: •The coal 
l)(!ds are not continuous for long distances.' Wheth(!r this is actually the case or not, 
there can be no rpiestion that in the region west of Edmonton, bounded on the north by 
Athabasca Riv(!r and on the south by the Red Deer River, tliere exists a vast coal Held 
covering an area of not less than 25,000 scpiarc miles, and beneath a large portion of 
this area we may cxixict to find workable seams of coal at depths seldom exceeding 300 
feet, and oft(ai, as in the case of the thick seams above described, very favorably situated 
for working by levels from the surface. 

*' Below Victoria the river valley widens considerably, and often ris(>s by successive 
broad steps or broken terraces to the level of the prairies on either side. Sometimes, as 
in the vicinity of the St. Paul R. C. Mission Station, 'J7 miles below Edmonton, these 
terraces are very regular and quite bare, while at others they are thickly clothed with 
brushwood of v/illows, alder and other shrubs mixed with [loplar trees, and here and 
there small clumps of s[)ruces or pines. Occasionally the banks abutt steeply on the 
river, and afford imperf(!ct exposures of the strata, wliich differ considerably from those 
met with at and abo\e Victoria, Hard flaggy sandstones, and impure limestones, 
associated with soft Ithu; and gi'ay clay shales, with layers of largo concretionary, olivcv 
brown coinent stones or scptaria, si'amed m itli \eius of yellowish-white calc-spar, and 
holding fossil sIkjUs ( Inoiu-noiinx, ((.■i'.,) are here met with, l)ut no thick bedded sandstones, 
and without associated coal or lignite beds, or, so far as 1 observed, any plant remains. 
Whet'ier these marine Cri^taceous IxmIs are above or ))elow the Edmonton coal bearing 
beds I am at pv(:;;ent unable to say. \ am, however, disposed to take the former view, 
not with stand '.ng that the plant remaius associated with the coal beds are of modern types. 

"Dr. Hector divided the (,'rctaceous strata of the prairies into an upper, middle and 
lower group, and in the latter he placed the Rocky Mountain and Edmonton coal series, 
at the same time remarking : 'In my next and lowest group I have (with great hesitation) 
classed the largo deposits of coal or lignit(> of the prairie country, that are sufSciently 
compact to bo of value as fuel, but which ha\ e hitherto been generally dasaed as of 
tertiaiy age.' 


''Tlicro is no doubt tliat ill Ihitisli Coluiubia, as sliown by Mr. Ficbardson in his 
last report — (Report of I'rogress, 1862-0.'},) tlio coal seams belong to the lower part of 
the Cretaceous series and are overlaid by more than 4,000 feet of st)'ata holding hioc- 
craini, Anunonitcti, Bacrdltes, wwC. other marine Cretaceous fossils. 

*' Hhould there ])rove to be a similar arrangement of 'he formation in the Saskatch- 
ewan valley it Mould very greatly enlarge the area ov(ir ^\Uicll workable seams of coal 
may be cxjjected to occur. ■■'• * In the vicinity cf Fort Pitt and thence, 

wheix'vcr sections occur, the whole distance to the Elbow, similar Cretaceous clays Avith 
Scptarian nodules are seen. 

"At the Elbow the river leaves tlio eastern limit of the third or uppermost pi'airie 
level formed Ity the Eagle Hills on the south side, and by the Thickwood Hills on the 
north side of the valley, and making a sharp liend to the north-east more or less parallel 
to the trend of the eastern slopes of the hills named, it flows across the second prairie 
level, making for the nearest point of its e iStern limit, Avhi(;h it reached about 45 miles 
below Fort a la Corne. Between the Elbow and this point, and especially below Carlton, 
the immediate banks of the river are either low and flat, or rise in well Avooded slopes, 
broken into more or .less rounded hills and i-idges, or showing a succession of terraces, to 
the prairie le\el, some 200 or oOO feet above the river. * * '■'■ 

''Blocks and often cnornuius rock mass(!s of the buff or cream-colored saluriar lime- 
stone holiling cliaracteri.stic fossils are widely and abundantly distributed over the flrst 
and second prairie stei)pes. Tlu; ascent to the third prairie level, which has an average 
elcA-ation of froiu 1,900 to 2,000 feet above the sc^i, commences at the Thickwood Hills, 
20 miles west of Carlton, and on it the limestone boulders do not appear to have reached 
further west than the longitude of Eort Pitt, and between Fort Pitt and Edmonton not a 
single bould(M' of limestone was observed, either along the Ha.skatchewan Biver ov on the 
]ilains. On the rivei', above the conihieuce of the Brazeau — a large tributary coming in 
from the west about midway between th(i IMountain House and Edmonton- — there are no 
Itoulders and very few ^^ebljles of granite, gneiss or mica schist. At the Mountain 
House, thc! pebbles and boulders in the tlrift. which is there seen in contact with the coal 
bearing rocks as well as those s(;en along the river bed are nearly all of either coal 
measure sandstone or conglomende, or varieties of hard quartzose rocks. * ''' * 

The tirst gold washing which we saw in descending the river wei'e ratlu^r more than 40 
miles IksIow the nioutli of the Brazeau; and thence to Edmonton, aiu I for s(mie miles 
further down, more ov less gold has been found on tlu; bars and in the river banks, but 
always in a verv tiiiely divided state, showing evidence of having been transported from 
afar. Even as low down as Carlton, gold can I believe be found, though not in ipian- 
titics suHioient to pay for working." 

Jlcpdrt of Pro;/rr.-:t. ('aii't'Iirni Faclfic liaUiray, 1874, ^>. 12. 

"Captain I'.dliser reported the existence of large deposits of iron ore in several 
quarters between the two Haskatchewans. Tlio discovery of this ore in conjunction with 
coal at some one or more points, which could conveniently bo reached b}' the railway 
without taking it much out of tlu; direct course, would render the manufactiu'e of rails 
near the middle of the lino jiossible, and thus oliviate the immense cost of a long land 
transportation. Moreover, tli(! e.stablislniunit of local manufacturing industries would 
bo assured." 

Occrlan<l .fournri/ lunmd thr ]l\rr/'/, hi/ Sir (j'ciirr/'; Slnipno^i, Vol. 1. p. 101. 

"The vicinity (of Edmonton) is rich in mineral productions. A seam of coal about 
ten feet in depth, can be traceil for a very considerable distance along both sides of the 


•tlson iu his 
wcr part of 
)ldiiig Inoc- 


mis of coal 

iind tht'iioe, 

clays with 

Host iiruiric 
ills on tlio 
ess parallel 
3ud prairie 
it 45 miles 
iw Carlton, 
led slo])cs, 
tciraces, to 

uriar linie- 
er the first 
an average 
ood Hills, 
ve reached 
mton not a 
or on the 
coming in 
ere are no 
;h the coal 
either coal 

•e than 40 
•nio miles 
)anks, hut 
I lied from 
t in (juan- 

II several 
tion with 
3 i-ailway 
e of rails 
long land 
3s would 

)al ahout 
!R of the 

river (Noi-th Saskatchewan). This coal resemhlcs slate in ap]X'arance; and tliout,'!! it 
require;? a stronger draught of air than that of an ordinary chiuiuey, yet it is found to 
answer tohu-aljly well for the hlacksniith's forge." 

Extent ov Coal a.\d Liunitu Bkds. 

The Cdiuidiun Domiaiun, hy Charles JfarshnU, p. 200. 

" For this Canadian line of railway, nature herself has apparently gone out of her 
way to accumulate a variety of f ivorahle condition.s. At the Atlantic teriuinus of the 
I'ail, vast beds of coal lie exj)osed, on the very coast, in readiness for tlTo steamer tliat will 
ply between Halifax and Liverj)ool ; this being the only example of coal so situated along 
the whole Atlantic seaboard. Similarly, at the Paeitio terminus, groat coal mine:-; wait at 
Vancouver's Island for the traffic to China and Japan ; this again being the only coal on 
the Pacific seaboard. But this is not all. Along the very line whicli the railroad must, 
traverse, coal fields of measureless extent, lie along the Saskatchewan, obtruding often to 
the surface to save the trouble of mining." 

Sketch of the Xorth-}Vest of Aiacrlca, hij Mjr. Taehi\ p. ^)o. 

"•'• '■' '" " The coal fields which cross the difteront branches of the Saskat- 

chewan are a great source of wealth, ftud fav(n' the settlem'Jiit of the valley in wliich 
natui'e has multiplied, picturesipie scenery that challenges comparison with the fnost 
remarkable of its kind in the world. '■■ "•■ '•• One is surprised to find in the 

(ixtromo west, so extensive and so beautifid a region. The autlior of the universe has 
been pleased to spread out, beside the grand and wild beauties of the PtOi'ky ^[ountains, 
the caj)tivating pleasure grounds of the plains of the Saskatchewan." 

Geology of 49</t Parallel. By Geo. M. Dawson, 187."), p. ISO. 

* :;= * "The total areva of the western part of the prairie region between the 

49th and 54th parallels, now known l)y more or less connected lines of observations, to 
bo imdei'laid by the lignite and coal-bearing formation, or formations, does not fall short 
of 80,000 .square miles; and should future investigation result in atKxing somc^ of the 
fuels to the Lower Cretaceous, it must bo very nuich gr{\ater. TIk^ im])ortaiu;e of these 
great deposits of fuel, in a country naturally so destitute of wood over great areas, 
cannot be exaggerated." 

Captain Pallisers Exploration in B. X. America, folio, p. 72. 

"Edmonton must be considered as being in the wooded country, but in the iinmeiliato 
neighborhood of the Fort there is not much valuable timber. Once Ijack 

fi'oni the river banks, which aro everywhere high and jn-ecipitous, the country is ratlxu* 
flat, and corered with thickets of willow and poplar, and with a much larger propoi-tiou 
of swampy ground than I have seen elsewhere in the Saskatchewan. Seven to ten miles 
back on side of the river are the same high grounds that seem to skirt it ev(uy- 
where, forming as it were Ijanks to an immensely wide valley. Those of tlie true river 
valley are 190 ..o 250 feet high, and at most places densely wooded. AVhenever the 
present water channel sweeps close iinder the higher l>ank, however, sections aro dis- 
jilayed which exhibit their structure. They are composed of horizontal beds of arinaceous 
clays, sometimes p.' .sing into true sandsione, generally in spherical concri^ti(Mis, and at 
others into clay shale. Many of these beds aro highly ehai'ged with nodules of clay iron- 
stone, which, when broken, aro found to be full of commiiuited fi'agiuents of vegetable 
matter. Included in these Ijeds are various seams of coal or lignite, which seem to be of 


a very useful quality, as it is usod to tlie oxolusiou of all othor fuel iu the forgo at tlio 
Foi-t. - •■■■■ •-'■■ 

"Under the Fort there are two scams of about IS iuclios each, but on the ojiposito 
side of the river, close to the water edge, there is a l>ed six feet thick, and again another 
four feet a little higher up the bank." 

Approach to the PtociKV Mountains, 

77/'! Xor/h-]Vi'ti( Paxxctf/e hy Land, hj Viscount M'dkni and Dr. CJieadle, //. 201. 

" The road to Lake >St. Ann's (from Edmonton) passed through a fertile and i)ark- 
liko country for about 50 miles, but at St. Ann's the thick forest commences, which 
extends far to the north and westward to the mountains. 8t. Ann's was, doubtless, 
chosen iis the site for a settlement on account of the immense number of the covgomis, or 
..•bi'to llsh, furnished liy the lake, forming the staple food of the inhabitants ; but it is ill 
vda[)ted for I'arming, on account of the timber, which has been very ))artially cleared 
away f(n- little fields of potatoes and grain. The lake is a pretty sheet of water, several 
miles in length, its slun'es dotted on the western side by 40 or 50 houses and a 
church. * * * 

" When we left St. Ann's the track led us immediately into the densest forest, 
where the ground Was boggy and rotten, thickly covered with fallen timber. On the 
second day after we left Lake St. Ann's, the road become rather l)etter, there being a few 
] latches of ojiun country, and the timber smaller, clustering in the swells of the low un- 
tlulatious. At noon we reached a lai-ge lake and travelled along its banks for the 
remainder of tlie day. It a})i .od to be well stocked with wild fowl and fish. 

" On the 11th June wo struck the Pembina River, a cleai*, shallow stream flowing 
to the N. E., over a pebbly bed, between perpendicular banks of some HO feet high. 
These showed the section of a magnificent coal bed, from If) to 20 feet in thickness. 
Coal has also been discovered on the McLood, Athabasca, Peace and Mackenzie Rivers 
to the north ; and on the Saskatchewan, Battle and Red Deer Rivers to the south. A 
section of it appears in the cliff of the river bank at Edmonton, where it is used for the 
forge. The lignite strata have been thus observed at numerous points, scattered over 
more than ten degrees of latitude, but invariably in nearly the same longitude. 

"A line drawn from Mackenzie River to the point where the Red Deer River joins 
the South Saskatchewan would give the line of coal formation observed with tolerable 
accuracy. These coal fields are of enormous extent, and will doubtless one day form a 
large element of wealth in this richly endowed country of the Saskatchewan. 

''After investigating the coal, we set to work to wash for gold in the sand bars, and 
were rewarded by finding what miners call 'the colour,* t. e., a few specks of the finest 
gold dust which remaiii with the black sand left behuid when the rest of the dirt is 
Mashed away. 

" For the next two or thrcfi days the country presented the same slightly undulating 
character, thickly wuodcd with hardly a single break, and without any eminence from 
wliich a view could bo obtained. The only sound ground was on the low nari'ow ridges 
which se])arate(l the wider shallow valleys. These latter are occupied by 'muskegs' or 
level swamps, the surface of which is covered with a mossy crust five or six inches in 
tliickness, while a thick growth of pines and the fallen timber add to the dilliculty of 
th(> road. 


foi'ge at tho 

tlio o]iposito 
uiu another 

//. 201. 

"Oil the tliird day afttu- leaving Pembina River, we rcstwl to dine at a marshy 
meadow formed by tho damming up of the stream by beaver. Th(y -were very common 
along our track, the grassy mound and bank across showing the old beaver house and 
dam in most cases. Nearly every stream between the Pembina and the Athabasca — ex- 
cept the large river McLeod — appeared to have been destroyed by the agency of these 
animals, 'J'he whole of this region is little more than a succession of pine s\Tam])s, 
separated by narrow ridges of higher ground, and it is a curious (question whether that 
enormous tract of country, marked 'swampy' in tho maps, has not been brought to this 
condition by tho work of beavers, who have thus destroyed, by their own labor tho 
streams necessary to their existence. * * * 

and park- 
nces, which 
f, doubtless, 
ori'gonus, or 
but it is ill 
[dly cleared 
iter, several 
)uses and a 

sest forest, 
;r. On tho 
being a few 
the low un- 
ka for tho 

!am flowing 
feet high. 

. thickness. 

nzie Rivers 
south, A 

ised for the 

ttered over 

iiver joins 
ill tolerable 
iay form a 

I bars, and 

the finest 

tho dirt is 

lenco from 
row ridges 
mskegs' or 
: inches in 
ilKculty of 

"The Mclicod is a fine stream, about 150 yards broad, flowing over a rocky, pebbly 
lied and clear and shallow like the Penil)ina. The channel of the latter where we 
crossed it was clean cut through soft strata, with perpendicular clitis on either side ; while 
the bauki? of the IMcliCod are wider apart, rising steejdy but not vertically, to a great 
height, and richly clothed with pine and aspen. The iSIcLeod is subject to great floods 
at certain seasons, as evidenced by the gi'Oiit boulders strewn high along the shore, and 
the collections of drift wood accuumlated at tUflereut points and turns of tho river. 

* * n; "Following tho river valley, we travelled through thick timbei", 
marshes and boggy ground, pleasantly varied occasionally by beautiful jwirk-like oasis of 
an acre or two in extent, and crossed several small streams, swollen into muddy torrents. 
*" * "'■'• Passed on along a well marked trail, which ascended abruptly, to avoid a 

precipitous olitT overhanging tho river at this point. Higher and higiier still it led, 
along rocky ledges or u[) steep, green, slippery slopes, until it reached the point where 
vegetation ceased, 8ei)arated by a rocky precipice from the hight of per{)etual snow. 
'■■ * * On every side a succession of peaks towered up, of strange fantastic 

shnpe. To the west, the Priest's Rock, a p^-ramid of ice, shone brightly above a dark 
I)ine-clad hill, to the east the remarkable Roche Miette ; in front and behind, conical, 
pinnacled, and rugged mountains. Hundreds of feet immediately beneath rushed the 
torrent of the Athabasca. Emci-ging from the heart of tho mountains through a narrow 
gorge into the wider valley, the river expands into a lake three or four miles in length ; 
then again narrowing, flows in several channels round wooded islands, to open out once 
more into a second lake, smaller than tho first. On the further bank of the river, be- 
tween the two lakes was Jasj)cr House." 

CouxTUY Eetweex Rocky Mountain House and Edmonton. 

Captain, Palliscrs Exploration of B, X. America, /uUo, /*. 77. 

" Starting at 9 o'clock this morning wo found tho ice smooth and sound. * * * 
As the views, or straight portions of the river (Saskatchewan) valley between each bend, 
are of good length, and tho angles they make with one another are decided, I had no 
(lilfieulty in mapping the river with compass as I wont along. During the first 20 miles 
we passed frequent sections of tho sandstone and clay strata with lignite, but gradually 
the main valley got wider, and the immediate silt banks increased in elevation till they 
were 50 feet al)ove the river, and formed extensive well wooded flats. 

" In the afternoon the coal group, with tho same characters as at tho Rocky 
Moimtain House, were seen, dipping with a considerable angle to the N, E. A section 
of those one mile in length, showed the group of sandstones and shales to have a thick- 
ness of 300 to 400 feet. 

" Before camping wo passed tho mouth of the Baptisto River, which is a lai-go 

tril)iitary from tlic S. W., tlio of the river all ilay liavlni,' hccii uortlii'i'ly. It is 
vory irregular in its width, at times wiilo ami Ktiulded with alluvial islands, and at 
others contracted to 158 to 20iJ feet, and confined l»y high hanks. * * * 

" Passed a numhcn- of sandstone cliffs, with ledges that cans(! rapiils. * * 

Thcs(! sandstones have a s'ight dip to the S. W,, and after ten miles we again came to 
the lignite or coal grou|). TJiese were ex[)os(vl in a cliff 140 feet high, the npper 50 feet 
heing of light yellow sandstone witliout any lines of l)cdding. Below this a groii]) of sliales 
and earthy greer. sandstones the latter predonunating more towards tlie lower part. 
The lowest 50 feet is entirelv concretiouarv sandstone. 

'•We lialted at noon after making 20 miles upon an enormous island of driftwood. 
* * * Five miles further on the i-iv(>r liecinie hemmed in hy lofty preci[(icea of 

sandstones, ahout 150 i'vt>t high and which I called 'Ahram's (Jates,' after my guide, who 
had been talking of this wonderful place ever since we started. The sandstoiu; is coarse- 
gi-ained in thick stiata that jtresent nuich false bedding. Two miles further brought us 
to th(! junction of tlu; North Fork, or Brazean's River, a stream 140 yards wide at its 
mouth, and which is said to in the llocky Alountains. In the sections along tlio 
river liank tiie sandstones are getting nioi(! rare, and the strata are more frecpiently 
composed of clay .shales. * * * 

" Soon the high river banks riitirc^l to a distance from the river, and the immediate 
river banks became low and swamjiy, and the tortuous course of the channel made it 
aj)j)ear as if we were traversing an ancieni (!stnary or lake bottom. * '•■ * I'assed 
the old White Earth Fort. The country is very beautiful here, and it is a favorite place 
for tlie half breeds sending their horses to spend the winter. The; river below this jjoint 
takes a small benil to the S. E., and suddenly becomes confined in a narrow valley with 
lianks 200 to 'M)0 feet ir> ">eight, and exhibiting sections of the same nature at 
Edmonton. There ai ^ and shale in the upper part, with ironstone bands, then con- 

cretionary sandstone. o one ]X)int in this IkmI occurred a seam of very fine compact 

coal, three to fonr feet thick, which was traced for a considerable di.stance. ''"'■ * * 

"Tlie track (to St. Ann's) runs nearly due west from Edmonton through low willow 
and poplar copse and occasional pine woods for 50 miles." 

Beaver Hills. 

(.'aplaia l'alUser\s Explorutlon in B. N. America, folio, p. 79. 

"After crossing the Saskatchewan on the ice, our course wiis at first easterly over 
the Beaver Hills, which are covered with willows and i)oplar, but do not rise to any great 
height. After ten miles we tiu-ned to the south-east, and commenced to traverse a very 
inviting country, more so, indeed, than any I have seen since leaving Carlton. Hitlierto 
we had passed over swampy ground, but now the snrface was dry and undulating, and in 
the hollows are lakes, some of which are of good size. 

* * * "Started on my return to Carlton. The coal was still seen ci-oiiping 
out in the I'iver l)anks for five bends below Edmonton, associated with the shales and 
gi'(;en sandstone as before." 

Ibid, p. 82. 

" I have thus been able to see and niaj) the river (Saskatchewan) the whole distance 
from the Eocky Mountain House to Carlton. The valley, which is nearly 300 feet deep 


■ly. It is 
Is, iiiul at 

lucaiiio to 
ov no feet 
pof sliiilos 
wt'P part. 

cipicea of 
iiide, wLo 
is coarso- 
ronght us 
nde at its 
along tlio 


■1 made it 

' I'assed 

ii'itc place 

tliis point 

dley with 

s tliose at 

then con- 

' compact 
* # 

\v willow 

at Fort Pitt, coiiliuwns to havn high alinipt banks for 70 miles, when those on tho left 
side hocame low and sloping. Tiien^ are many licautifu' spots, anil tlie scenery in early 
spring, when tho poplars wer.; unfolding tlicir briglit green foliage, was exipiisite. Tho 
most beautiful part of tho river is n(Mr tlie mouth of IJattle River. At Kagle llill tlie 
banks on tho right side are very high, but when not woode.d the soil is covei'ed with an 
etHorescence of sulphate of soda and lime in largt; ipiantities, often n'seiuliling a sprinkling 
of snow. In this part of its course the river is very wide and sha'low, and the elianuel 
is obstructed with islands." 

Dr. Hector's G 


B.vTTr,!: Tlivnii Countrt. 
liiijiort in (Jiqif. P.'^fiser'.i Ej'j>/or<i.fii>a of li. X. America, ji. 218. 

"Tho higliest ]ioiut of t!ie great plateau that is in territory, is to be found 
when at the base of the ]\Ocky Mountains that chain is intsrsected by the I'Jth ])arallel 
of latitude, where it is elevated •1,,'')00 feet al)ove the .sea. If followed into tho United 
State.?, to tho south, it is found to reach a still gr(-at(;r elevation along the base of the 
mountains, until it merges with tho groat table land of Mexico, which has an altitude of 
7,000 feet. From the above point of intersection to the nearest ])oint of the Laui-entian 
a.xis, which is a line from near the source of Belly lliver, in a N.E. direction, to Ciimbor- 
land House on the Saskatchewan, the distance in an air lino is over 500 miles ; and tho 
ditTeronee of elevation of these two points gives a moan slope of G feet in the m le. The 
general level of the eastern base of tho liocky Mounti'ins also declines rapidly to the 
north, for in latitude 51° 9', at where tho Bow River emerges on tht; plains, tho elevation 
is 3,900 feet, and at where the Athabasca, the most southern tributary of the Mackenzie, 
leaves the chain, in latitude 53' 12', it is only 3,300 feet above the sea. (1) The alopo 
of this plateau is not, however, uniform, but is broken by ste[)pes, whicli have been formed 
by the erosion of the surface of the country, and which mark beautifully difierent grades 
in the elevation of the continent during later epochs. Tliese steppes are boldly marked, 
sometimes increasing t) e altitude of the prairies, as the traveller follows a westerly 
course, by an abrupt rise .amounting to 600 feet. They have a very irregular outline, 
and are cut through by the rivers in many cases so as to form isolated masses of broken 

erly over 
any great 
so a very 
i;, and in 

lales and 

feet deep 

"The liocky Mountains, fornung the western limit of the great plateau, rise from it 
very al)ruptly, the eastern range often presenting sheer clitfs, 2,0()0 to 3,000 feet in height. 
Those are, however, cut by transverse valleys, into which the superabundant deposits of 
tlui prairies penetrate, and have been pi'eserved more or less perfectly as terraces in tho 
mountain valleys." 

FuoM THE South Kluow ok Saskat(;iiewan to B.vrTr.E Rivek Junction. 

Captain falliser's Exploration in B. X America, /olio, pp. 83-89, 

"Juhj 1st. — The valley of the Wignatinon, (2) extending north-east and south-west, 
sinks iipwards af 200 feet below the prairie level, and, like the numerous valleys Ave have 
met with last week, is dotted with saline lakes. The north end of this lake is clothed 

(1) Note nv Drt. IIf.i^tor. — " As the Rocky Mountains arc cut through by valleys almost to tlie 
depth of the plateau on which they stand, this depression of tho chain towards the north has a 
roinarkablo iiiQucnoe on the climate in some localities, especially uiitigatint^ the severity of the spring 
months, hy admitting the intlueuce of the mild cUmate of the we-steru seaboard, at a time when the 
eastern part of the Continent in the ncighborhooLi of the great lakes is utill icebound." 

(2) This name is spelt in two ways, as here gi^en, in the report, p. 85. 


principally \>y aspens; Ncjundct fraxUil /oUinn (a kind of sucrav maple), and JiituJn 
pdjyijraccd, although fountl, are only in sniall (piantities ; while the side which faces tho 
south supports only a low growtli of wilh)ws, and in many ])laces is cpiito bare. Tho 
aspens are the tinest sjiccimens of the species wo have seen in the country. At the south 
ond of the valley, three miles distant from the camp, was a largo grovo (jf the ash-leavtMl 
maple. "''' "*• •'■ The scenery in the neighborhood of the Wignatinou is very 

beautiful and diver-sitled. Fine IjIuH's of wood and open glade.s, hills with bold outlines, 
rising sometimes 450 feet above the level of tho valley, al)ru|it (vscarpmeuts of whito 
chalky strata with ferruginous streaks, desolate wastes of blown sand, and beautiful lakes 
with clear limpid water aro all combined within a small compass in thi.s neighborhood. 
Thci'o are a few .s])ots where the soil is rich, but as a rule this region i.s barren and 
desolate. The dilferenco in the luxuriance of vegetation in northern and southern ex- 
posures is not peculiar to tho Wignatinon valley, on the contrary, it seems to hit general 
everywhere in this country. 

" The whole country to the north presents tlie same in(\gular fcatui-es ; tho soil is for 
tho most part sandy, and to tho south and west lies a ilat (ixpanso of i)rairie, extending to 
the very horizon. 

miles, and ciicaniped in a deli;;htful 

"Jul// 2;i(/.--We moved on hereabout eight 
valley of about ten miles scpiare in extent, with a soil of an exc(,'llent quality, c(jmposed 
of a rich black vegotaljlc mould 2h fc'ct deo]i, over a layer of very iini' yelhnv sand. About 
a mile from our encampment wo crossed a small tributary of the I'attle Jiiver running duo 
north. It is called the Ambush Coulee. * * * Tliis valley is l)Ounded on 

the north-west by a rang© of hills, called the ITigh I Fills. To the south and west, aftei* 
an abrupt ascent of 210 feet, a lino level prairie stretches away to the south as far as the 
eve can reach. 

" Jul// Gth. — At 9 miles from this ])laoc we crossed a mudily creek only two feet in 
depth, which takes its rise in the Noao Hills, and, flowing northward to join tho Battle 
lliver, is styled Nose Creek. Our course through these nine mihis, as well as in tlui 
afternoon, lay through what was once forest land, but is now dotted with small poplar 
clumps and several salt lakes. The soil, consisting in many parts of a foot of black vege- 
table mould, supports an excellent crop of nutritious grasses. * * * Q^jj^ 
greater part of the country with these features is tit for immediate settlement, and wants 
but little culture to yield splendid fruits. Tho state of the flowering plants as this date 
shows that spring is early, and our notes on the weather prove that the summer here ia 
not too dry, 

"Juli/ dlh. — We encamped again in th<; valley of Battle Uiv< r. Many curious sec- 
tions of soft sandstone and clay strata were here ex})osed, and thii;k beds of fossil shells 
were found by Dr. Hector extending in the same direction. The northern exposure of 
the river valley, as usual, was tho wooded side, containing jtojilar, s[)ruce, fir, ash-leaved 
maple, and birch, while tho siihs of tho valley by wliich we ajiproached it was almost 
entirely bare of wood. The river hen^ flows through a dee]> valley with a widf! bottom ; 
the sides of tlus valley are white ami chalky from the easy erosion of tin; strata, but the 
banks of tho river throughout its tortuous courst; are often covered with jjretty patches of 
green wood. In the bed of the stream wo found pieces of coil, and some of our i)arty 
observed it farther up the stream. * * # 

" Jiifi/ 2ith. — Arrived now at tho edge of the woods, it is necesaai'y to give a general 
description of the country ]>assed over since we entei-ed upon tho Wignatinon Valley ; 
and to do this let us imagine a line drawn from (iO miles south of Fort Carlton, which is 
on the Wignatinon, and thence proceed to the site of old Bow Fort. This line marks 


111(1 Illfllf'.t 
h I'iiocs tlio 
l)an'. Tlio 
t tlie south 

loii is very 
il outliiu^s, 
'^ of wliito 
itiful lakes 
jai'K'ii and 
mtlicrn cx- 

bo general 

soil is for 
ctendini; to 

I delighlfiil 
, composed 
d. Aliout 
luuiini,' duo 
ounded on 
"vvest, after 
far as tin? 

wo feet in 
tho Battlo 

as in tli(! 
lall poplar 
ilack vego- 

* Tho 
and wants 
s this dato 
lor here is 

uriouK sec- 
'ossil shells 
xposure of 
I'as almost 
If bottom ; 
a, l.ul; the 
pali.'lies of 
our party 

} ti .n^enoral 
n Valley ; 
, which is 
itie marks 


th(^ lioundary of two natural divisions cf the country, viz. : — Tho ancient forest lands and 
the truo prairie district. 'I'o tlie north of this liiK! i^enerally there is tiinlu'r, a jjood soil 
for agricultural jiurposes up to nt north latitude, and superior pasturage; to tiiu south 
then! is no tiin'ier, the soil is sandy, with litth,' or no admixture of eartliy matter, and tho 
l)asture south is iidrrior. Exceptions of course may l)e found, as for example in tho 
neighborhood of swamps and gullies, whero tho soil and i)asturo are better." 

/Jr. lIi'dorK (iKifojicd! /I'lj^orf !/i Cnjifdin l'(i!li-<ir.-< A'.rji/ora/ioii in 11. X. Aiittrifi, 

I'll. -'L'U tu -IWo. 

'•The Pastern limit of the third groat prairio level is met with at the (Irand (V.toau, 
Kaglo Hills and Thickwood Hills, and is oidy cut through by tho channels of tlio north 
and south branches of the Saskatchewan, while all th(' other rivers of tho oastorn jilain, 
such as tho Soursi, Assiniboine, (,!u'Appi ile, ka., have their source;? short of it. 1 have 
stated tho prairies at tho base of this third Kivel has an elevation of 1,G(H) feet aliove tho 
sea ; and a depression of the continent to this e.vtcnt was .sutlicient to submerge tho 
eastern jjaurentine axis between JLudson's Day and Lake WinnijK'g, or, at least, to con- 
vert it into a mere chain of islands. •■ .As seen from a distance, when 
travelling in tlus low plains, this grand st( pjie apjicars as a range of bliK! hills, with a 
smooth, undulating outline. On a[)proaching it, a geiiHo ascent is accomplished for many 
miles, after which an abrupt rise of tVoni GUU to .^00 feet has to be etiected generally in 
from 4 to G miles. Tho surface of tho slope is extremely rugged, and has evidently l)een 
worn into holes, ridges and conical mounds by the acti-m of water on the soft clay strata 
of the cretaceous grou[). Jllverywhere it is thickly strcv.n with boidders, all derived from 
th(i Laurentino chain to tlie oast, or from Bird's I'je limestone, which rests on the western 
ilank of that axis. 

* ■'• '■'■'■ "In vising to tlio surface of the third steppe, v.-o have tla^ ])lains 

composed of tho cretaceous strata, with oidya very tliin coating of drift, which has always 
a local mineral composition corresponding with that of tlu' tinderlying strata, without 
admixture of mattirials carried from ii distance further than a sprinkling ot eiratic iilocks 
that are of small size, and are oidy to be found crowded in favoral)le .spots. * '■• '•" 

•' No'granit(i was ob.served on the east flank of the Itockv 3Iountaius witliin Britidi 
Territory. * '■'■ ■:■ . 

"The surface of tho higher plains aro in .sonu! localities traversed by profound rents, 
re.-iembling the valleys of great rivei-s, but which, after running for .several nules, are 
genei'ally found to be t'losed at both ends, 'i'liey arii often occupied by tU'cp lakes of salt 
w.iler, (iepros,sed L*()(t feet to 'MH) feet below tlu; plain, and from noi) yards to a milt! in 
wi<lt,h. Tho great Coulees in the neighl)orho{)(l of tho ' Car J I ills,' south of Jlattlo Jtiver, 
are the examples of these, Imt they are found in many other localities. * '■• *" 

"Before leaving the supertleial di^posits of the prairie country, it is nccesNary to 
notice the great river valleys whicli traverse it, and which all point tt) a timo\\hen the 
rivers were of much larger siz;; than they are now ; (,'ven small streams such as r.attle 
IMvor flow through valleys from laU to L'OO feet deep. Tho sides of these are in general 
as fori'ial and as regular as those of a railway cutting, excepting whern tho nature of the 
strata causes freipunit slides, or harder beds give rise to a clitf structure. Tho flat alluvial 
bottoms of those valleys aro in gtmei-al four to live tim''s tho width of tho river which 
winds tliroU!,di th(>'u, and whicli is hemmed by scconlary banks, often '.iO to H) f'(!t high. 
Tho silt and alluvium Is in general ivgularly siraiilied, and almost every rivei- point con- 
tains one or more lagoons, showing the frequent, though slow change in the river channel. 


" At tli(* (listanco of 90 niilr^ from tlio V\ icky Moimtains, the vnllcyH of tlm rivors 
llowiii;; to tlii' iNist cioimiii'iici! to t'xliil)it t(!rriu'i/.s composotl of roimdtMl fnigint'iits ot 
•juartziti' iiml limostoup, siicli as wouM form tlio rouiuliitl shim^lo oil a rocky shore. 

* * " Until \v(! ap[iro;ieli to tho niouiitiiiiiH theso terrace (l(!posits aro 

coiifiiioil to tho vaHoy.s of tho larf,'«!r streaius, but j^railiially they Hproad out, and at last 
cover tho wholo country alont,' tins liasc of the; mountains, filling up tho hollows and 
valleys of the outer ranges to the depth of Htsvcu'al hundred feet. This feature was 
observed at every point where we approached the mountains from the east, from the 4*Jth 
}>arallel northwards, and indeed being better markt^d on tho Athabasca River than on 
any of those further south. * -y- •» 

"Within tlie mountains the terraces expand so as to fonn level prairies ah. ng the 
North Saskatchewan, of which the Kootanio IMain is the principal. It is many miles in 
extent, and coni|)oaed of shingle and incoherent sand, the wiilest terrace being l.')U feet 
abov(> the river. The river is, howevc!'. skirted by terrac((s at still higher levels, especially 
on tho south or right siilt^ of tiie valley. Above I'ine Point the calcareous matter of thes(! 
terraces so inci-eases as to replace altog;.'ther the pebbles, Avhen it becom(!S a fine, gritty 
calcareous nnid of glistening whiteness. If followeil into the higher valleys, the terrace 
deposits lu'come confused with the detritus of ancient glacier moraines, which, however, 
are easily distinguished by tho angular blocks which they contain. 

"On the Athal)asca River, at 1.") miles from the mountains in a direct line, the 
terraces were found ut IT), 100, 210, and .'570 feet above the river level. Within the 
mountains this valley, which is more dilated than oven that ot the North Saskatchewan, 
has also the terraces better developed than 1 have elsewhere observ(i(l them on tho east 
side of the chain. The river also dilates into t'xtensive hikes at different points of its 
course, in which the re-arrangement of the material of the terraces is seen to be going on, 
the wat(!r separating tlu; calcareous mud from the pebbles, Avhile the winds, which aro 
extremely violent in this vaUey, sift out tho fine mud, and pile it in tracts of sand dunes, 
which cover largo areas. 

" The terraces may be considered as ranging on the east side of tho Rocky Mountains 
from 3,500 to 4,000 feet al)f)ve the sea. Whcu-ever they prevail they support a growth of 
a jieculiar stunly ])ine, which, in common with tho Banksian pine, is known to tho llud- 
.son's Bay Conijiany's hunters as tho cypress. 

" Often the surface of a terrace is ({uite free from timber, the trees being easily thrown 
out of th(! loose gravelly soil, and it is then genemlly clothed with ' bunch grass,' which 
at onc(! catches the eye as ditlerent from the grasses of tho eastern plains. The country 
occupied i>y the terraces is easily passed through, as tho forests there aro free from under- 
wootl, and ihe oidy ol)stacle to the traveller arises from his so oft(!n having to mako a 
steep descent to the base of the deposit, which is cut through by every little stream, and 
then to climb again the opposite bank. When jiassing along tho side of a valley, the 
numerous cross gullies from this cause would render the construction of a road a veiy 
dillicult matt(u-, although nothing could be firmer or more level than tho surface of tho 
terraces themselves. 'J'Jiis remark ai)plied e(iually to tho valleys on the west side of tho 
Rocky Mountains, where the terrace deposits have a much greater development. ■■'• * 

" On the North Saskatchewan, -10 miles above the Elbow, and a little way above tho 
Eagle Hills, on tho left bank of the river, there are clifis of a very incoherent sandstone, 
rising 40 to GO fe(;t above the water's edge, and worn into caves, which often communicate 
with tho plain above. * * Eight miles below the Elbow of the same 

river, near Birch Gully, the banks rise abruptly on either side to the height of 210 feet. 

till) rivei-s 
ii<,'m«'iits of 

oposlts ai'() 
mid iit lust 
ollows and 
I'jitiU'o was 
m the tlttli 
or than on 

s iilcng till! 
[ly miles in 
ig ir)U f.'ot 
H, CHpocially 
tor of tlies(! 
tiue, gritty 
the terraco 
h, liowcvcr, 

ct lino, tlio 
Witliiu tho 
on tho cast 
loiuts of its 
le going on, 
which arc 
sanil dunes, 

I growth of 
o the llud- 

sily thrown 
ass,' which 
le country 
oui under- 
to make a 
tream, and 
ralley, the 
oad a very 
ace of th(! 
side of tiie 
=:: ::: * 

above the 

the same 

f 210 feet. 


when the lovol )il;iin is roaoliod, at tlu; point whore tlio grrat orratio masses of limestone 
rest on its surface. At tlu^ liase of the Itank at this poiiit all the way down to Carlton, a 
distanci! of 10 miles, springs of wa'fr escape higlily charged with iron and zinc, whioh 
dt'posit a light yellow ochre. '■'■'■ * * 

"Nearly the whole great area of prairie country from the eastern axis of tiie Kooky 
Mountains is ()C('U|)ied liy cretaceous strata, which have attained an onormniis lics'olopment 
throughout the whoh^ of the central portion of tin' North American Continent. ■■ 

'•At the Mll)()w of tho Sciith Saskatchewan, wlu-'n^ that river cuts tlii'nu!,'h tho groat 
prairie ciUeau, the boulder drift is seen to rest on strata, of purplt^ clay with nodular 
masses of iron-stone, with veins or cavities filled with calc-spar. Those soptaria are in 
groat numl)ei-s, and, when broken, ai'o found to iuoludo fragments of fossils. The outci()|) 
of these .soptaria clays has a dear n^lation to the groat prairi(^ ridge, which is cut by tho 
South Saskatchewan at this point, and then is contiiniod to the north-w(!st by the Kagle 
Hills and othei's to near Fort i'itt, where it hems in the North Saskatchewan in like 
manner, the lianks having an altituih; of ")()() ftuH, and also dia})laying .sections of the 
strata with the same fo.ssils. They w(.'re also observed at the base of the Eagh^ Hills, and 
wh(!rover they prevail they form lofty and ruinous banks, the strata breaking away in 
great slices, while these slide forward successively at sonu; points. 1 have counted as 
many as 1;5 of such .shales on tht^ bank of tho river, tins oldest, though now close to the 
water level, still lioaring ])art of the original prairie surface, supporting the same turf ihat 
onc(! grew liOO or ."500 feet above its present position. The result of this is, that it is 
seldom that anything can bo learnt of the strata which form the full thickness of tho 
rist'i- banks, the more superficial beds being repeated again and again in each slip, so as to 
give a very exaggerated idea of this development. 

•■• =■= ■''• "At Fort Edmonton the beds of the river valley ;ire from 1 IM) to 

250 feet high, and at most }>laces dcmsely wooded seven to ten miles back from this valley 
on either side, a lino of high ground rising from 200 to 300 feet above a willow covoi((d 
])lain, and consisting, as far as I could learn, of wliite marly clays ; but the coinitry in 
this neighborhood is much obscured by superficial deposits, ami by small copse- wood. 
Tho river valley has a -wide, flat bottom, through which the river winds in a channel W 
to GO feet deep, and wherever this present channel sweeps close under the higher valley 
l)an.ks, sections are displayed disclosing horizontal strata of cretaceous clays, sometimes 
passing into true sandstone with spherical concretions, but at others into clay shales. 
Many of these beds are highly charged with nodules of clay iron-stone, which are filled 
with comminuted fragments of vegetable matter. Tlu; lignite occurs in the clay strata 
and varies greatly in purity. It Is used in tho forge at the Fort, and is fomid to answer 
very well, excejiting that it 'burns' the iron more than ordinary coal. It ignites with 
difticidty, but keeps alight for a very long time, and if left to itself without a draught, 
smoulders away into an abundant orange-coloured ash. It contains a quantity of water 
in its conn»osition, as, although generally compact, like fine bitumenous coal, when first 
excavated, it soon splits up into fragments, which have dull earthy surfaces. Thtn-e is a 
great difference in the quality of the lignite, according to the bed it has been procuretl 
from, and also the distance from the outcrop to Avhicli the seam has been worked. 

" The fort stands about 100 feet above the water level, and below it in the bank 
there are two seams of 18 inches each ; but on tho opposite side of the river a little dis- 
tance below, sections occur where there are several seams exposed, the principal of which, 
close to the water's edge, is six feet in tliickness, and another a little way, where it is four 
feet, with others less pure. 

" The gravel and shingle deposits are seen to rest oi 

the cut edges of the lignite- 


bi^u'iin; luvls. ;uiil i\\\\ tlu'nM*on\ of m(in< i\vtMi< tl;»lt\ 'I'liov Oimtaiii tVai^Juoiii < of iioiluli's 
(li'i-ivod i'vonx l\\o uruliM'lviiii; sinit.'i. .iloujj with |h"1i1i1<'s of tiuart/aiul otlu'ritH'ks that muj^t 
havo 1hh>ii ilorivoil from »>lso\vliriv. 

* ■ * " I'\ir '.'(^ mill's up till' Noidi S.iskairhi'uan a'KUi' I'.irt Ivliuouton. 

(ho u'i">v aii'iiaiViMis oiays provail, i'oi-miuL;' (ho hanks of (lio v'lscv, w hioh. aro hi^li anil 
j'.iHH'ipidnis, tiio \aUoy for (hi^ ili.s(anoo niakiu;:; a tiiioi'ossion of a'onipt bonds «t'(«>r ovory 
fow tnih'S liy a stiaii;li( otnirso. its main liiroi'don Ix-im; (o (ho nordi. Tho sooomlary 
banks an' also y;failuaily htst, till al lom:l h. I'rom ilu- \alloy naiaow in;;', (ho rivor ooi"n|>ii's 
its fnll wiilth. Ahovc tliis point, iiowovor. tho valloy stuMonly wiilons out, ami ju-osorvos 
on thowholoa sdMiiJilU oourso (Vom tho west, inilopomloni o( tho \Ninilin:;s of tho rivor 
itsolf. whioli lias a vory (ordious fourso lu'(\\oon st'oomlaiy hanks, orossinu; from siilo (o 
siili' of (ho 1,'roat valloy. rouml hoavily (imhorod (la(s Wl./n tho rivor swoi'ps iimU'r iho 
hii::i( hanks, sootions .ahout L'OO t'oo( lii_i;h ai'o o\|h>.-oi1. o\' \vhi(o v.ariopUoil marls, whii'h 
aio out ii\ tiio mo'.t ro^ular niannor hy s;'ullios into pyiamiils. with a most artitioial a|>|io;ir 
anoo, as soon from (ho I'ivor. (lioir hris^lu i-halky snrfaoi's hoin-:: (hrown into s(ronL; roliof 
In (ho ilark groon pinos liiat olo'.ho tho ravinos anil low rivor h.mks. 

" KiUoon mill's holow {]\o moudi iA' Hra/.oan's l\i\i«r. whioh is ,a lar^o tributary of tho 
North S:is];atoho\van tVoni tin' \vo>t, wo apiin n-ot widi (h(> liL:;ni(o hoarini; aronaooons. 

;inil from (ho poiu( (iioy woro (i-aooil nuuUorrupd'illy (o (lu- haso o\' (ho nuiuu(ains. 
Tiu' t'orma(ion now prosrius vory ilitlortMU oharai'(ors tVom (hoso at Milmouton, ha\ in^' 

nioro (ho appoaranoo of shoro iloposit. 'l"ho mineral i'onipiisi(ion is \ory varioil, ami laruo 

iloposiis i>t' sanilsl ill' oi'iair, whioh is lino or -oarso m'aim'il, hut no\ or uialvos any aiijiroaili 

to a 1'ouj.louu'ralo. 

^ ■*■ "(hi tho A(li.:h;;soa Kivor (lio valloy tVimi l''or( Assiiiihoiuo. U|i (<> 

(ho oiKor ran^o of tlio mouiuaius at noailiuan's IJapiiJ. outs (i.roii^h ar^ilku'oous saui! 
s(onos. with hoils of ohiy aiul liijuiio ol" (ho same kiuil as (hoso o( Mounlain llouso. Tho 
saiulsdnios aro in murh i;roa(or pro]H>r( ion. iiowovor, aiul (ho lii;ni(t< hoils .-iro more rarely 
.soon than in tho Si'otums ah>!iu; tho Nordi Saskatohowan. .\t Noailiuan's Kapiil (hoso 
stra(;i aro suooooilo.l hy yrits auil I'lay slialo in roi,Milar IhvIs. uinlist\irhoil at lirs(. laK, on 
.•tpproai'hiui;; (ho luoiuuaius. t'ouuil to ho implioad'it in (ho la(or u|ihoa\a!s. * * 

"On na( do Kivor (ho liiuii part o\' tho l>anks was oomposoil oi' (iio hauiloil olays aloiu;' 
with ooui-rotionary masses o[' saiuly linios(on<\ Over tho haiiilod elays is tho layer o( 
silieitioil wooil. while at the haso o( (ho seetion, aiul under (he vNator oi' (ho riser, (lie heils 
of lignite erop out. " 


i of noilulos 
.s tliat in\i!^t 

(< liiiih anil 

lU"ltM- I'MM'V 

o siH'oiulaiy 
vi>r iu\'U]>ifs 
\il jn'("s<'rv("s 
Dt" till' river 
Voiw ^i^ll' to 
>s iiuilor llio 
Maris, wliii'h 
["u-ial api'iar 
St roll i: n-lii'f 

mtarv of llio 
; aroiiai'ooiis, 
> nunintains. 
uiow, lia\ iui;- 
i>il, aiul lar^o 
iii_\ a|>i)roai'li 

ilioino. up to 

lU'oous saiiil 

House. Tlio 

m»Mi' raii'lv 

Kapitl tlu's.' 

list. Imt. on 

\ olays aloin: 
tho la\or o( 
\or, tlio lirtls 

t'HAPl'KK V. 

•nil'. r.i;i nsii rtM.rMp.i \ siution. 

Ow tlu' ^^ll\^^i^•al riMluovs L;iMiorall\ o( tliis |iortion oi' tlio eonntrx, iiu-liulinc; 
tlio oiiLi'inooriii^ diiru-ultics to bo (MK'ountoroil, llioro is le-s int\>rnialion a\ailal'lo than 
i>\ists of tluMouto oast of tlu> Koekv Mountains, as tlioro lias Ihh'u \oiv liltlo tra\ol in 
this iliroetion. l'"oi' siu-h infonuation. tlioii"t'oro. as is olitaiuaUlo. oiu|iiirors ai\' n'fci'n'd 
to tlic n'i>ort of tho Chief l'',n>;iuoor. pnl'lishoil in 1S7!. in whieh. with tho appouilieo.s 
ann(>\Oii. |ii'otl\ tull |>artienlars arc ^iv on. Tho tolKiwiui;- o\.tr;u'ls are t'roin iiuloponilont 
authoi'itit>s on suoli points as wouhl soom to lio i>f i^onoral intoro>l. aiul oonsov a fair iiii 
prossiou of tho olru'aotor o\' tlio oountvv. 

T/w CiiudJIiin lh)miiiioii, 1)1/ C'l.trfr.-i MiirslhiJ!, p. '_'01. 

* " Hv .a liapi>}' t'ooontrioil y in tho formation of tho Hooky Mountains 

a wiilo. :u'>l oasy. aiul romirkahly liuv pass has hoou sooopoil out, almost iinmoiliatoly in 
tho iliroot airlin< ii^ t'luiia. Tho ijiva tost olovation, !>,7tU) foot al>ovo tho soa. i'^ loss th.m 
half tho luMijht of tho p,issi>s \vhii<li tho I'nitoil States Paeilie*' has ha.l to The 
aseent to this pass the Veil >w Heail or l,;\ither llffad l\iss is. tVom tlu' e,nst siinply a 
Urailnal upw.'inl sloping «m" the vast pr.iirie plains. Tho vle:.eeiit into British ('oUunhia is 
pertoi'tly praetie.-iMo I'or r,iilri>ails,'' 

Thd Wi!J Xi^rth /.itiiJ, b;i C<ip;a'ui lutth-. F.Uj.'.S. .1 171 vi-.'/.r. /'. ;^l('-. 

•'Tho tli<pr>>ssion. or slope, of the ]irairii> le\ol norlii I'oiitiiiues. with 
inarke.l i\'ijularit\ , tl\rous;'hont. the wluilo of British .\inoiie;i ; thus at the I '.'ih parallel 
^the houiulary line hetwotm the I'nitt'il States^ the mean elexation of the pl.iins is jihoiit 
l,tHi() feet. Two huiuh'Oil ;.ihl tifly miles north or in tiie .">,')ril it is ahout ;?,t)(H) 
foi>( ; juiil iUH) mih>s still further north, or aliout tlii> entiaiuv tf I'eaee luvor I'.iss. it has 
fallen to something;- like I.TtH^ t'oet alnne the se,a level. 

" l>iit these oiov.itions have* riM'eronei' only to the pr.iiries at th;> e.istern li.iso of the 
Kooky Mountains. \\"o must now t^laneo at tlu' mountains tln'insehes, whii'h t'orm the 
real ohstaolo to inter oeeanit- lines of railroaJ. 

"It miu;hl he inferroil from this ^radiuil slope i*f the j'laiiH norlliw that tlu' 
nionnlain ranges follow eil tho s;une l.iw, ;iiul iltvroasoil in a oiuresp.nuliu^' iloiiroe, after 
llio\ passoil the I'.'lh par.illol, but siieh is not tlu> e.ase ; so fir iVom it, tlit\\ mily attain 
their maximum (>le\alion in o'J north latitiulo, w lic>m t'lMiu an altituile of lt>.('iU) fi>i>(. 
(ht< summits of Mounis Hrown ami Hooker look down on the fertile plains at the soitivos 
of the Saskatehewau Kiver. 

* * * " r>ut tliou'^h tho summits of the niuiio iuv'reast' in heis^'hl as wo 

go north, tho lovoU of the vallovs or passes, in a most romarkiihlo de^jreo." 


Report of rrotjvcisc, Canadian Pacific llailiraij, 1874. Iieporl by Mr. Marcus Smith, 2), 103. 

"The surveys made up to tlie present time through the great inountaiu zone running 
jiarallel to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, sliow tliat a favorable line for the railway can 
be oltained from the summit of the Yellow Head Pass in the llocky Mountains eastward 
to Fort Edmonton on the North Saskatchewan Iliver. 

"The distance between these two points is estimated at 288 miles, and on the first 
50 miles from the summit oi the i)as3 easterly there will be a considerable number of 
rock cuttings, but none of them very deep, and but very little, if any tunnelling will be 
I'equii'ed. The grades throughout this length will be easy. 

"Thence across the Foot Hills to Fort Edmonton the grades will be undulating, and 
none of them need exceed 53 feet per mile; with excavations at no great depth, in sand 
and clay loam, and only a few cuttings through soft sandstone. The most important 
works on this section will be the bridging of the Athabasca, McLeod, Pembina and 
Saskatchewan Hivers." 

TxiE PiocKY Mountains. 

Overland Bailway through 11. N. America, h)j Alfred Waddington, p. IG. 

" The I'oad now enters the Rocky Mountains, and turning soiith, passes for several 
miles between a small lake to the east, and the Athabasca, a stream 200 yards wide, 
swollen and turbid with glacier water, which rises in the llocky Mountains, some DO 
miles above, and iiins here nearly due north at the bottom of a wide, flat valley. A little 
higher up, the river expands into two small lakes, the lower one bathing the foot of a 
]iorpendicular limestone (?) blufi' forming part of the lioche a Miette, a singularly shaped 
mountain, 6,000 feet from its base, or i),400 feet above the sea. Immediately beyond, 
the road enters on a little sandy plain ; opposite which, and in a lovely expanse extending 
some 5 miles on the left bank of the river, between the two lakes, lies Jasper's House, 
in long. 118° 10', hit. 53° 12'; 3,372 feet above the sea. The road now crosses several 
fordable mouths of a stream from the south, and continues in a southerly direction for 
about 18 miles iip the narrowing valley, along the right bank of the Athabasca, and over 
easy ground, requiring, at most, an occasional cutting or embankment." 

Ibid, pp. 17,18,19. 

" The summit of the Yellow Head Pass forms the limit of British Columbia. It 
presents a comparatively open and level space for about 3 miles ; after traversing which, 
the road would pass over easy ground along the north side of Cow-dung Lake, and at the 
foot of verdant, swelling hills ; the lake consisting of two portions connected by a short 
narrow channel, and in all about 7 miles long. It would tlien folio vv the direction of tlie 
sniall stream issuing from the western extremity of the Lake for several miles, down to 
where the Eraser, flowing through a narrow gorge fi'om the north-west, sweeps round into 
the valley. The road would run for the next four or five miles along the ni^ith side of this 
stream, between the river and the steep hill sides of the straitened valley, over level but 
low ground, subject to be overflowed and encumbered with fallen timber ; till it reached 
Moose River, a rapid stream falling in from the north. Two or three nn'les below, the 
Eraser expands into Moose Lake, 12 to 15 miles long by 2 to 3 wide. The mountains on 
the south side of this lake rise jierpendicular to a height of 2,000 feet. On the north 
side, tJiough less abrupt, they still come down in many |)laces to the water's edge, and 
close in. on the road, thus necessitating several miles of side cutting along the lake. The 
valley now begins to acquire a more rapid and continuous descent, and, changing direction. 


itk,2h 193. 

lilway can 
3 eastward 

n tlie first 
number of 
iig will bo 

ating, and 
h, in sand 
"mbina and 


for several 

ards wide, 

some DO 

A little 

foot of a 

rly shaped 

ly beyond, 


L''s House, 

ies several 

'ection for 

, and over 

imbia. It 
ug which, 
and at the 
ly a short 
;ion of tlie 
I, down to 
'otnid into 
lide of this 
• kivel but 
it reached 
below, the 
mtuins on 
the north 
edge, and 
ike. Tlio 

runs nearly due west for the next 30 miles. Four or five miles below Moose Lake, it 
opens somewhat, after which it is much encumbered by largo timber, till the mountains 
close in once more, and the road between them and the Fraser is obstructed by lofty cliffs 
of crumbling slate rock, the first met with beyond the Summit. Four or five miles below 
this, or about 15 miles from Moose Lake, a considerable branch called the ' Grand Fork' 
enters the Fraser at right angles from the north, through five separate mouths, which 
would have to be crossed. At this point the Fraser runs through a narrow rocky gorge : 
after which the valley, for the next 10 miles to opposite the Indian camp at the ' Cache,' 
becomes much more open, and the ground easier, though intersected by several streams 
from the north, and obstructed by fallen timber of gi'eat size. 

" The latter half of this distance is heavily timbered, and the descent between Moose 
Lake and the Cache rapid and continuous, but nowhere steep ; averaging less than 45 
feet to the mile, and probably never exceeding 70. There would also be some con- 
siderable side cuttings and eml)ankments, but not a sirgle tunnel in the whoh- length of the 
Pass. The continuation of the road in a straight line to the Pacific is now interrupted 
by a barrier of mountains, beginning some five miles below the Cache, and running north 
and south. These present the most extraordinary accumulation of mountains behind 
mountains as far as the eye can reach ; whilst they arrest the course of the Fraser, which 
turns suddenly north. * * * 

" The proposed i-ailroad must therefore necessarily follow the valley of the Fraser to 
the north ; or else take the line travelled by Milton and Cheadle down the Thompson to 
the south. But the latter, besides continuing for 120 miles below the Cache to run 
through a mountainous, uninhabitable region, covered with dense forests, and being costly 
in proportion, would lead to nothing definite beyond the opening up of a small portion of 
the colony ; since, in spite of every eflbrt, no really available line for a railroad between 
Fort Kamloops and New Westniinster has as yet been discovered through the Cascade 
or Coast Range. 

" The road down the valley of the Fraser, on the contrary, though describing a 
circuitous route, would turn the Cariboo or Gold Mountains, and communicate immediate- 
ly, either below Westroad River, or lower down at Quesnel Mouth, with the Chilcoaten 
or Great Western Plain of the colony ; whilst below the mouth of Bear River, the valley 
opens ujjon a fine tract of rolling country, with a climate considerably milder than that of 
(Canada, and ready for immediate settlement ; instead of the interminable mountains aiid 
forests on the Thompson Route. The Fraser, moreover, (whatever may have Ijcen said 
or wi-ittcn to the contrary), oilers a valuabh* water communication, and one inuncdiately 
available, through the whole of this cultivable distinct. 

"Nor nui^:t it l)i' forgotten that the gold diggings, together with the mining po]»ula- 
tion, are constantly moving on towards the northern limit of the colony, and that this is 
the direct line of )'oute to Poare Ivivcr, and all the latest gold discoveries." 

Ovran to Ocean, hij Ikv. ii. M. Grant, p. 233. 

" There is a wonderful i'ond)ination of beauty about these mountains. Great miwjses 
of bohlly defiueil bare rock iire unitinl to all the licauty that variety of form, color and 
vegetation give. A nolile river witli many tributaries each defining a ilistinet I'linge, ami 
a beautiful lake ten miles long, embosomed three thousand three hundred feet above 
the sea, among mountains three times as high, otter innumerable scenes, seldom to bo 
found within the same compass, foi- the artist to depict and for every traveller to delight 


" Valad informed us that the winter in this r|uarter is -wonderfully mild, considering 
the height and latitude : that the Athabasca seldoni if ever freezes here, and that wild 
ducks remain all the year instead of migrating south, as birds faither east invariably do. 
The lake freez(!s, but there is so little snow tliat travellers prefer fording the river to 
trusting to the glare ice." 

Ibid, p. 238. 

" The valley (Athabasca) still averaged from two to five miles Avide. * '■'■'• 

What a singularly easy 02)ening into the mountains, formed by some great convulsion 
that hail cleft them asunder, crushed and piled them up on each side like cokes of ice. 
* * The Athcabasca finding so plain a course had taken it, gradually sluiped and 
finished the valley, and strewn the bas-fonds, which cross torrents from the hills have 
seamed and broken uji. It looks as if nature had united all her forces to mako this the 
natural highway into the heart of the Rocky Moimtains." 

Ibid, ]>. 2r)2. 

* * '■''■ " Our throe ranges ai'c tlie Rocky jMoxmtains proper ; the Selkirk 
and Gold, which may be considered one ; and the Coast Range or Cascades. The passage 
from the east through the first range, is up the valley of the Athabasca and the Miette, 
and Ave have seen how easy it is, especi. Uy for a railway. The aveiMge height of the 
mountains above the sea., is 9,000 feet ; but the Yellow Head Pass is only three thousaiul 
seven hundred feet. On each side of the valley are mountains that act as natural snow 

Ibid, p. 254. 

" Moose Lake is a beautiful sheet of water, ten or eleven miles long, by three wide. 
It receives the Eraser, already a deep strong river fully 1.^)0 feet wide, and also drains 
liigh mountains tliat enclose it on tlie north and south. * * * ''pjio 

hillsides and the coiuitry beyond supjKU't a growth of splendid spruce, black pine and 
Douglas fir, some of the spruce the finest any of us had ever seen. So far in our descent 
from the Pass, the difficulties in the way of railroad construction arc not formidaljle, nor 
the grades likely to be heavy." 

Ibid, 2h 255. 

* * * " W« caniii to tli(! 'Grand Forks of tlie Fiascr,' wIkuo the niiiiu 
sti'cani reccixos from the north-east, a ti'iluitary important enough to bo considered ont^ of 
its sources. It flows in threes gieat di\isions, through a meadow two miles wide, from 
round the bases of Robson's Peak." 

Ibid, p. 25S. 

'" '•■ * "The trail follows down the •"'rasor to 'Tote .Tanne Cache,' 

where it leaves the river and turns south-east to go to the north 'I'honipson, at right 
angles to the main course. * * * ';['i,,, p,..^|^pv ^t the same ]ioint changes 

its westerly for a north-westerly couise to Fort (Jeorge wliere it sweoj)s round and comes 
south to rec(!ive the iniited waters of the North .vud South Thom})son, before cutting 
through the Cascade Ranges and (an])tying into the ocean. Tete Jauno Cache is thus a 
great centre point. From it the vall(>y of the Fi'asor extends to tlu; north-west, and tlio 
same valley extends south by the banks of the Cranberry and nf the Canoe Rivers to the 
head of the Columbia, — a continuous valley being thus formed i)arallel to the east range 
of the Rocky Mountains, and separating them from the (lold and Selkirk Ranges," 


1(1 that wild 
aricably do. 
he rivor to 


vkos of ice. 

■iha))ed and 

liills Lave 

^- this the 

the Selkirk 
fhe paK.sage 
ilie Miotte, 
sight of the 
>e thousand 
itural snow 

Airoo wide, 
also drains 
* Tho 
c i)inc and 
3ur descent 
idaljlc, nor 

tlie main 
or<H[ one of 
wide, from 

le Cache,' 
n, at right 
it changes 
ind conies 
)re cutting 
i.s thus a 
;, and the 
ei's to the 
?ast range 


FRASEn PtivEn. 

Four Yem's in, JJrUish Culumbia and Vcoicouver Idcunl. 

Maync, II. X., F.ll.G.S., p. 8:3. 

/)>/ Commander 11. (J. 

* * ' " The Fra«cr Elver rises in the Ptocky Mountains, a little to the 

northward of the Athaljasca Pass, and in a straight line less than .300 miles fi'om its 
niccting with the waters of the Pacific in tlie Gulf of (ieorgia. From its source it takes a 
north-westerly direction for about 160 miles, when it is turned soutliward by a spur of 
the llocky IMountaius, which runs east and west nearly to Stuart J^ake, where it turns 
northwai'd and assumes the name of the Peak Mountains. On the other si(l<' of this 
spur rises the Peace lliver. * * This mountain si)ur turns the Fraser 

sharply round to the south, and it tlion forces its way through the several great parallel 
valleys that intersect this region in a direction a little east of south for oOO miles, till it 
reaches Hoi)e, from tlionce it run ; nearly east ami west for about (SO miles to its 
mouth. * * * 

" Fort St. George, a Hudson P> ly Post, is situated on the west bank of the Fi-aser 
Jllver at its junction with the Stuart llivei*." 

Canada on the Pacijic, by Chas. Iloreizhj, j). 79. 

"Lake Stuart is a very beautiful sheet of water, about 3."> miles in length, with an 
average width of five miles, and is, I should think, about 1,800 feet above the sea levtil. 
Jta waters with those of Lakes Trembleur and Tacla, both very largo lakes, find their 
way, by the Nakosla or Stewart lliver, to the Fraser, which they join at Fort George. 
To the north and west the lake is flanked by high hills, and along some portions of the 
northern side pn^cipitous rocks rear tliemselves high up from the very water's edge ; but 
the southern extremity is bordered i)y very low and level laud, which continues, I am 
told, to the Quesnel." 

Tha North-West Pa^;sa(je hij Land, Jiy Lord Milton and^ Dr. ClicadU, p. 321). 

■'' * '■'■'■ " We may sa.'.'ely state, with the exception of one or two rocky and 

precipitous bluffs, tliere arc uo engine ering ditUculti(!S of any importance. From the Ped 
Jliver settlement to Edmonton, about oOO miles, the road lies through a fertile and park- 
like country. From Filmonton to Jas])ei- House, a distance of al)0ut 400 miles, the 
surface is slightly nndiilating, the low(!r grouud universally swampy, and everywhere 
covered with thick forests. A better trail than the one at ])resent used may l>e found 
for this portion of the way, by kee[)ing to the higher ground. From Jasper House to 
the Tcte Janne Cache — the i)ass through the main ritlgt' of the; Pocky ^Mountains, about 
100 or 120 miles in length — a wiile break in tlu^ chain, running nearly east and west, 
offers a natural roadway, unobstructed except by timbL-r. The rivers, with the exce[»tiou 
of the Athabasca and the Fraser, are small and ford.ible ; even at their highest. Tho 
ascent to the height of land is very gradual, and, indeed, hardly peroeptilile ; the level only 
3,700 feet above the sea ; and the descent on the westei'u slope, although mon; I'iipid, is 
neither steep nor diilicult." 

Tlie Red Uicer Count n/, Jladsmtx llmi and Xvrtlt-Wc!<t I'errtforie.-^. 

C'.E. pp. \U-h. 

Bii A.J. Rnsnell, 

* * * " The route, advoeateil by ^Ir. Waddiugton, thi'ough the interior, 

by tlin valley of the Saskatchewan, the liiver Athabasca, and the Yellow Head I'ass to 
the upper Fraser River across to Pute Inlel, is unrpieRtiona))ly by far the best as regards 


this side of the Rocky ^Mountains, and the jiassnge through them; and there is no room 
tj douht its l)cinf' so also to tho -westward thronijh British C*ohiml>ia. * * * 
Tho height of this pass is nearly the same level as the elevated sloping plain, on the east 
side, from which the Rocky Mountains rise. 

Passes Timouoir the Rocky Mouxtaixs. 

llcport of I'i'O'jress Canadian Pacific liaiJtoay, Appendix E. 

Esq., 2>p- 1 ti-2. 

Z?_y Jfurcus Smith, 

* * * " There are several passes through the Rocky Mountain Chain, 
giving access from the North- West Territory to British Columbia ; some of these are 
too far south to be eliuible for a line of I'aihvav to the Pacific coast within the boundaries 
of that province. 

"Of those which are more favorably situated, I give the following with their 
a];)proximate altitudes above the level of the sea, commencing with the most southerly 
and taking them in consecutive order northward, viz ; — 

" 1 Howso Pass, 
" 2 Athabasca, 
" 3 Yellow Head, 
" i Smoky River, 

altitude 4,.'i00 feet. 
" 6,025 " 
3,7-tG " 
" not known 

5 Pine River or Indian Pass ' ' 


[Since ascertained to be very easy, and under 2,000 feet.] 
" G Peace Jiiver, altitude under 2,000 feet. 

'' Tho eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, from tho foot of the main rocky ranges 
is a long gently iiiclined plain or series of steppes, and either of the above passes could 
probably b(! reached from the east with moderate grades. But on the western slope the 
country is much more difficult. Tho Athabasca Pass is too high to be considered 
eligible for a i-ailway route. The Howse I'ass debouches on the Upper Columbia valley, 
almost at right angles to it and with a very rapid descent, as shown by the surveys made 
of this ])ass in l^*?! ; and as there is little pi-obability of a pass being found across the 
Selkirk Jiange between the ujjper and lower arms of the Columbia River, a line of railway 
through the Howse Pass woulil, on entering the Columbia valley, have to turn at a sharji 
angle and follow the course of that river on a north-west course about 100 miles to the 
great l)cnd, at the Boat Encampment, and there make another sharp turn, and run in an 
almost op])osite direction for al)out 85 miles to the Eagle Pass, through the Columbia or 
(iold Range, by whicli a connection could be made with the valleys of the Thompson and 

•'The situation of the y<>llow Tfead Pass is much more favorable. It is entereil 
from the (>ast l)y the valley of tho Athabasca to Jasper House ; it then follows up th<; 
.same valley nearly due south to its junction Avith the Caledonian valley, thence up the 
latter, due west to the sunmiit of tho })ass. Beyond this tho valley continues westward 
by a gentle d(;sccnt to Yellow Head and ]\Ioose Lakes. These lakes receive tho first 
ti-ibutaries of tho Eraser, and from Moose Lake that river issues in a stream 50 to CO 
yards wide, which is joined l)y another branch of greater magnitude from the north before 
it readies tlie 'J'ete Jaune ('ache. Here it encounters the Selkirk Range, or an apparent 
continuation of the same, .sometimes called the (Jariboo Range, by which it is deflected to 
a north-west ooui'se, in which it continues nearly 20t) miles through a deep valley, 
completely severing this range *Voin the main chain. Having turned this at the great 
bend, the river then Hows almost duo .south for nearly 100 miles, thence westward till it 
enters the Strait of ( b.'orgia lielow New Westuunster. 

no room 

* # 

u the oast 

nis Sinit/i, 

ain Chain, 

these are 


with their 
t southerly 

icky ranges 
Lsses could 
[ slope the 

bia valley, 
veys made 

across the 
! of railway 

at a sharp 
ilos to the 

run in an 
jlumbia or 
mpson and 

is entered 
ws up the 
nee up the 

B the first 
n 50 to 60 
jrth before 
11 apparent 
lefleoted to 
H'p valley, 
t the great 
'ard till it 


"Standing on an elevated point near Teto Jauno Cache, the deep valley of the 
Fraser is seen stretching away to the north-west as far as the oyo can reach ; then, facing 
round to the opposite direction, tlie valley is continued almost in a sti'aight lino by the 
Canoe River to the great bend of the Columbia, at the Uoat Kncampment ; thence up the 
Columbia in the same directicjn to its source ; and thus the great chain of the Itocky 
Mountains is cleft longitudinally by a continuous line, of deep valleys over 400 miles in 

"The portion thus severed from tho main range is scarcely inferior to it in altitude, 
and is equally rugged and broken; it is that terrildo snow peaked range seen str«!tcliing 
away from Tete Jaune Cache, so graphically described iu Milton and Cheadle's 'North- 
west Passage by land.' 

" On tho westerly Hank or foo-Q hills of tliis range are the gold bearing rocks, 
extending south-easterly to the boundary of British Columljia, and north-westerly iu the 
same line as f;U' at least as the 5Gth parallel of latitude." 

Four Years in British Cohunbia. Bi/ Comtna)uler li. C. Mayw:, R.X., F.Ii.G.S., p. 84. 

* '■' * " Fort St. George, a Hudson Bay Post, is situated on the west 
bank of the Fraser Iii\'er at its junction with the Stuart Hiver, which latter flows in a 
like direction from Stuart Lake, which is the southern post of a chain of three or four 
lakes which sti-etch northward 100 miles to the head waters of the Bear River, at the foot 
of the Peak Mountains. At the head of the upper of these lakes stands Fort Connolly." 

The Dominion at the West. Bi/ Alex. Caulfield Anderson, J. P., IS 

72, 2)p. 


"The three princii)al streams of British Columbia are, the Columbia, the Fraser, and 
the Peace. The last-mentioned, rising in the angle formed by the Peak Range with tho 
Rocky Mountains and tho Coast Range, after receiving the important gold-bearing 
tributary, Findlay's Branch, breaks through the main line of the Rocky Mountains, and, 
passing onwards, joins the gi'eat River Mackenzie; the united flood, after a course of 
some two thousand miles, eventually falling into the Frozen Ocean. 

" The Columbia, rising in the Rocky Mountains, pursues a southerly cour.-ie, and 
after receiving several important tributaries, and feeding the two extensive sheets of 

water called the Arrow Ijakes, enters the United States Territory in latitude 41)" 
after a course of neai'ly a thousand miles, falls into the Pacific in latitude 40" 20'. 


" Fraser River, comparatively the smallest, but in its relation to the Province by far 
the most important, Hows entirely through British Columbia, entering the Gulf of 
Georgia a few miles north of tho boundary line of 4'J ', and iu about 122" 40' west 
longitude; its course throughout being nearly [)arallel with that of tho Columbia. TIu! 
main, or central, branch takes its rise in the Rocky Mountains in lat. 53'> 4-5' N., 
long. 118" W., there heading with the Riviere de Miette, a tributary of tho Athabasca, 
which afterwards unites with Peace River in its course towards tho Frozen Ocean. 
Fraser River was first discovered by Sir Alexander Mackenzie of the North-West Com- 
j)any, who, designating it as tho Td-cout-chc Tesse, or River of the TacuUy nation, 
descended it for some distance on his way to the. Western Coast in 1703. Afterwards, 
in 1808, it was navigated to its mouth by Mr. Simon Fraser and Mr. John Stuart of the 
North- West Comjtany ; from the former of whom it has its present name. Fraser River, 
a few miles from its source, flows into a lake some miles in length called Cow-dung Lake, 
below which, considerably increased by a tributary from the north, it enters Moose Lake, 
a beautiful sheet of water some nine miles in length. Thence the river continues ra[)idly 
to Teto Jaune Cache, being joined midway by a second feeder, likcwiso from the north. 


*' Teto Jiuino Caclio, distant a])Out 70 miles from tlio .summit of tho Ilocky 
Mouutaiiis ami T.'JO fi'om tho sou, is the limit of canoe navigation on tho Fraser. About 
tliro(! miles lower down, the stream is joined by the Cranberry Fork, a tributary flowing 
from the Houth, svliii'h heads in with the Ncn-th Branch of the Thompson, to be l)resently 
noticed, and the Canoe Fork of tlu^ Cohnnbia. 

'• r.rtwecn 'Pete Jaune Caclie and 1'ld<'-et-lch, wliere thf^rt! is a post of th<! Hudson's 
])ay Company called Fort Cicorgo, the river is augment(;d by many tributaries ; two of 
which tho Mackenzie Fork and IJear Jliver are of eonsidorabh) magnitude, this point is 
in latitude 5."5" 5.5', longitude \'2'2" -b")'. An important bi'anch here falls in from the 
westward, proceeding fi'om Lakes Stuart and Fraser. C^uesncl iliver, issuing from the 
great lake of the same nauu), Hows in 100 miles lower down ; and 10 miles below this ia 
Fort Alexandria, seated on the right liank in lat. !'t2" IV-V W. 

" It is in tho mountainous region comprised within the groat bend wliich the Fraser 
makes l)etween 'fete -Jaune (.'ache and this point, that the rich gold deposits, known as 
the Cariboo mines, are situated. 

"At Lytton, about ISO nules from the sea, tho Fraser is joined I»y Thompson's 
lliver, a copious tributary tlowing from the eastward. This stream waters an extensive 
and important section of tho country ; its northern branch heading Avith the Cranberry 
Fork, before mentioned." 

JbU, pp. 11-12. 

* ■''• " The mainland of r) Cohunbia, apart from thff seaboard, 

may be divided into three sections, each Jittering fi'om the otlier in its attributes. The 
first extends from the month of the Fraser lUver to the head of the ra})ids above Y.nle : 
tho second, from that point to Alexandria': tho third, thence to the Ilocky Moiuitains. 

" The characteristics of the lower district are a surface thicklj"- wooded in most pai'ts 
with trees of enormous growth, chiefly varieties of the fir and pine, and intermixed 
with the red cedar {Thujct OccUleidalin of Douglas, 6' /^an^Yt of Nuttall) and the maple- 
plane {Platamm Accrifolla). Low alluvial ])oints fringe these thickets. These, as Avell as 
the numerous islets along the river, are covered with aspens, balsam poplars, and alder.s, 
of luxuriant growth. In tlie lower part are some extensive meadows, yielding, in their 
natural, heavy croj)s of a coarse but nutritious grass, and, under cultivation, enoi-- 
mous returns of cereals and other produce. For a certain ])eriod of tiie year mosquitoes 
are troublesome along tho river, as high, nearly, as Ho])e : but there has never been 
manifested any symptom of fever and ague, or other similar endemic, so ofton generated 
in positions of a like; description. 

" On the verge of the second, or central, division a marked change connnences. Tho 
C()])ions rains which fall in the lower district are greatly modified after we pass the moun- 
tainous ridge through whicli the livtu- bursts near Yale. Evidences of a drier climate 
ai)i)ear at every step. The character of tho vegetation changes. About Lytton the 
cactus begins to ap])ear. In spots along tho Thom])son the artemisia, and other shrubs 
iiulicative tf a dry and hot climate, arc found : and in lieu of the thickiy-wooded luxuri- 
ance of the lower region, a succession of open valleys, covered with fine ])a.sture and 
bordered bv hills in i)arts more or less wooded, delights the eye of the ti'aveller. 
Here and there belts of forest intervene ; amid which broad expanses of open land lie 
scattered at intervals. This grneral dcscrii)tion may be regarded as aj)plying to a very 
lari'e tract of country, extending from Alexandria on the Fraser, in latitiulc 52" 3iV, to 
the' southern boundary line on the Okinagan l{i\er ; and thence at intervals towards 
the south-eastern angle of the province. 


10 Rocky 
■y llowiu^ 

i 1 udsoii's 
1 ; two of 
; jioiiit is 
IVoiu tlie 
fl'OlU tlio 
>\v til is in 

Ik! Fraser 
;no\vn as 

1()1U1)S011 s 


tes. Tlio 
ive Vale : 

most partu 
<lie niaple- 
as Avell as 
lul akler.s, 
f, in theii- 
ion, enor- 
3ver been 

oes. Tl.'O 
the moun- 
r climate 
^•ttou the 
cv shrubs 
till luxuri- 
stui'o and 
1 laud lie 
to a vci'y 
2" 3:5', to 
i towards 

"The third division of Rritish Columbia, from Alexandria to the ^fountains, varies 
materially from tile other two. 'I'Ik^ ai,'ricultural region, [H'operly so called, may lie said 
to terminate in tlin vieiiiity of Alexandria ; tlioiit;h there are many small spots beyond 
tiiat ])oint which may be advanta^'eously cultivated for culinary ve,i,'(;tal)lcs and tlic burch-r 
cereals. Creneraily speakinif it is a wooded couiitrv, through which many open s[iots of 
excellent soil are interspersed, with large tracts of luxuriant pasture — especially in the 
direction of Kraser and Stuart Jiakes, and in the (,'liilcotin country. Krom Kort (Jeorge, 
however, up the main liranch of the Fraser to Tcte .Jaune Cache, noim of these open 
])laces appear : and though many cultivable patches along the river banks tniglit in parts 
be readily cleared, it is jirobabh; that the occurrence! of summer night-frosts would pre- 
vent the growth of any save the hardier vegetables. Krasor i.ake, however, and tlie 
neighboring lake of Stuart, have been for manyyeai'S the scene of agricultural operations 
on a small scale, at the Posts, formerly of the North-West, and since the coalition of 
1821, of the Hudson's J>ay Company. At the former place, especially, these limited 
0])crations were invariably successful, i'otatoes, turnips, and otlier v(;getables throve 
wonderfully. Darley yielded invarial)ly a heavy return ; and tli ■ igh wheat was culti- 
\'ated occasionally only, on a very small scale, and rather exjierinientally than as a crop, 
it ripened well in favorable j)Ositions. The pasture in these vicinities is of the most 
l.ixuriant descri[)tion, consisting of fine natural grasses iutca'iuixed with a nutritious kind 
of Avild pea, oi- vetch. Cattle and horses of course thrive well ; but the necessity of 
providing fodd(>r against the lengthened winter of these elevated parts, discourages their 
being raised beyond a limited extent. 

"This upper region, however, is to be considered more especially as the vili'lmj diti- 
Iric.t : and any partial cultivation that may be attem[)tod to meet an extemh'd iirirkct in 
connection with the mines, must b(; regarded only as subsidiary to the main supply, de- 
rived from a remoter source." 

GeoloijicdJ Survei/ of Canada, 18"-t-5. Il'itorl hij Mr, J'lines Hkhardsnii, jip. 71-5. 

* =■= * " Deposits of stratified clay, sand, and gravel ar(! of rare occur- 

rence ; but around the shores and on the lower parts of the mountains, the rocks me for 
the mosti)art overlaid by a thin layer of l)lack vegetable soil, which supi)orts a tolerably 
thick forest, consisting of white spruce, white j)ino, and cedar, many of the trees measur- 
ing from two to three feet at the base, and running up from 40 to GO feet without a 
branch. The great extent of those forests, and their proximity to navigable waters, ar(( 
ehiinents which at no distant date will probaldv make them of very considerable value 
find importance." 

lii'pon of the Select Committee on Immigration and Coloni::ation, Ilou-fi of Cutnmon.'^, 
Canada. Professor Macoun's Evidence, 2>p- 34-5. 

" Q. How do the volleys in British Columbia compare in extent witli our general 
views of valleys I 

" A. The British CoUunhian valleys arc more of the nature of ravines (I sjieak of 
those in the dry country) than anything else, but there are many level terraces, ('benches') 
which may be termed valleys, scattered all over the country ti'aversed by me. lliver 
valleys in British Columbia, except in the third district, have no existence. Every river 
seen by me in the middle region ran at the l)ottom of a gorge, usually called a Canyon, 
and had not one foot of a valley. The valley of the Low(!r Fraser is a true valley of de- 
]'-ositiou, and is altogether composed of the alluvium brought down by the river ; one 
drawback in connection with it, is the destruction caused every year by the river cutting 
into its banks and wasting the land along them. At Sumas this is going on so last that 
houses have Iiad to bo removed alreadv. 

" Q. Wliat is tho nature of the soil in tlio v.illoya ] Do you find rich alluvinl do- 
l)08it8 iu tho valleys, or are they covered with the debris of rocky fragmonta washed from 
the mountains ] 

*' A. Tho soil in tho valleys, whether they are narrow or wide, ('benches') or other- 
wise, is always good. The valleys are ])artly alluvium and partly the detritus Wfushed 
down from the hills. Apparently there was a time when the rivers stood much higher 
than tlu;y do now, and the (' benches') which show along their sides were then about on a 
Hood level with the river. 8ince then the ri\ er has successively broken through the bar- 
rii;rs which confined it, and left tliese terraces (' benches ') at various heights. The slopes 
of all tho kills are more or less grassy, and tlie valleys along their base have scarcely any 
loose stone ujjon them in|uence. 

" Q. Have you a knowledge of the tein))erature ] If so, how does the thermometer 
range during tho summer and winter months both on the coast and inland ( Are summer 
frosts prevalent and injurious to crops { 

" xi, I was in Victoria from the 1:2th to I'Sth December, 1872, and from the 2nd to 
14th May, last year. While I was in Victoria in 1872, a fall of snow and slight frost 
took place, arul the papers came out next day with an account of the extraordinarily cold 
weather, and I was led to infer from that, that such weather was not common in winter. 
Jessamine, roses, and violets were iu llower, and everything betokened a mild winter. 
The summer on the coast is everything that can be desired, being dry and pleasant. 

" In the arid region the spring is about as early as on the coast ; the winter is com- 
paratively cold, with very little snow, and tlie summer is dry and hot. Summer frosts 
can do no harm iu these regions. 

" From Clinton upwards the winter is very cold with a considerable snow-fall and 
frosts extending through the numth of May, and possibly into June. I lieard of no in- 
jury from frosts at Quesnelle or any pouit on the Fraser, lait noticed frost on the grass 
on the 27th May, at or near Soda Creek. From this date until the 4t]i June, tho 
weather kept cold, but there was no frost. On tho 28th June at MacLeod's Lake, lat. 
nS", there was a severe frost, and many wild tlowers were injured, but nothing was liurt 
in the garden. 

board ? 

What are the facilities fo'r reaching the cultivable i)latoaux from the sca- 

" A. From Victoria to Westminster and Yale by steamboat ; then by v/aggon road 
along the canyons of the Fraser and Thompson to Spence's Bridge on the latter river. 
From here a 'trail' leads up the Nicola Valley for an unknown distance. Thirty-two 
miles beyond this point, at Cache Ci-eek, a road leads to Karaloops and tho waggon road 
passes on to Barkerville in Cariboo. Except a branch road passing froTu Clinton to 
Lilloet on the Fraser, I know of no other roads in the country." 


Four Years in British Columbia. By (Jommamler R. C. Mai/nc, li.A\,,pp. 3823. 

* * ■•' " The natural resonrci.'s of iiritish Columbia, independently of its 
mineral w«alth, are such aa to make it well worthy of the corisideration of agricultui-al 


lluvinl (1(«- 
sliod from 

or otlior- 
is w.'ushod 
1 higlier 
it)Out on a 
li the ba»- 
riie sloi»e,s 
ucoly any 

■e suniiner 

" After the Cascade Ranpjo is passed, tlio country assumes an entirely diflcront aspect 
from tliat of the coast. The dense j)ine-forcst3 cease, and the land heconies open, clear, 
and in the spring and siimmer time covered with bunch-grass, which aflbrds excellent 
grazing for cattle. Although this country may rightly he called oj)en, that word should 
not 1)0 understood in the sense in which an Australian settler, for instance, wouUl accept 
it. There are no enonnous prairies here, as there, without a hill or wood to break the 
monotony of the scene far as the eye can reach. It is rather what the Californians term 
'rolling country' broken uj) into pleasant valleys and sheltered by mountain ridges of 
various height. These hills are usually well clothed with timber, but with little, if any, 
undergrowth. The valleys are generally clear of wood, excej)t along the banks of the 
streams which traverse them. * * ■''■ The timber upon the hills is very 
light compared with its growth upon tlie coast. * * '■' 

»' Governor Douglas, speaking of this di:^trict says : — 

;he 2nd to 
ight frost 
larily cold 
in winter. 
Id winter, 

'"The district is exceedingly beautiful and picturesque, being composed of a .suc- 
cession of hills and valleys, lakes and rivers, exhibiting to the traveller accustomed to the 
endless forests of the coast districts the unusual and grateful spectacle of miles of green 
hills crowning slopes and level meadows, almost without a bush or tree to obstruct the 
view, and even to the very hill tops produciiig an abundant growth of gi*ass. ♦ * # 
It lias certainly never been my good fortune to visit a country more pleasing to the eye, 
or possessing a more healthy and agreeable climate."' 

;er is com- 
mer frosts 

w-fall and 
of no in- 
the gi-ass 
June, the 
Lake, lat. 
I was hurt 

I the sca- 

ggon road 
iter river, 
ggon road 
'linton to 

pp. 382-.'}. 

tly of its 

lieport hij Lkut. 11, SpPMcer Palmer, Royal Engnieerx, on tin; Xorth Jii.ntbich Ann (uul 
the route thence through the Caxeade ehain of viountai )i.s to the interior 

of Ih'itiulb Columbia. 

* * * " The belt of country lying between the Summit J.ak{! and the 
Chilcotin Iliver, presents more attractive features than any other portion of the route. 
Ranges of rolling hills of as much as 1,000 feet in height enclose broad, open valleys 
watered by gentle streams, and embellished with chains of j)icturesque lakes. Although 
considerable tracts of dense forests are met with on the heights and on ti.e mountain 
slopes, this gives way in the lowlands to an open-timbered grassy country, such as is met 
witli in the Similkameen and other well known districts of British Cohnnl)ia, and the 
valleys also embrace numerous compar.itively level, open pr.aries of various extent, which 
aHbrd bunch-grass, pasturage in fair abundance and will probably be found to be con- 
venient wintering posts. * -v- * 

<' A.*! regaids routes from the coast, the iuiju'cssion ccmveyed l)y this glimpse at a very 
lai'ge tract of country is that on emerging from the Cascadt; Fbiiige, the principal 
ditiicidties of travel are [lassed .and that, thence, there is no impracticability in making a 
road .across th(^ pl.iteau to strike lli(! Fi-aser at almost any point. * * 'i'lie 

dettu-mination of the best line through so extensive a district would necessarily Im a labor 
involving weeks oi- even months of exploration, the main object of course being to avoid 
as far aspossible the lakes and swamps, and, guided by the relative geographical position 
of the termini, to lay out as stiviight a road as the natural features ot the country 
admit of. * * '■ * 

'• IJt'cui-ring once jnore to the ront(> across the plateau, T must notice, as one of its 
most prominent features, the almost entire absence of hills between the Piccipice and 
Alexander', the vall(\vs of the I'oot/coako and the Chilcotin, and tlie final descent to the 
Eraser being the only jioints wlien; hills worth mention occur. Swamps arc very general^ 


juolialily, in nil, tluf iictuiil extent of Hwamiw travcvHeil, in [lit'CcH from '20 to 100 yanlH in 

li'iiLjtIi, does iioL exceed ten miles. •'• 

" t)f tho climate of tli<! i>lateaii I can not give any leliiiMo data, tliou{,'li it is |)rolnible 
that owint,' to its threat altitude, Avliidi from the slide eastwards nearly everywhere exceeds 
J,0(t() feet, and reaelies to more than 1,I)()(J feet ahove the the levi'l of the sea. 

" I'eiitinck Arm I'onte is unlikely, for the jtrcsent at least, to a('((nire importance aH 
r.n arterial hi;,diway. * * iJute Inlet appears to possess far greater 

advanta^^es of ideographical jiositlon, and we learn from the admiralty survey that thero 
is a passable anchorage at its la'ad," 

Pii'port of Sch'ct Connn'ittof, llovso. of Commons, Canada, on Iiiuii'Kjitilion (.kiI Coluitrjh 
f!o)i, 1S70, Prof'. Macoiin's Eciilcaec, p. 3."». 

"Between Quesnello and Kort St. J.-imes, on Stewart'H Lake, is a wide extent of coun- 
try (liSO miles) with a very divei-sitied aspect, and a cool, moist climate. Tho valley of 
the Neehaco River is very wide and pei'fectly level. On l)oth sides of tho river are 
heautiful prairies and poplar eojjsewood, ami at the time wo passed (Juno [("ith) through 
it, everything look(!(l hciiiitiAil and inviting. 

"I cannot speak with certainty of the ahsenco or occnrronco of summer frosts, Imtif 
they should not he severe this woiild he one of tho liiiest tracts. (Neehaco N'alley) in 
all British Columhia. 

''The whole countiy ahove (^juesnelle seems to have a cool, moist climate, and to he 
nioro like C^Miehec in its jjroiluctions than Ontiirio. l<\)rt St. James, on Stewart's l^ake 
— the highest point in the disti'ict — Jias alway.s heen known to ; odiU'c garden. vegetal)les, 
jiotatoes, liarley and o;itH, Imt whether wheat has ever been raised or not I am unable to 
say. All this region is an elevated pl.ateau with broken, rocky hills at intervals, but 
scarcely anything wliich could be called a mountain. Should the railway pass as far 
north as the Ncshaw, many tine settlements would spring up along the river. 

FoKV Yiiirs ill Brlthli Colitinhkt. Jli/ Coiinndndcr J!. C. May no, 11. X., F.h'.CS. j>. lit). 

* " AVheu Sir Alexander JIacken/.ie explored this part of the country, 

he appears to have ascended the West Iload Jliver from the Krascn', and then, crossing the 
ridgt! foiining the watershed, to have descended to the .sea. His I'oute has never been 
exactl}' followed ; but in iNdO Mr. Colin McKen/ie ciosseil from Alexandria to the same 
]ilace on the coi. ', viz : Ifascals' Village or J5eUa-lioida J!ay, in thirteen days by way of 
Chilcotin Lake. His party travelled the greater portion of the way on horseback. Mr. 
McKenzie told me that they might have taken their animals all the May by changing the 
route a little. On their way back, indeed, they did so. The ascent to the watershed was, 
lie said, so gradual, that they only knew tlay had passed the summit by finding that th(* 
streani.s ran we.'^t, instead oi' east." 




* * * ""J'he trail runs tla^ mIioIi! distanci^ fnan Ahv\andria to Coast iiange 

on a kind of tableland, which is studded in every direction with lakes and meadows. 
The streams are numerous but small and shallow, in fact, mere creeks. 'J'here are sonai 
swamps. '■■ * * There is plenty of fallen timber ; but it is light and could easily be 

) viiiil.s in 

.s iirohalilu 

)i'tiinct! ii.s 
tliat (Ikmu 


it of couu- 
ViiUcy of 
riv»'r iir(i 

) tlirougli 

)sts, l»ut if 
Viilloy) in 

iind In 1m! 
irt's Liikti 

unable to 
vvals, lull 
ass as far 

■.,V. ;/. lie. 

I'ossinjjj the 

IL'VCf llCOll 

u the same 
>y way of 
ai'k. Mr. 
an^fing tlio 
■rslicil -was, 
I-' tliat the 

ast JIaiigc 
iuo soni« 

I oasily Ijc 

(lirn'tioii. '■' 


Proitosed Ovii'land liidh'oad. liif Alfi'cd U'oddhi'jtoti, ji. 10. 

'•' " 'I'lif road wiiiilil cross tlio rich (Jhilcotiu plain in n soutli-wcHtorly 
■■•■• .'•• This slightly roiling, ft-rtilo plain olU.-rs every facility lor a rail 

Trtircii ill lU-iii Ji Cii/iiiiifiiii. /»'// Cd/if. ('. A'. /liir)'etl-L''iiuttfd, />. i.'KS. 

* '■'■'• '•'■'■ " So far as reaching the I''raser from the is coneerneil, the 

Ihitt! Inlet route has the atlvanl.ige of licjng the shorter vv.iy hy 'JO miles, which is much 
more uccossihle from Victoria tliiku Denliuck Ann." 

Coast o|' r>itiTisi[ ('oLCMniA. 

Tim Domiuiou at tlir. ]Yent. lii/ A1i>x, Criv/jirhl Aitdrrsoii, -J. P., p. •'». 

■''' ■■' * "The coast range (/. f;. the chain of niountiiins lying hotweeu 

interior of the )>i'ovince and llui Hoaboanl) connnonces ahovt; New Westmuistcr, and 
tends jiaiallel with the ceast, as far as Mount St, Eliiis at the northern cxticmity. =•■ 

" A rt'furonco to tho map will show that tlio North-west Coast from San Francisco 
upAvards as far as the Strait of Fuca, presents a line nMiiarkaltly free from indentation, 
'i'iienco northward, however, the coast is liioken n[» into a perfect maze of iidds, forming 
in tlieir ramifications countless islands of greater or less extent. The minute exploration 
of this extraordinai'v ai'chipelago l>y Vancouver, in the years 1701-'j:5, has given ns nnips 
the accui'acy of which under the circumstances has excited the admiration of succeeding 
navigators. Outside of tin; archipelago lie two principal islands, Vancouver and <i>ueen 
( 'harlotte, divided from each other by a broad scanwl, and extending from the Sti'ait of 
Fuca on th(! South to the frontier of Alaska on the North. The southern island, named 
by tho t'xplorer (Juadra and Vancoiwer's hldiitl, after the S[ianisli t'onnnander then on 
the station and himself, formed originall)', with its de]ien(h'ncies, the (.'olony of V^ancouver 
Island. It extends in a north-western direction from lat. IS" L'U' to hit. 01", in length 
nearly iMO geographical miles ; its greatest breadth, opposite to Nootka, I'cing about 
seventy. Victoria, the seat of (Jovernment and Capital of the I'rovince, is situated near 
tho south-easti'rn extremity of tho island, where the adjoining Strait of Fuca is about 
soventt;en nules in lireadth. This strait, extending into the United States Territory by 
the inlet terminating in I'uget Sound on the south, expands northw.ird into the (bdf of 
(icoigia, whi;h extends to lat. •)()", This ])orti(m of the dividing channel in no part ex- 
ceeds lH) miles in width ; contracting afterwards into .Johnstone's Stiait, w liicli, at the 
nari'owest part, does not exceed two miles." 

Till- I/iid.ihi's lUiji Tirrih'riri--. J'>;i 1\. M. Murtiii. j>. '27. 

* " The coast aliounds with harbors, inlets and islands, of which 

latter that called "N'anconver, or (^Miadra is tho largest anil most imjiortant to Great 
r>ritain, from its ])osition at the termination of tho United States boundary, iu the 4'Jth 
jiarallel of hititude, and frinn its tine harljors, there l)eing no haven bctwiH'n the Straits of 
Juan d(; Fuca ami San Francisco, in California. 

* * * "The islands within the British (h)minions are tif various sizes ; tho, named '(i)uet!n Claudotte's Island,' is somewhat of a triangular form, lying nearly 
north and south; the south ])oint iu the parallel of 5l'". The sui)eriicial area is less thau 
that of Vancouver Island, it has sc\ oral good harbors. '■' ''' * Tho country 


around some of tlieso harbors is said by the Americans to bo fertile, and the climate 
comi)aratively mild. 

" The Princess Royal Islands lie niarer to the mainland between the parallel of 51" 
and 54" north latitude. * * '■' The adjacent coast is of very irregular 
outline, with numerous bays, inlets, tortuous channels, forming a labyrinth of i)ass}iges. 
Simpson's River, on our north-west l>oundaiy, has a deep inlet and communicates with 
Babine Lake." 

IhiJ, p. 33. 

Cowlitz River 


'' " Tliere is coal in the neighborhood of Puget's Sound, and on the 
"The specimens of lead found in the mountains on the coast are apparently veiy 

"The fisheries (salmon and sturgeon) are inexhausLible, and game of all descriptions 
are said to abound. 

"The timber is extremely luxuriant, and increases in value, as you reach a more 
no'thern latitude — that in 50" to 54" being considered the best. Pine, spruce, red and 
wliite oak, ash, cedar, arl)utus, po])lar, maple, willoAv, and yew, grow in this section of 
country, north of the Columbia River. The cedar and pine become of immense size." 

Ihid, 2>- 35. Report of Lieut. Yavmour, R.E. 

* '■''• * "The Straits of Juan de Fuca, which separate Vancouver Island 
from the mainland, may be safely navigated ; the shores are straight and bold ; on the 
south composed of perpendicular clifls that run back in high and rugged peaks, on the 
north rocky, and in some places of reddi-ih granite." 


Factx dr.d /'v/urr^s rdat'mj to Vancouver Island and British Columbia. 

Pemlierton, p. 0. 

/>'// ./. Despard 

■■' * * " It appears far from improbabhi tliat this strait (San Juan de 

Fuca) will ultimately become the great commercial thoroughfare for the commerce of the 
north PaciUc, and that Juan de l*\ica, when lie discovered it 260 years ago, was right in 
his conjecture that ho had found the north-west passage. This idea is strengthened by 
an cxauiination of tlie ports whicli lie between San Francisco and the strait. That this 
coast line, nearly fiUO miles ii\ length, should not possess a single respeotal)lo harbor is a 
vt'rv rt'inarkablc fact." 

Ihid. p. }\. 

* " Thi! Strain of San Juan de Fuca is, on an average, eleven miles 

wide, and is frfc from sunken rocks or shoals ; its direction is east to west for about 70 
miles to its junction with the channels, wliicli lead by a northerly course into the Gulf of 
(reorgia, which separates Vancouver Islaiul from the ('ontinent. The approach is safe 
for all dc. criptions of vessels, Ix'ing lialile to no other dangci-s than those incident co gales 
from the south-east, which, with eonsidciiildt^ intci'vals of tranijuil wi-atiier, arc, in 
winter, not uncommon, and to fogs, or rather dense smok» arising from foiests on tiie in 
autunin. Although in the latter case soundings are a safegtiard, inid good anclumige can 
generally be found within a juile of either shore. 


he climate 

llel of 51'> 
r irregular 
cates with 

and on the 
ently very 

ach a more 
e, red and 
section of 
io size." 

ivcr Island 
aid ; on the 
ks, on the 


" The facility for entering nnd navigating this strait has been greatly increased by 
the erection of lighthouses on the south shore by the United States Uovernment, and on 
the north by the British." 

JbUI, p. 12. 

* ■■'■ * " Once within the strait, on both coasts safe anchorage ami gooil 
harbors are everywhere met with. * That harboi-s such as these should occur 
at the limit of sailing navigation is a \Qry happy circumstance for these colonies. The 
■waters of the Gulf of Georgia are well adapted for stoam6>rs, but, there, uncertain tides 
and variable winds, fogs, currents, hidden dangers and detention, practically exclude sail- 
ing vessels." 

Ibid, p. 13. 

"That these harbons are connected with upwards of 100,000 acres of aral)le hind in 
the background is a strong recommendation for them. 

* ■'" "If a ship, ruuiiiug from a storm in the Pacific, having entered the strait, 
sliould be balHed in her endeavours to reach the harbor or anchorages on the north 
shore, the winds preventing must be fair to take her into Neah Bay, Calum Bay, Port 
Angelos, or Port Townsend, on the south shore. 

* * "■' "Enough has perhaps been said to show that the facilities for navi- 
gation in the vicinity of these colonies is unrivalled, and that there is no want of harbour 

" Of those deep saltwater inlets, with which the coast al>ounds, f may here mention 
two peculiarities. At the head of every one of those that I have ever visited a fresh water 
stream is found. The second peculiarity is the fre(piency in them of gorges or con- 

Ibid, pp. lG-17. 

* * * " The interior of British Ciolumbia is eveiywhere intoraected by 
natural water communications, in which respect it greatly resembles the Canadas." 

ti Juan <le 
leroe of tlu; 
as right in 
fthened by 
That this 
larbor is a 


lifipoi't of Select Committer, on Immigration ami Colonisation. 

Canada, 187G. pp. 3G-7. 

" Q. Are there any extensive fisheries on the rivers or coasts \ 
are caught, are they exported and to what extent l 

House of Commons, 

What kind of fish 

leven miles 
ir about 70 
the Gulf of 
ich is R.ifc 
Mit CO gales 
er, lire, in 
H on fire ill 
fhorajje can 

" .4. From the boundary line to Alaska there is not a bay, ford or river that is 
not teeming with fish. Salmon are caught in great numbers, both in si)ring, summer and 
autumn. Last spring large quantities of fish were being caught at New Westminster 
for export. An dstablishment for the canning of salmon has been established thei-e, and 
it is to be hoped that this is the beginning of a very pi'ospel'ous business; Salmon 
ascend the Fraser ttll the way to Stewart's Lake, rvhich they reach about the month of 
August ; they likewise ascend the Skeena into the Babine Ijake, and are Caught by the 
Indians and the Hudson Bay (Jompany's people and dried for winter's use . "I'lie salmon 
of Babine Lake are both larger and fatter than those caught in Stewart's Lake, and arO 
therefore brought across to supply Fork St. James with food in winter. 


" Sturgeon 700 Ihs. wei^lit are often caught in the above-mentioned hikes, and eveiy 
lake and .stream in TTjjpor I5ritisli Cnlunil)iii troiiis will: trout of different species, l)esides 
many other varieties of less vahie. 

" Uf salt water lisli I know Init little, except one small one — the 'JToulican' — wliich 
I saw in the Froser in myriads last sjning. jNlany were lying dead along the ri;er and 
served as food for » .ti'ious animals. Halibut M'ero very plentiful in Victoria, and many 
othei- seafish of which 1 did not learn the names. I believe the iisheries of I'ritish 
Columbia, if projierly eouducted, would eventually be as ])rotitabl(> as those of tlie («ulf 
of 8t. ]jawreuc(>. 

Desolation Souxd. 

lieport iif Jfr. WUliani Downic to Gocc.raur Jantcs Doiiylax. 

* * * "\ye arrived safe in De.sohition Sound, wliich does certainly look 
.somewhat desolate in a snow-storm ; but I am well pleased with the prospect of .this 
section. This is the lirst time I liave seen pure veins of suljdiuret of iron, which looks 
very nuichliko silver. I came across a nuuiber of seams of the same kind. It lies in 
the quartz, the same as gold. 

* * * "Bute Inlet (Homatlico), that runs so nuich furtiu;r north than this 
inlet, has a largo river emi)tying into it from the north-west. * ■■'• We went up 
the river about five miles. The Indians told me it would take live days to go to th»> 
liead of it. Judging from the way a canoe goes up such rivers, the distance would bc! 
about 60 miles. * ''■ * It is very evident there is a pass in the Coast Range here 
that will make it preferable to Jervis Inlet or Howe Sound. '''' * It will not be 
diliicult to make a road along the banks of the river."' 

Soil, Cllmate, Piioductions, &c. 

Tim lino El Dorado : or British Culumbid. Bj KuiaJuiii CoruumUi.-^, Cap. V, p. 37. 

* * * "The soil (of IJritish ColumI)ia) varies from a deep black vegetable 
loam to a light brown loam}' earth. The hills are generally basalt, stone, and slate. The 
sm-face is generally imdulating, well watered, well wooded, and well adapted for agricul- 
ture and jjastnrage. The tindjer consists prhicipally of [(ine, lii", .spruce, oak (white and 
red), ash, yew, arlmtus, cedar, arborvitic, pojjlar, maple, willow, cherry, and tea. All 
kinds of grain, including wheat, may bo raised in abundance." 

Jbid, p. 42. 

* * * " In November the winter sets in, mildly freezing the lak(>s and 
smaller river.s. The cold, however, is not so intense as might be imagined in such a 
country, being far less severe than that of any part of Canada." 

Ibid, p, i3. 

* "' "' "Coal aljounds over the whole of the north-eastern teri'itoiy ; from 
latitude 50 deg. .TO m., to Cape Scott at its southern (>xtrcmity." 

Ibid, p. 44. 

^'- * " The coal can be woi'ked at a comparatively small expense over a field 

of such extent. Some of it has l)een brought to England, and answered exceedingly 
well in forges." 



anil (ivovy 
OS, lu'siilcs 

,u ' — whicli 
I'ijor an<l 

and many 
of lU'itisii 

)f tlio Ciulf 

tainly look 

net of.tliis 

/liicli looks 

It lies in 

1 than this 
o went ii}) 

go to tho 
won 1(1 1)0 

Lango horo 
rt'ill not be 

r, p. 37. 

Ic vogctalilo 
slate. The 
foi- agricnl- 
(white and 
i tea. All 

e lakes and 
in sueh a 

toiy ; from 

over a fi(,'Id 


Four Years in Brithh Columbia. Bt/ Commander li. C. Maijnc, /i.xV., F.R.G'.S., jj. 3U0. 

■•' '■•'■ "In the noi'thern pai-t of the colony (Columbia), from Alexandria 

upwards, the soil, whensver it has been tried by the Hudson's Bay Comjtauy's 
people lias been found good. * * Mr. McLean, who lived many years at 

Alexandria, told me that he had known a bushel of wheat ]tlanted there yield 40 inishels : 
liut this was eonsideralily more than an average produce. Of the ujijier posts, Mr. 
Manson, who was seven yeai's at Fort 8t. James, told me the soil is good, but the cru|)s, 
except barley, are almost always nipped by At Fraser Fort, wliicli is in nearly the 
same latitude as Fort James, Imt considerably to the westward of it, vegetation thrives 
iimch better, and barley, peas, turnips, and potatoes, almost always yield good crops. 
The country southward of Fraser Fort and down to the Chilcotin River, I was told by 
Mr. McLean, as well as bv a settler I met at Pavillion, contained verv good farming 

Fiu'tx mill Fiiii'ii'^ iifiifiiii/ to Ydiicouccr Mtaul (tnd firifixh ('uliniih'ifi. 1',ii ,/. ]). 

Pcmhirtoii, pi>. l'.)-'2(). 

* * * "The soil, where it is richest, in the river deltas, the valleys, ami 
the plains, usuidly consists of Idack vegetable mould, six inches to three feet in deptli, 
overliiying a deep substratum of clay, gravel or sand. 

* * " The fertility of the soil in the neighborhood of flie goU-licaring 
rocks is very remarkable, and is indicated rather by the production from ordinary sei'd of 
gigantic roots and \egetable%, anil fruits, than by crops of grain." 

Report iij' Si'ltct Coiminttci' on Tnimigratiou and Colonization, JTonxi' qfCitnnnnii^, ('mnijii, 

IST'l. J'roJ". MacouH^s Evidence, p. ."(li. 

" (,>. Are the extremes (»f cold and lieat inconvenient or op])ressive to Caniidiin or 
Kurojican setth^rs, or injurious to heiilth t Is the climate conducive to longevity t 

" A. The climate of the coast is so much like that of England, that there should lie 
no better climate for natives of Great Britain; while that of the mainland aliove the 
Cascades ought to be exactly suited to Canadians, as the climate is nearly the same as we 
have in the east, excei)t that it is drier for the most part. I think that on the whole 
British Columbia has a very liealthy climate, and one that would tend to long life. 

" (J. What natural fruits have you discovered in British Columbia; and conld fniit 
l»e cultivated successfully { 

"A. Various species of raspberries, currants, gooseberries, strawberi-ies, ami blue 
berries are found througliout the country. The Oregon grajte {Jkriierls ('(/iii/n/hnii 
and ncrrosa) extends all the way from Vancouver to lat. 'hv> in the interior, aiul to 
Alaska along the coast. 

" Perhaps there is no better place in tho worhl for raising fruit tlnin Victorin. 
Apples and j)ears of a very large; size are produced in such abundance that the former 
can hardly be sold at any price. The orchards are all in the low wet grounds and will 
begin to decay in a. few years, whereas if they were planted among the rocks where the 
oak grows, the trees would live longer and probably produce better fruit. I can see no 
reason why grapes could not be produced in abundance on any part of Vancouver, if the 
summer temperature is high enough. After the railway is built Vancouver will send 
immense quantities of fruit into the interior as it can be raised to any extent and of 
every kind." 


//;/(/, 2^- '^''• 

" Q. Do you know from actual observation whetlier any intertropical currents and 
prevailing winds flowing along the coast of Vancouver and British Columbia have a 
tendency to ameliorate the climate in a similar manner as the Gulf Stream affects the 
^laritime T'rovinc(!s ? 

•J. 1 know nothing of it from actual ol)servation. but that it is so is a demonstrated 


" Alioiit the island of Foi'mosa, on the eastern coast of China, a ciurent analogous to 
the Culf Stream is observed moving to the north-east. It passes Japan, and part of it 
enteiv Bfihring's Sea and warms the northern part of Alaska, while the other part is 
deflected farther to the east and passes down the West Coast of America, cari-ying with it 
the heat necessary to produce the exceptionally warm climate of Vancouver and the West 
Coast generally. It is this stream which gives the heat and moisture that are the cause 
of the magnificent forests found from Alaska southwards. The forests of Norway and 
those of Western Auierica are the ])roduct of the two great currents — the '(lulf Stream' 
on the east and ' Kiiro Siwo' on the west, and sceptics nniy rest assured that tlic vahic 
of tlie \V(!st Coast tiiiib<>r far exceeds that of the Eastern I'l'oviuces." 

CioLI) Ktl'.I.DS. 

/'i((7.v II II (I /■'iijvri's irlaiiiuj til Vancouver Ishutd and British (Juhinihia. liij ./. Di-xjiaril 

I'emOerton, p. 3G. ♦ 

* '■" " The wide distribution of gold in British Columliia is very strik- 

ing : traversing the country diagonally from north to south, the Fraser River every- 
where pass(>s through a gold country. The same may be said of the Thompson River, 
and of the CoInml)ii> north of 4y'\ * As a I'ule, the gold is found in unu-ji 

smaller particles, and less in (juantity ncarei- the mouths ofthes(! rivers, and both si/ciiiid 
i|ii:nitity iiici'casc as we ascend them." 

Trufi'lx in liritish (Jolumbia. liy Capt. C. K. Barrett Lennanl, j). 173. 

'■'' * "The gold I'egions of Bi'itish Columl)ia lie between these (tlu^ 

coast) ranges of mountains and the great central chain of the North American Continent, 
(lie Uocky Mountains, in i\\i\ more level districts between these various mountain 
i-anges we meet with vast areas of fertile land, destined hereafter to become important 
agrif'ultuial and jiastoral countries." 

Hiinirl III' Sri 'ri Cinnniilt'i'. on / in mic/rtdion and Coloirizntion, llitusi' of ('oinnninx, 
(Jauddo, 1870. Prof. Macouu's Evidence, p. 'M. 

''(J. What ai'o the 'uterests of Ib'itish CJolurnbia ! Ai'i^ they developi'd to 
any extent ? Woulil cneouragenK'nt to mining interests ch'velope agricultural interests 
and increase immigration tr, the Province i 

•'A. Gold has been found in paying (juantities at Okanagan on the American 
Boundary, — at Shuswap Lake — at Cariboo- -on the (.)minica — on the Slickeen — and 
latterly at Cassiar, and an examination of the map will show that all this gold is jn-o- 
duced from mountains lying between the Bockies and the Cascades. Co[)per, iron, and 
silver have been found at various points in the Cascades, and coal is abundant on 
Vancouver and Queen Charlotte's Islands. 1 just mention these and ask : Are tiiese 




all, or are they merely indications of what is to come? After having travelled over 1,000 
miles through British Columbia, I can say with safety that there will yet Ite taken out 
of her mines wealth enough to build the Paeitlc Railway. Consider that gold has beeix 
found in paying quantities, at various points, along a north-west line for more than ten 
degrees of latitude, before you decide that the foregoing statement is that of an 

" Cariboo is really the only point where the gold interest has been developed. Coal 
is mined at Nanaimo, and these constitute the dovelopcnl mining interests of liritish 
Columbia. Gold has been found on Vancouver itself, and there is no renstni Avliy it 
sliould not pay for the working." 

Kxi'oiri' or Gom). 

Tke J)(iiiiiiii))ii (it tlie ]\e'<f. I'ni Ahx. ('. Ati<h)'!<i)ii, -/.l'., Aii/nii'/i.i- F. 

" Shi[)inent of gold, product of the JJritish Coluuibiu ui-iies from the; vear l.S.'j.s to 
isTlindusive, 621,278,94(i.();5. 

'•The foregoing may be accepted as a corrcM-t return as fu' as (he. rcroid.; shnw ; but 
it does not convey a just impression of the whole gold-produce of the country, owing to 
the largo amounts taken away in private hands, the aggregate of whii'Ii it is imptjyiiiblc to 


Tlir Ddiiaidou. at, tho, IT^.s/. Bij Alex. Caiilfwld Anderson, J. P., ]f<~'2, p. ."Jn, Apprihilli-. 

"Approximate altitudes above tlie sea of some places in British (.'olunibia, fioiii 
observations by otHcei-s of the lioyal Engineers. 

" Fort Alexandria, Fraser level, 1,420 feet. 

" Fraser River at mouth of Quesnel River, 1,4!)0 " 

do do do Swift ilo 1,5:50 " 

do at Fort George, 1,690 " 

" Lillooet Lake, 620 " 

''Summit do (Lillooet route) 1,482 " 

" Summit altitude of trail Chilcotin Plateau, 4, .'300 " 

" Summit Lake, on do do do 4,020 " 

EcoxoMic Minerals. 

Travi'h l,i /jrltish Cuhuuliia. Ihj Capt. C. A', /larrr// LrmniriL pp. \~)~-:'. 

* * '• Of the nuneral jiroductions of British Columbia, it is ditlictilt as 

yi^t to s[)eak with perfect contidence, save as regards the now world-notorious fact of its 
auriferous wealth. Both silver and coi)per are known to exist in considerable quantities, 
and mines of both metals have recently been opened. I have frequently seen specimens 
of silver ore brought by Indians to Victoria, from districts lying adjacent to the sea coast. 

'•Coal is known to exist in various districts of British Cohnnbia. Stone, suitable foi^ 
every i)uri)0se of building, only requires to be (luarricd. Limestone and sandstone an^ 
everywhere abundant. Marble, of various kinds, is found in tho coast range of 
mountains. Sixlt exists in many localities, and is obtained in great ipiantitios from tlie 
salt springs of Nanaimo." 


Fonr I'lars !i>. Britlsfi Colamh'm. Bif Comiaander R. C. MayiiP, ll.X. <i'c., ]>p. ")80-l-'2. 

'■' * * "All the north end of Vancouvei" Island contains coal measiiit?s, 
and soiiu> (jUMiitity has hoen taken out a little way to the noi'thward of Fort Kuport. * '■'■'■ 
It is uo exai,'mrration, indeed, to say, that coal exists all along the shores of both colonies 
(I). Coliiniltia and Vancouver Island). 

■•'■ * ■■'• '■ For eoononiic imrposes these beds are wvy valuable. 

* * "It 'uay be remarked that the deeper the workings at Nanainuj 
ai'e carried tlie l)etter the quality of the coal becomes." 

U'eoloijlrttJ Siiffi'ii o/' ('(i/nnht, 1872-.">, /'/'. 80-1. Aj/in'ml!.'' hif ])r. /furrhuifon fo Mr. 

llichardwiiH lieport. 

^' * "The coal itself is bright, tolerably hard, and not unlike some of 

tlu' best ((ualities of English or Welsh coal in appeaiance. It burns freely with a good 
iieat, but produces a greiit amount of ash. It is universally used by all Her Maj(!sty's 
sliips on the coast, and by all tlie colonial and other steamers l)lying on the coast. It is 
highly valued as fuel for domestic jairposes, both in Victoria, San Francisco and other 
towns. Oas is manufactured from it in Victoria of good illuminating (juality. 

* * * "The Vancouver coals are for the most part true hitumlnonH cimh, 
and the name of 'lignite' which has been applied to them liy a number of writers, is 
altogether a misnomer. 

* " 1 liav(i recently examined specimens (of Queen Charlotte Islands 
coal) collected by Mr. Richardson and found them to be true anthracites. 

Ik()\ Orks. 

fr)i)fi)i/if(i/ Surrri/ (i/ ( 'tuiiiilii, 187'M. /i'tj)ur( li// Mr. Iiic/nirdsiui, />. lOO, 

* ■* * " These ores c:ould scarcely be more favorably situated than they 
nri", either as regards mining, smelting or shipment. There is deep water close to the 
shore, and wharves might be easily and cheaply constructed, at which vessels couhl always 
load in safety. ••' * The site of the ore is 18 miles from Comox Harbor, 
Ul nules from Deep Bay, and about "23 miles from Fanny Bay. Thes(^ are all good and 
saff^ harbors, and are only a short distance from the productive coal seams of the Comox 
area. ' ■ 

" Iron or(( is reported to occur also in the following localities : 

"1. Fifty yards from the Yale and Cai'iboo waggon I'oad. * * ^'^ It is 
ii magnetic ore, and is stated to occur in a vein eight feet in thickricss. 

" 2. About one mile up the river at the head of Knight's Inlet. 

" 3. Six miles west from Menzle's Bay, V. I., near Seymour Narrows, close to some 
of the coal seams of the Comox area. 

" 4. On the west side of Fitz Hugh Sound, at the entrance to River's Inlet. 

" 5. Iron ore is said to occur on the shores of a bay to the south-cabt of Cape 
Ciimmerell, at the north-west end of Vancouver Island." 

pp. ;]80-l-2. 

lal measures, 
Ruport. * '••• 
otli colonics 

at Nauaiuu) 

iijloii. to Mi\ 

nlike some of 
with a yood 
.er Majesty's 
coRst. It is 
CO ami otlicr 

7iihwns cofi/s, 
of writers, is 

lotto Islands 


id than they 
r close to the 
couhl always 
niox Harlioi-, 
all good and 
f the Coniox 

It is 

;lose to some 


jast of Cape 


Attractions for Settlkment. 

'I7w, D(»ii!ii.lo)i lit the Wfst. Bji \. ( . Anchrmn, J.J'., p. •'^7. 

"The <;eneral advantages of British Coluiabia as a held lor immigration may l»t' 
brieily summed. 

" A temperate climate, remarkably salubrious in its character ; a fertile soil easily 
brought into cidtivation ; rich and extensive pastures ; abundant natural resources for 
])rocuring food ; land cheaj>ly, if not gratuitously, attainable by the industrious ; good 
government inider a liberal constitution ; secui'ity of life and property und<>r rigi<lly 
executed laws ; facilities for religious worship for every denomination ; a lilicral system of 
education, free of cost ; ready and chea]) postal connnunication with all parts of the world ; 
telegraphic facilities throiigh the I'nited States to Canada and Eui-ope ; a wide; and con- 
stantly extending market, soon v> be enormously increased by the progress of tlie 
Canadian Pacitic Kailway and other concomitant enterprises. " 

Tl! ADK AM) C0.M.\1KIU'E. 

Ti'KrfJx ill. /Jriti-s/i (.'ultiiiihin. Hi/ Ciipf. ('. E. Ijurntt Li niiunl. p. h"^!. 


* * * " The situation of lU'itish Colinubia and Vancouver Island, on the 
Pacitic, is admiral)ly adapted for cariying on a trade with Cliina. Japan, India, and 
Australia, and it is not too nuich to supposes that these colonies must become the great 
highway for tvalHc between the above-mentioned coinitries an<l England, in the event of 
comi)letion of this line of railroad. The distance I)etween liOndon and Pekin wouhl by 
lliis nuians be reduced some ten thousand miles, and the entire journey would pr( lii>bly 
not occupy more than a month or live weeks while Vancouver itself would be inc/Ught, 
some five or six thousand miles nearei' to this country (England) than ever by tlie short 
overland route of Panama." 

Jhhl, p. l,sj. 

* * * "What a grand future would the cdnstruction of such a line of 
raihoad open foi- these remote dependencies of the British (Aown on the Pacific ! What 
a glorious day would that be foi' iJiitish Columbia, when, vessels sailing from India, 
China, and Australia should meet at sona; point on her coasts, to land their passengers 
and discharge their cargoes, returning again laden with articles of our own manuiacture ! 
Numbers of those passengers to India, Chhia, and Australia, who now go by the way of 
the Cape of Good Hope, or by Suez, wouhl in preference select the inter-oceanic railway 
of Canada, as both cheaper and more expeditious. The saA ing in the time of transit to 
China, especially to the more nortlnnn portions of that empire, and to Japan, would be 
very great, and the mercantile connnunity, l)oth in England and in the east, wouhl be 
greatly l)enetited I)y tli(> establishment of a constant, speedy, and safe tneans of connnuni- 
cation jiassing throtigh I'iritish territory. 

" Another groat advantage to be derived from the establishment of z. line of com- 
munication between the Atlantic and Pacific through British temtory, would be the 
facilities it would aflbrd for the transjjort of troops, stores, and artillery to any point 
along the frontier line or on the const of the Pacific." 

Ihhl, p. 184. 

entire sen'ici; beinj: 

"The advantages that would accrue to Groat Britain from the 
performed through British territory are incalculublo. The con- 

structiou of the railway would not luoroly opoii to civilization a large territory in British 
North America, hitherto uhnost unex})lore(l, but it would open uj) to the cultivators of 
tiie soil, in that territory and in Canada, a means of transit to all the markets of the 
Pacific, and an open ])assage to the China seas, and to our possessions in the East Indies ; 
in every aspect, whether viewisd politically, socially, or commercially, tht^ crstahlishment 
of the j)roposed railway would j,'ive a progressives impidse to the affairs of the world, which 
in its results, woidd efli[)se anything that has been witnessed even amid the extraordinary 
achievements of the present century." 

n,id, p. isr». 

* *' An attempt Mill be niad(; to carry out tlit^ long projecteil id(>a of 

an overland communication from Lake Superior by the 1Uh\ Itiver, Lake Winnipeg, 
and the Saskatchewan, to the foot of the Rocky Mountains, and finally across thcnn into 
British Columbia. The opening up of this i-oute would not only confer an^ 
benefit on the last-mentioned place, but would tend greatly to develop(» the nat.tral 
resources of the country thrt»ugh which it passes, which are evidently \ery great. 'Ihe 
climate if? by no means so severe as might be expected from the latitude, herds of buffalo 
being found as far north as ])aralit'l tiO". Indian corn ripens on fhe Saskafchewan. Tlie 
rivers are free from ice on the Iteginniug of May ; wheat sown shortly after in the valley 
of the Red River may be gathered in the month of August. In addition to these natural 
advantages of soil ami climate, gold is known (o exist in the valley nf tlie Sa>skatchewaii, 
as well as in that of the Atlial)asca.'' 

T/ie /''ii/>h>i/)nejif. of the rrapfi' (oi'l tin' Vapital of (1 rval llntmn . a l<th:r from Mojor Uvhcrf 
('ufiuicliad Snii/th, to /liKj'rlend the authvr oj' the C'/oe/ondker, IS-ll), j). Hi. 

* * * " r)ne view of the ma]» of the world will show that the pi'oposeil 

terminus of the Atlantic and Pacific Railway, taken as a centre, would la-ing new Zea- 
land, New Soutli Wal(\s, in fact, Australia, New CJuinea, Jiorneo, (Janton, Pekin, all 
within fifty days sail of that point ; and taking the Sandwich Islands as a centre 'point, 
(where there is a fine harl)or, and where a depot of coals niight be e.stablished), which 
would be reached in ten days, all the above-named places would be brought within twenty 
days for steam navigation, other jwints, such as the Friendly Islands, lirc, might be 
selected for furthe)- depots of coal. Again, from ilw. terminus of the pro^JOsed railway 
the mails from England coidd be despatched to all the before-mentioned places. '■'■'' ''■'' * 
Last, though not least, of all, this railway route across the continent of North America 
would ensiu-e to England at all times a free communication with her East India 
possessions. * * * xhe proposed line across the continent of America 
would be within our own dominions, and would not oblige us to interfere or meddle with 
any continental wars to enjoy its free use. No time ought to Ije lost in the commence- 
ment of this national undertakini;," 

* * * "It a])pears to me impossible that such a powi-rfid and wealthy 

company :is the lludsTin's Bay, such magnificent colonies as our North American 
Provinces, and such a ))ower as th-eat Britain, can balance for one moment in their minds 
whether loss or profit must attend the undertaking and c()ni]iletion of such a railway." 

Thfi Domiiiiini at th HV.s7. Bji A. < '. An'Jrrsou, J. P., /y^ ()'.)-70. 

"■• * * " With reference to the commerce of the East, if it be not para- 
iloxical to term that the East which we are now approaching from the contrary 


in J^ritisli 
tivators of 
:cts of tlu; 
ast Iiulie.s ; 
M-\i\, which 

U'A uU'ii of 
tliom into 
a inimonse 
he naliiral 
I'oat. 'L'ho 
of hufi'alo 
wan. T\\r. 
tlu; vallry 
cse natural 

■ijor liuhn'f 

new Zea- 
Pekin, all 

itre 'point, 
(1), whicii 

liin twenty 
might be 

i!(l railway 

East India 
>f America 
eihlle with 

11(1 woaltliy 
heir minds 

e not para- 
2 contrary 

direction-— the follosvinq consideration may bf> noted. Ass\uning Yokohama, in Japan, 
for n starting point, the direct distance to Es(piimalt may he taken, in round nundirrs, at 
ul)0>it 4,L'00 geograpliical miles ; eipial to about a month's voyage of a .sailing vessel, 
(y'anton is prol)ahly al)0\it a fortnigiit farther, in point of time. Moasui-ed across the 
map, San Francisco may he regarded as e([uidistant. The actual distance; necessary to be 
traversed l)y a sailing vessel in ordei- to reach that jtort is, however, considerably greater; 
as will appear from the following remarks which I hml ([uoted from a rccoguisc^l authority 
of th(i highest stamling — Professor Maury, of Washington. 'The trade winds place 
Vancouver Island on tlas wayside of the road from China and Japan to San Francisco so 
eonipletely, that a sailing vess(d trading under canvas to the latter ]>lace, would take the 
same route as if she were bound for Vancouver Island. So that all I'ctui'u cargoes would 
naturally come there in order t»» save two or three weeks, besides risk and expense.' 
Hence it is manifest that the Canadian I'acihc Railway, terminating at Ks(|uimalt- and 
in a minor degree the projectotl Northern Pacilic Kailway, owing to the perversities of 
the inland navigation necesstiry to reach its proposed terminus — would possess a great 
advantage over the line, now in operation, from San Francisco to New York. The last- 
naTued port, moreover — about equidistant from Liverpool or London with jNIontreal — is 
consido-ably farther than Halifax, to whicli point it would bo necessary to extend the 
traiisp(n't during th(* i)eriod of closed -navigation of the St. Lawrence. This necessity 
would involve a further land-transport of 48J miles, by the Intercolonial llailway now in 
operation : l>ut then the shii)ping point on the Atlantic would be some five hundred miles 
nearer to England than is New ^'ork. Hence it is ob\ ions that the route now under 
process of survey, if the foregoing estimates be nearly correct, presents the advantage, as 
i'rom China to England, of some seven hundred miles over the projected Northern Pacific 
Hail way ; and, under the considerjition advanced by Professor Maury, of more than a 
ihousand over the present route by San Francisco." 

Sxow Fall. 

Tlif, JJiinihtioii (if tlir Wfsf. liij Ale.f. C AnderHOn. .LP., fip. (Jil-T. 

'• The Pass by the heads of the Miette and the Eraser is so gradual of ascent, with so 
few ob.stacles wortliy of consideration, that it may be characterized almost as a natural 
road. Its shortness and dh'cctness with regard to the probable terminus on the Pacific 
( 'oast, give it moreover an advantage over any other line of apjiroach : and although the 
de))th of snow at the summit, during winter, is nuich greater than I have seen gra\'ely 
stated, there is far less than by any other Pass with which I am acquainted, either from 
personal ol)servation or rei)ort. The snow, too, through the effects of certain natural 
phenomena which here })revail, and for which I do not profess to account, becomes, 
more compacted, consequently does not drift in an eqiial degree, and is therefore in all 
resi)et'ts more manageable than elsewhere. The importance of this consideration is 
material ; bearing in mind that the stoppages upon the Union Pacific Railway during the 
jiast winter arose chiefly from (h'ift. 

" It is a curious fact that, in the valley of the Athabasca, upon this line of transit, 
for a distance of thirty miles or more both above; and below Jasper House, the 
n(n-er accunudates. I'lasre is constant grass : and the large herds of horses formerly kept 
there by the Hudson's Bay Company, for transport over the mountains, wintert^d there, 
fat, upon the natural pasture. Crossing by this Pass many years ago, on his way from 
the Saskatchewan, the writer found, in the month of January during a- winter of almost 
unexampled sevei-ity, that the snow had entirely disappeared from the immediate baidcs 
of the river, at the 'mouth of the Cranberry Fork, near Tete Jaune Cache ; and, for a 
distance of some forty miles down the Eraser, the ice was perfectly denuded of snow. A 
warm winel prevailed. accon)i)anied at intervals l>y a gentle rain. It could only be 


inferred that this warm current, exteiuling through the Pass, exorcised a modifying 
iiifhictice there ; and, spreading aft(>r\vards tlirough tlie Jasper's Valley, produced the 
etfccts noted. As these eth'cts, however, are known to be constant in tlio latter-named 
locality, wo uiay infer that tlu; same cause is likewise constant. I may remark, 
]iassingly, that similar etl'eets ni-e iilsc> produced in a iniirked degree in other jiarts of 
itritisli ( 'ohniil>ia." 

i'.lll.lUMi Si'um:. 

.N'o/'-.v ri'/iin/i'iKj f/if Sfn)iP ipmri'n at ydnnDnu. Fnnii tlw ]'!cti>riii, V. I. 

( 'ofn/ilsf " Xowi<p(ipi:i\-.\ iKjnxt, 1 S7l.'. 


" X;uiainio is endowed with grcatoi' natural wealth than perhajis, any other part of 
the wide Dominion of Canada. Her coal measures already oj)ened formed the suliji-ct of 
a recent article. Jler coal stores still locked might till a l)Ook. In these ))ractically 
ine.\liaustilil(! stores Nanaimo possesses a power which nuist compel commerce ami manu- 
facture to kneel at her feet. ISut Nanaimo has a mine of wealth of ii^ <litl'erent kind-— the 
Newcastle Stone (^)uurry. This (piariy hiis been worked for upwards of two years, and 
yet it may be said to i)e scarcely opened. Here are several sipiare miles of .a continm)Us 
formation of the best freestone to be found anywhere on the coast. No more conclu.sive 
evidence of the superiority of this stone need be sought than the fact that the United 
States Mint at San Francisco is made of it. The mint cost consideraldy over a million 
and a half, and absorbed eight thousand tons of the Newcastle stone. The introduction 
of this stone for so important a purpose naturally aroused a certain amount of local 
jealousy and brought out some international prejudice. The consecpuMico was that the 
stone was subjected to a rather more severe test than would otherwise have iieen tin; case. 
It is gratifying to learn that the United States Inspector hius, in his recent tinal report, given 
the stone the highest character. To possess a stone quarry so superior in every respect as 
to command the j)atronage of San Francisco and overcome the ju'ejudices of the (rreat 
iiepublic is sometlang of which Nanaimo may i'"stly be proud. We have said that tlu^ 
San Francisco Mint took eight thousand tons of this stone. In addition to this it took a 
large ipiantity of flagging-stone for court-yard, side-walks, and cellar. In the eight 
thousand tons were some jiieces deserving of specific notice. There were six columns, 
twenty-eight feet long, liy four feet two inches scpiare. These columns were faultless 
throughout. There were two stones for corner pediments lifteen tons each, and two key 
stones of fourteen tons each. t)ne circumstance has tended seriously to lessen the profits 
of the quarry. Every stone going to make up the eight thousand tons for the mint has 
been of s])ecitic dinumsions ; and in quarrying to fill the order a gi-eat deal of such stone 
as would be \ised for smaller buildings or for rubble masonry has gone to waste owing 
tt) there being no demund for it. Of this waste stone there has been enough to realize 
fifty thousand dollars in a market ])rescnting a local demand for it. And yet it has not 
yielded fifty cents. Nay, to remove it out of the way has cost thousands of dollars. We 
have said that the ([uarry is scarcely fairly opened. The last cargo of stone sent to San 
Francisco has been pronounced of a superior quality to that previously sent. It is well 
understood that the (|uality of the stone improves iis you go in The quarry has now an 
excellent and carefully prepared 'face' on it, from which stone may be taken superior in 
]>oint of quality to any yet quarried, and of almost any conceivable dimensions. Columns 
fifty feet loUj., (or one lun\dred if necessary) by four and a half feet thick can be su])plied, 
without flaw or fault." 


jdueed tli<' 
\y roiimrk, 

IT ](!ll'ts (if 

" /lr!t!'</i 

llPl" jl.'U't of 

sul)ji'et of 


and mann- 

t kind- -tli<' 

yoars, and 



tlie United 

r a million 


mt of local 

*'as that tlio 

;on the ease. 

eport, given 

y respect as 

if the Umit 

id that tli(^ 

is it took a 

I the eight 

ix colunnis, 

H'O faultless 

id two key 

the profits 

lie mint has 

such stone 

:aste owing 

1 to reali/r 

it has not 

ollars. We 

sent to San 

It is well 

las now an 

superior in 

i. Columns 

le su])plied, 


[The foregolug exlraeti from inde]iendent authorities relating to llie IJritisli 
aec-tion give but a meagi-o and somewhat unsatisfactory dosoriptiou of the oountiy. It 
has been therefore thought better to print as an apitcndixtheprincipal [tortious of the i-eports 
of Marcus Smith, Esq., Chief Engineer in British Columbia, of his operations during the 
years 1874-;"). These reports, however, are not conclusive in regard to thecountrysjioken of as 
the plateau between Fort George and the Cascade Range, as it will be observed that that 
country was but partially surveyed during these years. The sui-vcy is now 
nearly completed, and will no doubt show a very eousiderabic iinHlilicitl'iu ut" tlic u'l'^idcs 
and euglneering flifHculties as devolo]ted in 1871 •■">.] 

Hfjiorl III .\f 11 reus •)}iiut/t, -/i'-v/., on thi' iij)r,'ii/iiii/'< of I si" I. 

(Jaudnkii Cn.\.NNi;r, K()( tk. 

" I'hitering tlus Plumper Channel we soon passed tiie end of tli(' Liuua Passage and 
about 5 p.m., reached Bella Jiella on IMcLanghliu Bay, C'ampbcll Island. I Fere the Hud- 
son Bay Company have a trading post and tlie Quokolt ti'ibe of rn(ii:ins a village and 
tishing station. 

■' After an hour's delay we proceeded on our com-se, leasing the Cnn' Channel 
on our right, we rounded the north end of Cam])bell Island and entered tiie Seafortli 
Channel on a westward course. In two hours more we wei'e in JMilliiauk Sound which 
we crossed and got fairly into Finlayson Channel before niglit set in. 

"The islands around Millbank Sound are generally low, intersecteil with broken 
ranges of hunimocky hills covered with firs and cellars. In crossing the sound we had an 
extensive view to the north-east. Over the low hills and far in thedistance rose a bold 
range of dome-shaped snow-clad mountains; apparently crossing the heads of the Dean and 
( Jardner Channels, not less than seventy to eighty miles from us. Even at this distance 
we could perceive by the aid of our tield glasses the dark chasms which intersect the 
rajige, looking like huge stone walls stretching across the snow line. 

'^Sunday, Jane. 7th. — Having steamed all night, through the Finlay.son Channel, 
Hiekish Narrows, Graham and Fraser Beaches anil the Ursula Channel, we found our- 
selves at 8, running past the largo island in Gardner Channel shewn on Vancouvei's 
chart but not named, and in another hour wc found the slooj) 'Triumj)!!' anchored in a 
bight on the north side of the channel, with Mr. llichardson and the men and stores on 
board. We took the sloop in tow till we reached the mouth of the Kemano Kiver, which 
enters the north side of the channel about twenty-five miles from its head, where we left 
the party to commence the survey. 


'•Tlni Gardner Channel from tlic island up to this point is from one to two nxilos in 
breadth, anil of great depth ; hemmed in by mountains two to three thousand feet in 
heijiht and covered to their summits with timber of little value, presenting the sani'' 
sondire hue that had wearied the eye for several days past. 

" As wo aHeend tho channel the rocks become more ex])osed and rise to a greater 
altitiid*', tlie slopes are steeper, and for long stretches j)er|)endicular clitl's abut on the 
channel. The Kemano Valley is a half to three qiuvrters of a mile wide where it joins 
the channel and covered with fir and cedar trees of good size. The river is small but 
navigal)lo for cajioes ten miles u]» from its nu)uth. INlr. lloretzky commenced his siirvey 
here, (he lesult of which is fully described in his report. 

" Frotn tliis point upwards the shores of the channel become more irregular in outline, 
and tho mountain slopes nuu'e abruptly ; they are partially covered with timber to a 
height of about "J,0(J() to .^,000 feet, above which the rocks are bold, scarred and weather 
stained, and the deep gulches that separate the mountain domes are filled with immense 

" \\'e wei-e evidently ai)pr(jachiiig the core of the cascade chain for the mountains 
liccamc more ,i;loomy and sterile, rising H.OOO to S,000 feet and cap])ed with permanent 

•• W(> reached the head of the channel about noon, and anchored. This resembles the 
heads of all the inlets we have surveyed. There is a large flat of sand and detritus 
bi'ought down by tho river from tho mountains, which is only partially covere<l at low 
tide; and with shoal water for half a ndh; or more; then it shelves down al)ruptly into 
very deep water, so that the only anchorage is on the face of this incline and therc^ is very 
little space for a vessel to swing. 

•' Kitlope llivei' enters the head of the channel from the east, but was hiildeu from 
oui- vi(!W by a rocky blufl' or spur 300 to 400 feet high and half a mile long, that shoots 
out fioiii the south side and partially blocks up the mouth of the valley, 

" A smaller stream comes down from the north through a deep and narrow ra'v'ne 
and enters the Kitlope near the head of the channel. After luncheon a boat was mann • I 
and. guided by an Indian whom we had picked up, we started up the Kitlojie, intendin,^ 
to goto the Indian village but a strong cui-rent and a stiff breeze were against us, and we 

made but slow jirogress. 

"The Kitlope liiver is about eight humlred fe(!t wide at its mouth ; its south bank is 
the bold rocky slojie or olitf above-mentioned, the base of which is washed by tho ri\'er 
for about two miles. The opposite side is a low gi'assy flat al)Out three hundred yaids 
wide; a slough or bi-anch of the river has cut through the upper ])ortion of this, which we 
followed up over a mile, passing the nose of the mountain on the north-west side; a litthi 
beyond this we rejoined the main river; which here makes a sliarp bend across the valley, 
and washes the base of the cliiTs on the north-west side for half a mile. 

"This ))oint is about four miles u]) the river, where it is fully five hundred feet wide, and 
the valley half to three quarters of a mile. About a mile beyond this the river makes a 
shaip bend to the south-east, round a mountain spur behind which lies the Indian village. 
But we had been over three hours in a drenching cold rain — which was snow on the 
mountains — and we reluctantly resolved to retiirn; we however sent our Indian on foot 
wilh a message to the chief asking him to visit us on board the steamer. 



vo miles in 
laud feet in 

'' tilt' HlUll'' 

to a greater 
but on the 
liere it juins 
is small but 
his Hiirvey 

ir in outline, 
timber to a 
uid weather 
th immense 

e mountains 
li permanent 

esembles the 
and d(;tritus 
vered at low 
ibruptly into 
ther(^ is Vt'i'v 

liidden from 
that shoots 

iri'ow ra\'ne 
was mann • I 
le, intendinj^ 
^t us. and we 

)uth bank is 
by the river 
imdred yai'ds 
lis, which we 
side; a little 
ss the valley, 

eet wide, ami 
ver makes a 
dian village, 
mow on the 
dian on foot 

"The tide had now risen fully two feet so wo mad<< 
reached the steamer in an hour. 

a straight i'ours(^ baik 


"At iS p.m., a large canoo came down with the ehicfand about a dozen IndiauR, some 
of whom we (>ngag('d for the survey. Tlip little information they could give us sbont the 
sources of the Kitlope was not very ]>romising for a passage through the mountains. 

"These Indians are an outlying branch of the Chimsains and their <lia!ect is so mixed 
up with that of the I'ella Coola's that Mr. Duncan had ditliculty in conv<>rsiiig with tlicm. 
yiv. Seymour made the chief a present of a shirt with tobacco and pipes for himself and 
the others, with which ll-ey were well satisfied, ami th'^y promLsed to jussist the surveving 
jiarty all they cimld. 

"The (rardncr Channel has great depth of water throughout, then! are tew shelten.'d 
places where a largo vessel could anchor and lie in safety, and for long .stretch(!s the shores 
are rocky clifls where no landing couM bo etlected, and they are generally impractical ile 
for a line of railway. 

" Siiturdai/, Ji'iir 1 lii/t.— At 10..']0 a.m., we left Bella Bella, the weather thick, with 
drizzling rain; within an hour we entered the (lunboat Channel, which is very crooked 
and at places so narrow between rocks and reefs, covered at high tide, that it is not a safe 
passage for ocean steamers. 

"Soon after noon wo enterrd the Dean Channel, but it rained nearly all <lay and tlie 
mist hung on the mountains, so that we got only occasional glimitses of their summits 
which were more or less covered with snow and increased in altitude as we ascended the 
channel; their rugged slojies terminating in clit!s or steep shelves coming down to the 
water's edge. This Channel is about two miles wide, with very deep water, and no 
sheltered bays or safe anchorage except near its head. 

" In the evening we reached a lai'ge flat or tongue of land projecting from tiie east side 
more than halfway across the channel. This is six or seven miles from the heatl of the 
channel and has been formed with the detritus brought down by the Kivor Kamscpiot 
which issues from a canyon through a screen of rocks, 301) to ttM) feet high and half a 
mile across, connecting the mountains on each side of the valley, and i)robabiy at one 
time it dammed up the river and formed a large lake behind it. 

" The flat is about a mile across, twenty feet high near the lower end and about 100 
feet where it joins the rock; it is covered with red fir and hemlock a foot to eighteen inches 
diameter. There is an Indian village, of the Bella Coola tribe, at the mouth of the river. 
Wc anchored on the upper side of this flat which forms a well sheltered bay ; the shores 
however shelve down rapidly into deep water, making indifFeT-ent anchorage; but Mliarvcs 
for steamers could be constructed at moderate cost. 

" Next day a party of us walked ov(!r this rocky barrier tti tiie head of the canyon ; 
beyond that, as far as we coidd see, the rocky slopes of the mount.'iins rise directly from the 

" In the afternoon steam was got uj) and we ran to the head of the channel but had 
some difficulty in finding anchorage ; for this, like all the other inlets forming the cascade 
chain termmates with a low tlat shelving abruptly into deep water. 

" The Tchatsciuot Iliver which comes in at the head of the channel is about 400 feet 
wide at its mouth. About half a mile up it is divided into two bmnches and sm-cral 


sloughs, covering nearly the whole of the vaUey. which is half to three quarters of a mile 
wide, thickly timbered with red tir, hemlock and cedar. Our guide, Charley, took a party 
of us in his eanoe about a mile u[t the rivei' to a small rndian village and fishing station. 

"■ Moiidaif, JuHc U)lli. — At four u.m., steam was up and wo jiroceeded down the 
channel; at breakfast time we were on the cross channel leading to the Bentinck Arm, 
and in a. few hours moi'e we reached the head of the North Arm. The mountains Avere 
partly shrouded in mist but Avhat we could see of them bore a general resemblance to 
those surrounding lUite Inlet, though i\\v. higher ranges behind did not hiok so broken 
and w(U'e more donie-slia})ed than peaked. The slopes of those abutting on the arm 
descend more abruptly to the water than tliose on the west side of Bute Inlet, and this 
is the cluiracter of all the northern inlets. It would be impracticable! to construct a 
railway on their shores on account of the enormous cost. 

"The arm is about two miles wide and th(> lliver lU-lla Coola, or W'oodhalk, which 
enters at its head is about 4(l(» feet widi^ at its mouth; but a short way up it is dividtul 
into several branches and sloughs. 

"A i)arty of us went by canoe about a mih' up tiie I'iscr to the Indian Village and 
lliulson Bay Comj)any's trading ]X)st. In the garden were tine crojis of turni[»s, carrots, 
potatoes, itc, but the soil a])pears rather light and sandy. The valley is covered with tir, 
hemlock, 1. . • and a good deal of unch'rbrush. 

"1 ii .'e reason to believe that the descrijition of the pass through the Cascade 
Mountains, y Lieutenant I'ahuvr hi his report of survey is in the main correct, and that 
uo farth'^i j-urvcy is necessary. 

" ISIillbank Sound is the be^t entrance from the I'acitic t)ccan, to the Cardncr and 
1 )ean Channel ; for, thougli it is o|pen to heavy gales from the south-west, the oihng is cleai' 
of I'ocks and a verv short time Avill sutlice to wt into .sheltered waters. 'Phis is not the 
case with I'ither the Fitzhugh, Loredo, or Nepean' Sounds; all of wliich liave dangerous 
rocks at their entrance, and are scarcely less subject to gales than Millbank Somid. 
From Millbank Sound, the course to (Gardner Channel is by the Finlayson and Ursula 
( 'liannels- -all good navigation on our outward trip we passed through these in the uiglit 
when there was no moonlight. 

'' l''r(im .Milli>ank Sound to the i»eau Cliauuel the most direct course is Ijy Seafortli 
( 'liauuel anu the CJuuboat Passage: but the latter is crooked and narrow, with many rocks 
and reefs, bare'y covered at high tide, 'i'he better course is by the Laura Passage farther 
south ; or, leaving, Seaforth ( 'hanuel on a north-east course there Ls a good passage north of 
that of the Cunboat." 

l'-.\.\.MIX.\Tli)X OF 

rA.->si;> Tuiiiui.ii iiii; CxscADK ri!()M Tin; l!i\r.i! 
FitASKi; 111 TiiK Si.\iii.ka.mi;i;n. 

'•lief' \'ictoria on t'K! ''Jth June, J.S71, on a journey through the districts in the 
southern part of the province, at Fort Hope I met M(,;srs. Trutch and Camlue, and 
received their I'ejtort of an examinatioi of the Passes through the Cascade Mountains. 
Itetween \\.x: Pavers Fraser and Siiniikame(ii. 

"They commenced at Fort Hojie and tuilowed up to the Nieolanme Valley, by tlie 
old waggon road, to Suiinnit l^ake 12 miles; rising in that distance 2,021 f(!ot or KUlAfeet 
pel- mile. Tlienco they descended by the Sumallow A'alley to the Biver Skagit 10^. miles, 
falling about 21 feet per mile. The heiglit of Ihe last point is 1,1)00 feet ai)o\e sea le\cl. 

L'is of a iiiilo 
took Ji party 
lung stiition. 

od down the 
Mitinck Arm, 
umtains worci 
^semblance to 
)k HO broken 

on tlio iirni 
nlct, and tliis 

construct a 

dhalk, wiiidi 
it is (livi(lc(l 

n Village and 
mi^is, carr(.)ts, 
vfred ^vitll tir. 

L the ('ascadc 
reel, and that 

c (lardncr and 
e olMng is clear 
Ills is not (he 
avo dangen)us. 
llbank Sound, 
on and Ursula 
ISC in tho niijlit 

i>s by 8oat"orth 
ith many rocks 
.\issagc farther 
assaije north of 

•iiir. Iti\i:ii 

listricts in the 
d C'ambie, and 
i(lo Mountains. 

V^Uley, by the 
lot or" I Wh feet 
agit lO^l miles, 
buve sea level. 


"Thev followed u]) the main stniam of tho Skamt .seven miles, risinu" !•() feet per 
mde; theneo up a tru)utary of that river to tho summit of Allison's Pass 1.'$ miles, rising 
141 feet per mile. Tiie sunuuit of the pass is 4, 100 feet above ,sea level. A few hun(h-ed 
feet beyond tlii^, they st.Mck the south biMueh of the Kiver Similkameen which Hows on 
a south-easterly course. . 

"This line was considei'ed impracticable for a railway ; so the party returned to the 
Coiiuihalla Valley an<l carefully examined all the principal streams tlowing into it on the 
east side, with the view of finding a way to the head waters of the Tulam(!en — i;c:i.etim(^s 
called the north branch of the Similkanieen- but without success. All the valleys in that 
direction heachul into high mountains, covered with dei'p snow; this in tli« weelc 

of JlMlO. 

'• The main valley of tla; C'u(]uih;ill.i was then examined to see if it weie practieiblr 
to get a uniform gradient throughout from the Summit Lake to the Uivei- Fi'ascr, and so 
avoid the worst gradients in the sur\-ey of 1S72. 

'' It is probable that this can be done gi\ing a gradient of lUO feet pi>r mile for .">."i 
mil(!s, but at the cost of excessively heavy works, including a gi-eat length of tunnelling 
and massive .snow-sheds, for avalanches of snow roll dcnvn the steep siiles of the valhy, 
l)ringing with them masses of timber and rock. 

" IJiit the pass is so rugged that the. magnitude of the worhs in iIk^ coiistruclion of a 
railway through it can only l»i^ determineil by a careful instrumental survey, which it was 
not expedient to make at that time. Therefore 1 instructeil IMr. Tiutch to form a 
Division (V) anil make an instrumental survey from Fort Hope to ihirrard Itilet, cross- 
ing tho I'rascr at tlic most favorable place." IKOM Four Hon: to im; \'ai,i.i;vs ok tiii; Simii.u \Mi:r,\, (Mxwscw. \M) 
oTiii:i;s IN Tin: Soitiii:i;n r.\i;r oi- rui: riioviMi:. 

••J had a sm.all pack tr.iin .sent to meiit me at Fort Hope and \\itli this I <'oiniiienced 
my journey on the 2'.lth of dune. Following the waggon road by the NieolauiiK^ and 
Sunuidow Valleys to the I'dver Skagit, 1 took the Grant Trail u]) the valley of the latter, 
the slojK's of which are in many places stee]) ami rocky, to the sninmit of the mountain 
whicli the aneroid indicated to be ."),(iO(J feet above sea level, 

'•There were siill some patches of snow on the trail as wc cro.s.sed tho brow of the 
mountain, but as we began to dwcend the eastern slope the groit id was covered with wild 
llowwrs, and thence the descent was easy. After a plea.sant ride down the Whijtsaw 
Valley we arrived on thi> evening; of the 1st July at the Nine ISIile ('r<'ek; so called from 
its being that distance from i'riiiceton at the coiillui'iice of the two l)ranehes of liie 

Here we had entered on 

bunch-grass country, and the slopes of the 

moiintaina, gentlv undulating and (IoUimI wiih clumps of lirs, presented the most charm- 
ini,' landscai>e. .\s far as the eye could reach it looked lihe one immense deer ])ark. 

"The v.illey of the south bnnich of the Similkameen as it issue) from the 
mountains is narrow and tortuous, so that cmmi if the Allison Pass had been |U'acticable 
there would have been a consideral)lc (piiintiiy of heavy work in constructing the railway 
on the oast side of the motnitains. 

" Princeton is now simply the ranclic or I'tirm of Messrs. Allison & Hays, large stock 
raisers, but it was once laiil out for a large town when gold was found on the tributaries 
of the 8imilkanieen. 

"I proceeded down the Siinilkauieen to ueai' the boundary lino; thence eastward 
by a pass tlu'ougli the hills to Ossoyas Lake in the Okanagan Valley. 

" The Similkameen Valley is narrow and bounded by high hills, principally of trajt 
rock, bare in places, but wlierever there is soil it ])roduccs a luxuriant growth of bunch- 
grass. The valley is in some ])laces a mei-e canyon, in others it widens out from a few 
hundred yards to one or two miles, in which tliere are flats on both sides of the river fit 
for agiicultine but most of them would require ii-rigation. The river is a clear rai)iil 
stream varying from 100 to 200 feet wide. Altitude at Princeton 2,300 feet. 

'• x\.l)out twenty miles below I rinceton there is an Indian i-eservation comprising 
sevei-al hundred acres, fenced in, some of which is cultivated with potatoes and other 
vegetables, anc. the greater j)ortion of it does not require irrigation. 

"Around Kereness, some forty miles below Princeton, lately a Hudson's P>ay 
Company's post, there is some fine grazing laiid ; and just below it a low wet flat several 
miles in length, and one to three miles in breadth, some of which is occupied by white 
settlers. There is an Indian village or camp at Kereness, 

" ( Irossing the heights to Os.soyas Lake there is fine bunch-grass. (.)n the margin 
of th(! lake near the lioundary line is the farm of Mr. liaynes, who is said to have ov(>r 
:\ thousand head of horses and about two thousand head of cattle. 

"The valley here is one to three miles wide, including the benches at the foot of the 
hills, but thei'e is not much agricultural land as the benches are arid and no water near 
for irrigating them ; there is however I'ich grazing land even to the tops of the hills. 

" We arrived here on Saturday evening, the 4th of July, rode up the trail on the west 
side of the lake and river about ten miles, to a latei'al stream called Tea Eiver, where wo 
camped till IMonday morning. The weather was veiy hot and the mosquitoes feroci- 
ous and irrei)rcssil)le. Altitude 1,500 feet above the sea. 

" Between (,>kanitgan Lake and this point the river, 100 to 150 feet wide and rather 
deep. Hows through and connects a chain of small lakes, nearly due north and south but 
the sides of tlie valley are very irregular, rocky bluffs sometimes abutting cv. the water. 

" The trail leaves the main valley and travei-ses a series of parallel valleys and basins, 
all covered with the richest bunch-grass, till nearing the foot of t)knnagan Lake it 
re-enters the main valley, hugging the steep sides of high sandy bluffs. 

" Towards the end of our day's jouniey we reached the foot of the Lake, 
where, on the west siilo of the river, there is an extensive low Hat covered with willows 
iuid alders, which I miderstand is an Indian I'eservation, on this there arc a number of 
neat substantial log houses. Hei*e v.-o crossed the river by a bridge lately erected, and 
soon after jia.ssed the residence of Mr. Ellis, an extensive stock raiser. This is the only 
white settlement we had seen since leaving tin; boundary line at Ossoyas Lake. About 
three miles further on we camjied by a spring half a mile from the lake. 

"The slopes of the hills abut on Lake Okanagan in many rocky bluffs, and the trail 
Ibllowing the eastern ^hoi-e was reported so rough and miry that wc took the trail leading 

large stock 

CO eastward 

illy of trajt 
1 of buncb- 
from a few 
Le river fit 
; clear rapitl 

s and other 

ulson's Bay 
flat several 
B(l by white 

the margin 
o have over 

fuot of the 
water near 

on the west 
r, where wc 
itoes feroci- 

3 and rather 
1 south but 
die water. 

! and basins, 
;an Lake it 

f the Lake, 
ith willows 

number of 
irected, and 

is the only 


id L 

10 trail 



over the mountain which at the summit is nearly 3,000 feet above the lake, and Ave found 
it a hard day's travel of 30 miles, to the Mission Valley Athere we camped not far from 
the Roman Catholic mission ; most of the Indians were away hunting or fishing, but 
Father Grandidier told us those under his charge numbered about 400 souls. 

"This is a very fine valley; the bottom, a low flat of excellent agricultural land, 
(extends four or five miles along tlie Okanagan Lake and is j)artially cultivated by white 
settlers for several miles up; we saw excelJeitt crops of wheat, oats, potatoes. &e. 
Altitude of lake by aneroid 1,120 feet above sea level. 

'' The trail follows up the valley which takes a north-easterly direction for a few 
miles; it then takes a course nearly due north and parallel to the Okanagan Lake. 
A chain of lakes extends through this valley, the largest of which is about 17 miles 
long. Portions of the bottom lands are fenced in for agriculture, and the slopes produce 
the most ii.xuriaiit bunch-grass. 

" There is a divide in the valley, and the outlet of these lakes is at the north end of 
the largest of them where the Coldstream Valley comes in from the east. About four miles 
up the latter is the ranche of Mr. Charles Vernon, which comprises a large quantity of fine 
agricultural and grazing land, partially timbered and a considerable portion of it under 
cultivation. The adjoining hills are covered with the richest bunch-grass. 

" Thursday, Juli/ dth, — ^We wei'e now about seventy miles from the foot of Okanagan 
Lake and ten miles from the head of it, which we reached by a fine open valley of rich 
grazing land, so smooth that waggons and buggies have been driven ovtU' the natural sur- 
face. Here Mr. F. J. Barnard has a ranclie on which a large number of hors(*s 
are pastured. 

" From the head of Okanagan Lake there is a waggon road to Kamloops, o\ cr sixty 
miles distant, following the Balmon .River to Grand Prairie, thence by a narrow valley 
to the south branch of the River Thompson and down the left l)ank of the latter to Kam- 
loops. About twenty miles of this is through timbered lands, the rest is park like rolling 
land like that about Kamloops. The road, for miles together, is simply a track on the 
natural surface of the ground and there is no heavy excavations on any part of it. 

"The most remarkable feature on the road is Grand Prairie; -i beautiful low basin 
.among the hills containing several thousand acres, a great portion of which is fine agri- 
cultural land on which there are several settlers. I was informed that the depth of snow 
there rarely exceeds nine inches and that 1,700 head of cattle have been pastured in the 
basin throughout the winter and come out fat in the spring. 

" There is a low viiUey running north-easterly from the head of Okanagan L:ike con- 
necting with Shuswap or Spillemeechene River. Through this valley there Is a chain of 
ponds mid swamps so little above the level of the lake and river at either end that ;i 
canoe has been taken through from the one to the other. The distance is probably under 
twenty miles and a canal could be cut across, at a very moderate cost, which would form 
a lin;. in a line of navigation for small steamers, over 300 miles in length, through the 
most fertile portions of this district; viz : — 

" From Savonna's Ferry on the Tliompson River at the foot of Lake Kiiiulooi)s, up 
the latter and the Thompson River to Kandooi»s, from which there would lie a branch u]. 
the North Thompson to Clearwater 75 miles. 


'• From Kamloops up the soutli branch ot' the Thompson, on which there are niiiny 
fine farms, to Lake Shuswap. Traversing the latter to any point desired we would then 
pass n]) the Spillemeochone River and throu.i,'li the canal to Lake Okanajfan, thence to 
liny point on the same and down its outlet, as far as navigalilc towai'tls < )ssoyas Jiake. 

" With this the i-ich district of Nicola Valley could be connected, at small cost, by a 
good waggon road to Kamloops, and there is already an excellent ti'ail thi'ough a fine o])eii 
bunch-grass country from the Nicola VaUey to the Similkameen; thus traversing and 
connecting some of the fairest portions of Bi-itish Columbia, and which comprise tlic 
grazing districts par excellence." 


Exploratory Journey on the Central Plateau between the Coast Chain ok 
Mountains and the Kiveu Fkaser, from the Chilicotin Country north- 
wards, TO Lake Francois and the Rivers Nechaco and Stewart. 

'"' We arrived at the mouth QuesnelU^ on the !29th of August, with my own little 
j)ack train, and a heavy ti'ain with sup])lies for Divisions iVI, N and X. Here we found 
Mr. tSeymour, our interpreter, and the Chilicothi chief Aunahimr, whom he had engaged 
as guide and mediator in case any diHiculty should arise with the Indians of the district, 
who formerly bore a bad charactei-. 

" Oui' course was north-westerly, by a series of valleys over an luididating country, 
covei'ed witli firs, s)>ruce and aspens and seldom exceeding an altitude .'5,000 feet above st>a 
level. On our left lay a range of hills rising 4,000 to 5,000 feet above sea level and forui- 
iiig a divide between the streams flowing north-cnusterly into the Fraser above Quesnellr 
and south-westerly into the sanu; river lielow that point; or into some of the inlets of the; 
Tacltic Coast. On the fourth day we reached the River Blackwater, 45 miles from 
(.,|uesnelle. Our aneroids gave the height of the bridge crossing the Blackwater 2,110 feet 
aliove sea level. • 

"The \ alley is here narroAv at the bottom and the slopes, covei'ed with bunch-gi-ass, 
wild vetches and ]iea vine, rise by a series of benches to the level of the plateau, which on 
tlie southern side is 400 to 500 feet higher, and on the noi'thern '500 to 400 feet; the lattei- 
lieing the lowest part of the divide between the Ulackwater and Chilacoh Ri\ers. At 
the bridge the river eutei-s a rocky canyon through which it flow^s eastward on its course 
to the Fraser. 

■'The Blackwater has its sources in a nund)er of lakes on the central plateau, GO to 1 00 
ndles westward of this point among the foothills of the Cascade Mountains. It is j)lentifully 
stocked with line s])cckled trout, and the groves of asi)enand spruce which adorn the softly 
\indulating grassy slopes of the sunny side of the valley supplied us with alnuidance of 
grouse. We afterwards found that this, the 5.'5rd parallel of north latitude is essentially 
the northern liuut of the bunch-grass. From this northward the ({uantity of rain fall 
greatly increases, and drainage rather than i negation is reipiired. 

" Mondai/, Amimt 31*7. — We started from the Telegraph trail on the north side of 
the valley of the Blackwater, and followed the edge of the valley nearly due west for eight 
miles, on to a range of hills running in a north-westerly direction where the valley makes 
a bend to the south-west. 

" From an elevated position we had a line view up this valley for over L'O miles, on 
the direct line to Chisicut Lake and the llomathco Pass. But we afterwards found that 
only about twehtt nules of this was the Blackwater Valley, the rest being that of the 


aro many 
would then 
u, tlionci? to 

11 cost, by a 

1 a fine o]iPii 
versing iiuil 
ompvise the 

r Chain ok 


y own little 
•e "svo foiiiiil 
liatl eugap;o(.l 
the district, 

ing oouutr\ . 
3et above sen 
rel aud form- 
,'Q QuosnflK' 
iub'ts of tlic 
niilos from 

au, which on 
et; the latter 
Kivers. At 

11 its course 

au, GO to 1(10 
is ])lentifully 
)rii the softly 
dtundance of 
s essentially 
of rain fall 

lorth side of 
vest for eight 
valli'V nii(kes 

20 miles, on 
3 found that 
itr that of tlie 


Niizco which enters this aV)out twelve miles up and continues in the stnuo line: wliile the 
former makes a sharj) bend almost to a right angle taking a north westerly course. 

"Our trail did not follow the sinuosities of the \ulley, but k(>pt a course nearlv <lue We were now travelling on the same line t^keii liy Sir Alexander Maclcenzie in 
IT'.'il. Ill the (>vcuiiig we camped l)y a small str.'am ten miles iVnm tlie 'i'elegiajih trail. 

" I'lifsi/ai/, S>'/)/. I x/. -Following a course a little south of west, at ilie thirteenth 
mile we entered a fine broad aud open valley; crossing t'lis obliquely, in three miles mor(! 
we came to a clear stream, 40 feet wide, flowing soutji-easterly into tiie r>lncl:watei-, about 
tiiree miles distant. The stream makes a bond heiv and takes a course nearly duo west 
— looking up stream. We followed this on its southern baidc for six miles where we 
crossed it, as it there takes a north-west course, and the valley expands into a plain of 
several miles in breadth. The Indian name of this stream is Is-cul-taes-li, (Blackberry 
liiver.) In the evening we reached Trout Lake, a line sheet of water over a mile in 
length, and half a mile in lireadth, abounding in sjieckled trout. On a grassy slope on its 
eastern margin we camped (No. (i) twenly-iive miles from the Telt-givqih line. 

" Next ilay about noon we crossed the spur of a hill 2,'.lS0 feet above sea level and a 
few mil&s further on, the trail again struck the left bank of the Blackwater which had 
made a bend to the north-west from its junction with the Nazco. The river from where 
we struck it for four miles up is expanded into a laki'. Wi^ camped (No. 7) Iiy a small 
stream, estimated distance from Telegraj)]! trail \'2 miles. 

" Thnr.'id((i/, Seplt'iuhcr '.]>'(/. — Mr. ILuutor and my.self made ;in excursion iiorthwanls 
to the crown of the taltle-land i^j.'iOO feet above ,seii level. The ascent was easy, few rocks 
appearing on tlie suriace which was thickly covered with small firs, which a tire had swept 
through. The wliole cotinlry round was rolling and covered with similar useless timber. 

" Re-tracing our stejis we reached the trail at 1 jLin., and in two hours more came to 
the foot of a beautiful lake, an expansion of the river, about eight miles hmg and three 
(piarters wide, across its broadest j'art, and dotted with islands. Its southern shore is 
high and being on the shady side of the liill is densely covereil witli dailc spruce ami cedar 

'"But on the other side the uiiduhiting slopes of the valley rising L'dO to oOO feet 
above the lake, are covered with bunch-grass, vetches and ])Ga vine, and groves of asjien, 
forming a cliarming l.and.scape. In the evening w(> reached the ford where tlu' trail crosses 
the river, sixty miles from the Telegraph line and campcij (No. S). .\ltitnde of lirer ;{.l }."• 

" Next day Mr. Hunter and myself accomjianie.l by our Kluskus Indian ascended to 
tli(^ summit of a range of hills, crossing the river and bearing in a north-west direction. 
Our altitudi! was about l,.")(iO feet, from wliit'h we had a vt^ry extensivi^ \iew of the country 
all around and could trace the vaUey of the J]lackwatt>r twenty-five miles up, nearly due 
west. At the foot of tlu^ range on which we stood, and north of us lay a large, horse-shoe 
sliajied lake, which tlu; Indians told us flows into thi; Necliaco. 'I'lie men were eng;ig<'d 
all ilay ratting the stores and baggage across the river wliicli was too deep to ford. 

"Saturday/, September Btlt.—'Wc got across the river and, following u]> a ^ alley three 
mih'S, we arrived at Kluskus Lake, where the Ifudson's Bay Company formerly had a fort, 
but not a vestige of it is now to be found. This is still iiowever a favorite resort of the 
fudians. Altittuh' of the lake liy aneroid .'5,500 feet: it is about three miles long and 
half a mile broad, with nniddv bottom, a light breeze makes the water unfit to drink. 


•• Three miles lartlici' on we eainped by ii s|priti!j;, near luiotlior small lake where we 
reiiiiiiu'il oM'i- Sumlay. Mcainvhilo we had .scut an Imliau to liml out jMr. Ganisl)y, aud 
ou Sunday al'teruuon Iw arrived (Voui liis eaui}), distant aliout -0 mile;? westward. 

^' Jfomnii/, ,Sr/>('i}i/j!r 7//i. -W\' followed th(^ ti-ail wliieii still kejti oii the same eourse 
a little to the south of west, ou a heueli [larallel to the iMackwater. Towai-ds eveniu^^we 
I'eaehed Thracha Lake aud. following its southern shore, we eauu' upon the eani|> of Division 
X aud iiitclied our (cuts alouL>side. 

"The position of this eamp was touud from observations of the sun's meridian 
altitude and the iustruuiental surveys cf this Division (X) carried from the coast, to 
he lat. "(.'i' north lon.^. I L' 1", 'to' west, and the hei.^ht of Lake Thiacha ;'),;> U) feet aijove sea 
level. N'otint,' the variation of our instruments we took this as a new point of departure 
and on the iUh Sept., we eontinucnl our journey; oiu- trail keeping,' the same general course, 
a little to the south of west, thi'i'adini; -a line of small lakes and ponds ami cutting oil" the 
lieudsofthe lilackwater. 

•'In aliout six miles the t. •.'.■! liivlded into two hranches, that on our left takimj a 
soutli-west eounsi' apparently directly across a high range of hills capped with snow, hut 
the Chilicotiu ('hi<'f Auunhime. toM us that there is a depression in the range liy which 
the trail goe^ to Ji.ake X,'icoont!oo:i where his pi'incipal camp is, thence uj) the stream 
sdiitherly to Lake Nimpoh ^\ here it joins the iSella Coohi trail from Ale.viuidria to the 
I'.riitiuck Arm. This is the liuf t;i!;i'U liy Sir Alexiuider ^!ackeuxi(> in 1 7'.l.">. 

" We toolc th(( trail to the right, aiul at twelve miles crossed the Bliickwater IMO feet 
wide !ind less than li feet deeji ; altitude ."»,(>()0 feet. AVo were now in a wide valley almost 
an ojien plain through which the i'i\'er tlows only a few feet aliove the geu(>ral le\'el. At 
the fourteenth mile we came to a small lake, altitude ."•.TIH ffit. near whit-h we camped 

(So. in. 

'■ TkuV'^Jdij, Si'iif. lO^/i. — On rising this morning we olmerved that the mountains to 
the south of us had rcN'eived a fresh coat of snow during the night extending farther dov.n 
their slopes. Our trail now ran through small hurnt timber which impeded our progress: 
but at noon we canu; upon a wide well cut trail, having the appearance of white men's 
work, but were told it was the work of an Indian who had recently died of fever ; in 
isnother houi' we came upon his houst- and grave; a lovely s|)ot on a grassy knoll at'tli(> 
outlet of a lake, four miles long and two miles wide the widest part, altituch- .■>.(') I (I 
f'rt. and '1\ miles from oui- starting ]>oint at Lake Thracha. 

'• Tills is called Eliguck Lake ; tlie .stream issuing out of it ll! feet wide is the Black- 
water, at this a large black bear was drinking but on seeing us he made oil' before we 
could get a shot at him. From this we followetl a well cut trail on the north side of the 
Lake, till we struck a small stream running into the west end of it. where we cam|ted 
(N'o. ll'). 

" l''rom our cauii» the trail took a nortli-wost course and in a nule we came to the foot of 
a small lake, altitude ;5,(il)() feet. We were now" evidently near the watershed : there were 
low lum]iy hills all around, w ith rocks appi^ariug on their siunmits. A nnl(! fartlnu- on 
we wt>re on a hill •],t)(MI feet above sea level. From this we could see Ihrough an oj)ening 
at th(! head of the lake into a lower b.asin extending away to the north-west: the rocks on 
the .shore of the lake, near its hoa aj)pearcd in tlu' distance like basalt. 

"Continuing on this high ground, on a generall}'' westerly eourse, at the thirtieth 
mill' tli(^ trail went ovei' the crown of a lai'ge gloladar rock of granite, altitude Ijil.")!! feet. 

•wiion,' -we 
insl>v, iiiul 

iLiiut; course 
C'VcniiiLC we 
nt" l)i\ isioii 

s inci'idiaii 
lO coast, to 

t illjOVC SCit 

f tlopiirtiu'c 
oral course, 
inir ofl" the 

'ft takiiiLj i! 

snow. Imt 
1 hy wliicli 

tlic st renin 
(ifiii to till' 


illcv iilliiost 

l('v..i. At 

wc cainped 

ouutaius to 
iirtlicr down 
ur progress ; 
white men's 
of fever; in 
nioll at the 

ttude :!.(;io 

;tlie Uhick- 

il' l)ffo:'e we 

1 sl(h! fif tlie 

wc- camped 

.(» the foot of 
: there were 
fartli'M- on 
I an ojieuinn' 
h(! rocks on 

lie thlrtietli 
1,050 feet. 


Wo were now .sure w. were on tlio divide, for on a course south Itl" cast, wo liad a nia;;- 
niticent view up a vaUey between the liiijh range of hills that liad heen on our left tin- last 
two day's, and the main ranges of the cascades. This is the valley of the Salmon liiver, 
at the head of wliich, lies Lake Xacoontloon. 

'■ From this point keeping the same general course we liegan to d<'scend M'vy giadu- 
ally hy a chain of marsh meadows, ])onds and lakelets, ami at lU miles ^\e came to an 
Indian house and grave on a beautiful grassy hill close to. and commanding a tine vii^w of 
Ijako N'ghaco, which is of an irregular shajie, l',', miles long aiul one mile wide; altitude 

.'i.-jOO feet. 'I'he Indian liouse is large ami we 

canipe<l (No. I'd). 

l>uilt but now <le.'erted, near tlii-* we 

" Here the trail end<Ml and oui- Indians knew nothing of the country beyond and 
wanted to turn back; l)ut I. was anxious to reach the Salmon River before turiung north- 
ward: and (pu^stioning two Indians who liad overtaken and followed us .J.' day they said 
we couhl go to one branch of the Salmon River in a day, but thei-o wonhl be a great deal 
of chopping. After some coaxing they agreeil to go with us. 

" SdliiTiJai/. Sijif.. \'lt]i. — We tbllowed a gi luu'aily so\ith-west eoui'se, passing the 
upjiei' end of Lake is'ghaco, thence along the edge of a lim- of marsh meadows on \M't 
ground, across which we got th(! animals witli great dilliculty, kei'ping nearly the same 
le\('l to tlie list mih^ when a, wide and deep valley sjiread (jiiL before us and we began lu 
h'seoud rapidly, till at the lord mile we stiMick a tine clear stream liOO fi'et wide, altitude 
."i,l<SO feet, which we forded without ditllculty as the water was now \cry lov, and llie 
dejitli on ihe fui'd was little o\-er :.' feet. 

"This is the main branch of the Salmon Riser. We continued our course iwo 
miles beyond this, au<l camped (N'o. I I) liy a small sti'cani ilowing into a mai'sh meadnv, . 
and I'omaiued over Sunday. 

••()urhist come Indians pointe<l out tons liom a risi' near the camp a high range 
of hills dim and bhu; in the distance, wliich they said hiy along the north branch of the 
Xechaco ; that between us and that river there were many lakes, and w<! would have to 
cross two large rivei's. -riiey li;id agreed to go with us at least lialf the way, but on 
Sunday .afternoon they told us they we're afraid to go, (here was so much water and fallen 
timber they thought our horses could not get through. J insisted on keeping them to 
their bargain, but on rising next morning we found they had decamped during the night, 

'^ Moiid(i;j, ^icpt. ll//;..— We took the bearing to the distant Jicuuluins and ijUirted 
boldly on our course without any trail, cutting our way through lirush and fallen timber. 
We soon came to tlie river, which we could not cross, as the water was tleej) and the 
bottom miry, so we had to go back to the finl liy which we had iireviously eros'^ed, 

"(hir route fi-t)m the Telegraph li'ail np the lilackwatei' \'alley and o\e!' the di\ idi.' 
to this ]ioint had aiipeared .so favo'/able for a railway line, tliat I Mas s(jrely temiited to 
follow tins ^'alIey down towards tla^ coast as far .is horses could go. I'.ut the main objei'L 
of this journey was not to follow out any particular njute, Imt to get a general knowledge 
of the country as far north as Lake Francois, .so as to enable us to determine which line, 
if anv, through the (,*ascade Mountains north of l)Ut(> Inlet, appeai'i^d sulticiently favor.dih^ 
to warrant an instrumental survey. 

" T thought this <'ou1d be done the most satlsfaclorily and in the shortest time by 
tracing the watershed or di\ide between the Racitic Coast and tlu^ Jliver Fraser from Fort 
iicorge to Qucsnello ; and following as near to the di\ide as practicatije so as to cross the 
head watcni of all the ris'crs Uowiii'^ tMi-lerlv. 


'• Tliis lifi.-^ l)Ct;n iiC(Oni|ili.Nlu'(l uiid tlio I'lvsiiHs l.iid down <pii (lio i^fiMTul iiiiip, Idit as 
tliu country is fiiliirly uuk)i<)\vn, u bru-f dcsoriptioii of our jourufv may he intorf.sting;- - 

'• Our coiu'.sf was iiortli 12" west (.istrouoiiiio;!] Ucaiint!;), find wt,- kept us nciU' to tijis 
as the difficulties of the ground and tlie tliickly wooded country would ])crniit. At three 
miles from the river we orossod a divide runnini,' nearly east and west, about ll'O feet 
above the river ; on the north side of this is a stee))' rocky lfd!;:e of l")!) feet whic' we 
scrambled over with some ditliculty, tlien descended gradually into a wide basin inter- 
sected with Ijeaver dams, near one of which we camped, r' ;ht miles from tin; river, 
altitude 3,000 feet. NVxt da\ we ))assed over a similar country till at noon we came 
ujion Lake Qualcho, bearing about east and west, and, as far as we could see it, about four 
miles long and three f[uarter8of a mile wide ; we followed its sliore eastward two miles to 
the end of it, wlier(> we found a stream S feet wide flowing into the lake from the east. 
This puzzled us, for looking westward down the lake, the view was terminated at no very 
great distance, by the snow-clad peaks of the Cascade JVlountains. The overflow of the lake 
unist, however, fall into the Salmon River, .as its altitude. '2.f^'2^) feet, is less than that of 
the next stream we crossed falling eastward, 

" We now followed a coui\se noi'tli IV'wcht, to carry us over a de|iression in the 
range of dark-looking hills ahead of us, A tire had pass(^d over this and we struggled 
slowly tlu-ough piles of small burnt flrs till we i-eached the summit, 3,400 feet, beyond 
which, on the shady side of the hill, the fallen timber became larger, the piles higher and 
more continuous, and it took us thi'ee hours to cut our w.iy a litth; over a mile to a small 
pond in a swamp, round which there was a litth' feed for the animals. Near this we 
cauiped, !•"> miles iVom our starting j)oint at tlie Salmon !>'i\<M-, altitmle 3.180 feet. 

" Tliis is the real divide between the streams falling easterly into the Fiascr, and 
westerly into the Facitic, which takes a westerly course till it joins the Cascade Mountains, 
which then form the divide^ northward till beyond the f) 1th ^larallel of latitude. 

" l\'t'<hirs(la'/. Sijif. \ij/h. — It had raine<l heavily during the night and this morning 
we were three hours cutting our way half mile througli heavy burnt and fallen tindier to a 
belt of gi'een standing timber, on reaching which our Indians were so fatigued and dis- 
heartened they declared we should all i)erish if we continued on the same, as tlus 
whole country in that directicm had been swept by tire, and it would be impossilde to cut 
through the fallen timber ; Itesides this there was a long lake directly on our course, the 
head of which the\' said Mas two davs travel in the direction of the Snow Mt)untairis. 

*' Our experience thus far gave so nnich probability of tlie accuracy of this account 
that we reluctantly changed our course an<l followed the lielt of standing timber in a 
north-eastei'ly direction. The country became more open and level as we ad\-anced and 
the travelling impi'oved. Early in the afternoon we got a glimj)sc of the lake to the 
north of us, then we .struck an Indian trail which led us to the foot of it, where we 
camped (No. 17) on a gra,4,sy bench, commanding a line view up the lake with the snowy 
peak.s of the (.'ascades in the distane(\ Ceneral beai'ing south (53" west, estimated length 
of thelaKe, as far as we co\d(' see it, fifteen miles. Imt we could trace the coui'se of tin- 
valley far bi'vnnd that. 

"'J'his is Lake Tschick, altitude I)y aneroid, 3, lOt) feet, and distance; from our starting 
]iointon Saluion liive)', 31 miles. The stream tlowing out of it in a north-e;isterly diifction 
is not over 12 feet wide. Ou the north si<le of it on a grassy knoll is an Indian house and 
grave, the latter fenced in, covered and decked in the usual way with tlags, wearing 
apparel and iuiphiuents of the chase ; and the house, alw, as Uoual, deserted. < Hir Indians 


orcstiii^;- - 
u-,\v to tliis 

At thlLM! 

it 1 :.>() feet 

wliic" we 

liasin inter- 

ilio river, 

)n we caint' 

. .about four 

wo miles to 

n tlu! east. 

at no very 

of the lake 

lian that of 

•iisiou lu tlie 
e struy^'lc'd 

eet, beyond 
higher and 

p to a small 

I'ar this A\e 


Fiaser. and 

us inornin;^' 
t timber to a 
ed and dis- 
irse, as the, 
Hsible to eu( 
eourse, the 

his aceount 
timber in a 
Aanced ami 
lake to the 
t, whore we 
L the snowy 
latod leiu>th 

JUl-SO of till- 

(.)ur startnig 
ily direction 
11 house iind 
gH, wearing 
I 'ur Indians 

toll! us that it had belonged to an Indian chief named MustfUe, who died a, year ago. The 
house is hirge and in good rejjair ; in it wo found several lioxes ot goods, cooking utensils, 
a robe made of rabbit skins, two jiairs of beautiful made snowshoes of ilitl'erent si/os, for 
man and woman, a curiously cut woodtui ladh;, and a finely shaped liark canoe quite new. 
Those are always held sacred and never touched by Indians, but left to natural decay. 
This part of the coiuitrv is said to have l)een once ihicklv ])Opulated with Indians, whicli 
is prol)ab|e. as it abounds in ganii- ■.\ni\ tlsh ; there is now little trace leftof tiiem but their 


••The bottom tlat of the valley, from the foot of the lake, widens out to fully half a 
mile, co\ered with good grass, l)ut two or three nales down it beconica marshy, probalily 
the result of beaver tlams, 

'■ To avoid a high hill that lay (lir'';lly in our, we foUoweil down the edge of 
the \ alley on the north side four nales, where we found an Indian trail, leading round the 
tlank of the hill. Tiiis we followed and made good progress till wc got on the north side 
of the hill, where oui' ditiiculties with fallen timber increa.sed and the country L.-came 
sterile and dreary. After a hard day's struggle we readied the head of the south arm 
of Lake Tetachuck an hour after it was dark. This is a trefoil or "J" shaped lake, sur- 
rounded by high sterile hills of bhaly limestone, ri.-5ing to a height of nearly tjUUO feci 
above sea level. It took us the whole of next day clambering I'ound on the steep slopes 
of these hills to cross the angle between this arm and the outlet of the lake, a distance of 
eight miles. 

" I''r(.im the.M' heights we took a general bem-ing up the lake ami valley, south 7'-" 
Wist, (!\temliiig u]i to the (Cascade Mountains. ,\t sunset we readied the foot, of th(> 
lake, IS miles from our starting ]ioint. and camped, (Xo. \'.K) .\ltitiidi' of lake, 1'.770 

•• The outlet of this lak's is a ileep and rapid river liOl) feet wide, which \v(^ werir 
una'ole to ford, .so wc had to luake a raft to carry our stores and l»aggage across the foot 
of the lake, and the animals Lad Lo swhn nearly a (piarter of a mile. This wasted half a 
day, but on the sunnj- slopes of the hill, on the other side of the river, we found plenty of 
grass, pea vine and .servv-c berries in the aspen groves; and as the animals had had l)ut 
little feed for the last two days we were glad to give them half a day to recruit, on good 
pasture, as well as to rest ourselves, so we camped (No. ■JH) on a sunny glade near the 
margin ot the lake. 

'• From this it took us another hard day's travelling to get aci'oss the next divide, 
nearly a thousand feet above the level of the lake, with much fallen timber on the north 
side to the valley of the Kueuchu, which we struck at the head of the lake on a grassy flat a 
mile wide. The river llo\^■s on the north side of this and was then only 60 feet wide where 
we forded it ; Vmt the channel is l.'tO foot wide and the driftwood on its bar.ks showed 
that it is subject to high Hoods. Here we camped ( No. 21), distance Gl miles, altitude 

'•About 3 miles above where wc crossed, the valk-y contracts and is thin-o divided 
into two branches which rajiidly head up to the Ic'vol of the jilateau. The slo])es or benches 
on the sides of the valley, broken by lateral gulches, apjioar like a chain of rounded hills, 
risinii to a height of .'{do'ur KM) feet ; those on tlu* north side of the valley, mere exjiosed 
to tiie sun's rays, are covered with grass, vetcla^s and pea vine. 

" From one of these hills wc took a bearing eastward to a remarkable pe.ik in the 
high range of hills that we had seen on our right the last three days. It is a high dome 


Avitli a peak risiiiL,' ii]i in tlic rciitiv. not luilikn a .s|iikfil liflnict. Wr cilli'il it l''auiiy's 
Mountain, after oni- Kliiskus Indian, to whom it was a landmark slii-wini,' wiicn.' the ri\rr 
Nccliaco cnjs tliroiiuh tli(> van<rf in a (l('c|i I'anyon im])a.ssal)Ic i'or canoes. 

*' J/oii'/ai/. Sijtt. •Jl.vA. — Till' foiinti'v Iiad lircn imin'ovinj; on our route tiie la>.t two 
days, and the lirst part of lliis day's journey was the phasantest w(> had since I(Mvim,' tlie 
Sahiion l!i\er. We followed up the north side ol" the Eueuchu N'alley two miles, thence 
northward liy a small stream flowing into it through a latei'al valloy. Tlus woodson thu slopes 
ofthehills on each side opened out al intervals iutograssy ,udades. '^Phis continued till we 
got on the north side of the hill, when we had oui' usual dillioulties with fallen limli(>r, 
Imt at last mc icached the long looked for Nechaco, which wo struck at the foot of 
'rdiuta/ely Lake, an expansion of the river fully fifteen miles in length. The I'iver at tliis 
]>laee is fully .'iOO feet wide and too deep to ford, so v>'v camped, (No. -!l!), distance from 
Salmon I!i\er 71 miles: altitude, L'.iiSO feet. 

" riie !Nocliaco, fimu this poinl eastwards, e\[iands at intervals, forming u s(^ric» of 
lung narrow lakes, and it receives all the streams we had crossed befoi'o it cuts through 
the range ahove-mentionech UUa all the country wo cro8S(>d, the south side of the 
\ alley, heing the shady side of the hill, is Meik and cdid, with much fallen tindier uii<|i' 
cayed : )nit on the hottoiu flats thatoccin'at iutei-\als l.etwccn tln'rivii' and the slopi.-i 
(here is lar-,'"' fim'i"r with gra>s anil ]ii a \iiie. 

'•<>!i the UDi'lh .•■ide nf" the ri\r;- ^\Ilere we crossi'd il tln' lianks rise from lie' water's 
I'dgc very steeply to a leaght of liOl) feet, but i>y the piocess of denudation these are sei'rafed 
and rounded into a sei'ies of liumnuJi'k}^ hills ; and being nioi'e expcjsed to the sun's rays 
vegetation is more activi? and the fallen timber more de(;ayed. so that gi'ovcs of aspen liav c 
s|truiig up, with luxui'iaut grass, vetches and pea a inc. From Ihese heights we got 
another bearing to fanny's Mountain. 

•• It tiiok half of next day to get our stoi-es and baggage rafted across, and the nniles 
packed. Wi> had just lunched and weio puzzled about what direction to take, for across 
our course lay a high range of trap and basalt, I'eing the same wi; had seen at starting 
from Salmon lliver. 

•• While in this dilemma wc were sur|aiMMl to hear the bark of a dog, and imme- 
diately after a canoe, shot romid a point of land : this contained an Indian family, man 
wife, and three children, with all their goods and chattels packed in that long narrow 
dug-out. We could understand but little of each others sjieech, but they ])roved to bo 
remarkably intelligent, especially the woman, who in <a very few minutes uuderstooil the 
map and our rough sketches and traced the w'ay to Frasor Lake, where their village is : 
we gave them some food sind small jiresents for the children, and tho \n:\]\ agreed to go 
with us tvVi) days and show us the Indian trail. 

'• We stiirted on a north-west course on the slo]»es of the hills along the margin of 
the lake which wore covered Avith veiy long grass, vetches and pea vine, and groves of 
uspens. The vetches and pea vine were in great (pnintity, reachuig to a lieight of 4 feet 
auu)ng the long grass, climbing u]i the trees to S or 1) feet and hanging in festoons from 
bush to bush : we had dillicuhv in forrini,' oui' horses throULth the tauirlcd mass. 

'■ l.'^rom a high point we took a beai'iiig up tlu; Xechai'o Valley, noi'th '^^^" west. 
Tiie river a]ipcared to flow out of a very large hdic 'M) to 10 miles distant, among t w. 
footliills of the Cascades, anil iHyond this in the same line rose a snowy peak reguhirlv 
shaped like an Kgyptij'U iiyraund, estimated to be over S,'H)(l feet high and 5(1 to (50 
nule-s distant. 

it l''aimy'H 
V the ri\cr 

la.-t two 
cuvili;,' tla; 
ilcK, tliciicc 

I tilt' sl(1|ICS 

iiicd till wi- 
(Ml tiinher, 
t]ic foot of 
ivcr iit tliis 
,tiin('(> fi'oiu 

a sisiies of 

;ts tlirouL;li 

sitic of tlif 

iiiIht midi'- 

llir slii[pr.% 

the Wiltcl'.s 

ii'f sfiTiiteil 
sun's ruys 

asjH'ii lias (• 
lits v>r ''ot 

1 till' mules 

[\ fuc iHTosN 

at startiim- 

and innnc- 
iiniily, mail 
ang narrow 
•ovcd to 1)0 
Icrstooil the 
f villago is : 
greed to cro 

} margin of 
id groves of 
ht of 4 feet 
'stoons from 


til ')'■'>" we^fc. 
, among t lo 
ik regularly 
k1 50 to (ib 


" In aliont tliree miles our eoursi^ changed to north and wc passed througli a gaji In 
the rang.: at an altitudo of ."..''((M) feot above sea level. Our course was then nearly north 
east, and rapidly desecnding we soon reaelied the litth; Lalce Kiiz. idtiHidi' ;;.(i.")i.t feet, 
distivneo '/S iiiile-; jVimi Saiinnn llivec. where wc eainped. | \o. ■_':!). 

•' U'ediiri^dKii, Si pi. •2:',r./. — \\V started early and in ihive miles reached the hoine cf 
an In.Iian chief named Nehlie, at the head of Lake Teliestatta. The range of hills north 
of us. though high and studde<l with masses of granite, did not look iiiaccessihle. the 
country looked open and l)y Triitch's map the distance to Lake l-'ramois should 
not exceed 20 miles; hut our hidian dechircd it was impossihie for horses to go there, as 
there were so much rock and fallen timl)er and no fee(l. and even if wc did succeed in 
rciiehing the lake, we could not possiltly get along its slau-es to the outlet. We tiierefoie 
reluctantly folioweil tlie trail along the north shore of Lake Teliestatta .all day till we came 
to an Indian hshing station, a little heyoiid which w<- camped (No. •_'{). 
two and adialf miles wide, altitude L*.So() feet. 

Hike, one In 

"Hero tlie trail ended and our Xechaco Indian turned iiack, lirst telling us that it 
was hut a little way to an Indian village, wheiu'C we could lind a trail leading to the foot 
of f/ike Francois. IJiit we toiled hard, cutting our way thiMiigli thick hru.sii and fallen 
timber on the stee]t hill side, audit was not till 4 p.m., wt; came to the Indian village on 
a si)it of land, sliootiiig into the lake and nearly cutting it in two; we foiiinl only one 
Lidiaii family there, who were much surprised to see horses in such a situation. We unt 
some lish from tliem and gave them some small ]ii-csents, tlen started on the trail, wliicli. 
however did not lead nortliward, hut followed the margin of the lake on higii hluHs. it 
was nearly dark when we reached the foot of the lake where we camped (So. I'o) lu'aran 
Indian house, distance In.'') nules. Altitude of the lake hy aneroid L',Sno tect. 

" FriJ<(i/, Si'pf. L'."i///,-- The Indian, from the last village wc had ]iassed, came down 
early in his eanoc! with .some lish audoll'ered to accomp.iny us one day's journey, whi<'h ollei' 
was gladly accepted. 

"Our course all day was nearly iiortli-east on a passai)le Indian M'ail : the Ih'sl part 
of the day through a hilly country covered w ith small timber. F-om one of hills we 
got another bearing to Fanny's ^Nfounta in soiitii .">0' west, whiv.ii we were now leaving 
liehind. Jii the afternoon we travelled liy a chain of marsh meadows, and ponds or bea\cr 
dams, passing Indian camping grounds, and had a good deal of bridging and brush- 
ing to get the animals across .soft ground. Towards evening w'(! crossed some heights of 
trap rock, from which we had a view of Lake Kthliuhsly lying before us, about .'5 miles 
long, and 1^' miles across its widest jiarl. We travelled on the north shore of this and 
camped on a tlat near tln^ loW'Cr (Uid >if it. distance* from Salmon l!i\er 1|S miles. 
Fstimated altitude of lake L'.UOO feet. 

'' Sadirddi/, Si'pf. 'l(\th. — From the course we had travelled tin; last tiiree days 1 f'll, 
eertain that we must be fully as far cast as tin; foot of J^ake Francois; so we left the trail 
and made a desperate attempt to cut our way direct north; but after two liours labor we 
had not made half a mile and had to give it up and return to the trail w]ii<'h was hard to 
tiiid among piles of fallen timber and loose rock. 

" \Ve were now crossing a range of Imld granite hills, app.ucntly a continuation ol 
the .same range we hail seen on our right for more than a week past. About ."> p.m., we 
cross(^d the summit by a depression in the range, estimated altitude 3,<)00 feet al)0ve sea 
level, and had a very extended vimv over a rolling country ti the south-east in which we 
caught a of the Necliaco liiver and .several lakes. Wending our way shnvly down 
the north-eastern slo]ie. ovei' very rough ground strewed with fallen timber, we i'(aclie(l 


a aiiiitll Idl.o just as ii was ;,'oLtui'; lUu'k, altitiulc 'J, 900 Ci'ct, utai' wliirli we (-iiiiUMil 
(No. L'T). 

"Next day wc startt'tl early. wiiKliiiiJt luir way llii'oiiijli a liilly ami tiiickly tiiiiltorcil 
i-ountiy. fn two inileH we passtHl a small laki'lrt. oiil nl" wliifii issiiccl ii Hlrcaiii llowill^ 
iioitliwaiil wliicli t(il(l us w(> woi"(! not f'ai' from Lake KiaMcoisoi- Lake I'Vascr; iiiid shortly 
after, passiiij,' tlirouffli a dcfilo avo oanic to a point on a Idll-sido commaiidiiijL; a ma,i,'nilii,'pnt 
view to the north west overlook ini,' the valley of Fraser 1/ike, and thi> Stelaeoh IlLver; the 
head of tlie lake appearing' tl or 7 miles distant from >is. From this I stMit a messen;j;er on 
to Fort Fraser for a canoo and crew to meet us at tlu; hpa<l of Lake Fraser. for which we 
now took a direct eon I'se. and in two miles we struck the '{'ele^rajih trail, !."."» miles 
from our starting point on the Salmon Uivei'. 

"AVewer(( glad to lind ourselves onee more on a good tr.iil, .and started westward 
at a l)risk trot, halting at each angle to take liearings. 'i'lie animals I'egaled themselves 
on the rich pea vine on the roadside, or grass in the o|ton glades, fn '.] hours we reached 
the crossing of the Stelaeoh Hiver at the heail of Lake Fraser. and eiimped (No. L'N). Ity 
an hidian village. Altitude of hike l)y liai'ometer, L'. I'lO feet, 

"From ol)servations made on this joiu-ney we gliMii the following : - 

'• 'i'liat the ccutnd plateau at the eastein lias(( of the ('aseade .Mountains iVom the 
Salmon IJiver to Lake Francois is undulating ; the crests of the hills or ranges Ix'twcen 
the streams rising to ahout 4, (>()(> feet iil)0vc sea level ; and that the streams from the foot 
of the Cascade .ALmntains take a general course, varying from east to north east : all 
con\erging on the Nechaco IJi/er. which then cuts through a range of hills running 
genei'ally parallel to the Cascade chain. 

•'This range is very irregular antl broken, imt the line can l»e trace<l from the iJoglip 
Hills on tlie River Quesnelle, crossing the Fraser below tlH> mouth of that rivei*; thence 
on a generally northwest course, crossing the IJlackwater below Lake Kluskus ; thence 
to Lak(( Francois and up its south margin to the Cascade ^lountain . The range forms ,i 
dam or weir which checks the fall of the streams from the Cascades and they ex[iand 
into the numerous lakes we have passed over in oui- journey. 

"The timl)er throughout is .spruce, black fir, and cedar, goufu-ally small and of little 
value. There is only a little agricultural land in the bottom Hats of the valleys, with 
good grazing land — grass, vetches and ])ea vino — on the slopes facing tlu; south. We saw 
no .stratillcd rock except the shaly limestone on the margin of lv.'ke 'I'etachuek. 

" Sei'L '2St/(. — A canoe had arrived from Fort Fraser, and wi; hired another here. 
1 then gave instructions to the packers to go on and wait for me at the Stewart's J^ake 
trail, ci'ossing the Neehaco, and Mr. Hunter and niysclf started with the canoes up the 
IJiver Stelaeoh. 

"Haifa mile up from the Telegraph line a stream 10 feet wide comes in fi-om th(> 
north, this is the Nettacoh ; on the o])]»osite side of the Stelaeoh there is an Indiiin village. 
Above this the Stelaeoh is a ra])id stream GO to 100 feet wide where we found the Indians 
spearing salmon — 000 miles from the sea — but they were of a pink coloi- ami inferior in 
Havor to those nearer the coast. It took us thi-ee hours hard jnilling, three and a half 
miles to the falls, where we camped for the nighti 

•' Next morning we made a short j)ortage with our b.aggage, .anil hauled the canoes 
up the rapid, on which there is a perpdndicuUir fall of four or live feet. We had rajuds 



y timlifrcil 
;iui tlowili^ 
and sliortly 
llivcr; t.lic 

)!• which we 

1 wostwai'd 
we I'Ciichod 

No, L'S), l.v 

us IVoiii the 
;t'S Ix'twct'ii 
oni the foot 
•th-Oiist : all 
lis ruiiiiiii'' 

1 the I)o,i;li|) 
vor ; thfiicc 
Iviis ; tht'in'O 
in,i(e forms a 
licy fxpniid 

uul of little 
'alloys, with 

1. \\'(i S!IW 

lotlicr la'Tc, 
Wiivt's Jjakc 
moos n|) till" 

ill from till' 
dian village, 
tlio Indians 
1 iiiforior in 
} and a half 

[ the I'anooH 
e had lajiids 


nearly all thu icst of tho way to tho foot of Lalio Francois, seven niiloi; fruni the Teli-graph 
trail, which wo roachod at I )..ui.. and « anipod. Altiludo '2,'>\(^. NVt,' oinployod the re;t 
of tho d:iy iMtchin-,' lino • jiofklrd trout on tho ra|.i.h. wliilo tiic Indian , ti.illr.riho l.iLr for 
\\ hitf'lish, l>y wliich moans wo add^d i-oiisidoralijo to our other siaiit Nii|i|ilies. 

'■.S'«/i/. I'.ii///. - -i. I vim,' Mr. liimli oni' of th(> canoes and crow to niak.- a siir. or of 
Lake Francois. I went i»aok with the ot.. m- and loachod tho Indian village at noon, thir 
course then lay down Lakti Kraser, of whioi- I ni;ido a rough survey from tho canoe, land 
ing at several )»oints to got hotter iioarings ; ,-. c reached Fort Frascr iiefore it, was d.u'k. 

'• Lake Fra.ser near its lower end is bounded by high hills of trap and huHalt on each 
si(h'. the slopes of which at some ))oiat^ come to -ho water's edge ; at others there are 
intervals of Hat land between the lake ami tho hills, '''lie Hudson's Day Company's Fort 
is at the .south-east angle of the lake and two miles from this, at the outlet of tho l.iko. 
there is an Indian village. 

'• Tknrxihni, Oct. \><t. — When I rose this morning it was raining hard, Imt it cleared 
up at noon, and wti paddled across to the Indian village where my crew lived ; it, took 
them an hour to jiropare for the journey, but at 2 ji.m. we started and in a ipiart 'r of an 
hour were in tho river Necliaco. not over a (pnirtei- of a mile from Lake Kraser. 

" The Ncchaco is hero a doo]) and rapid stream '.WO to 400 feet wide. In half an 
hour wo came to bad rapids, whore wo had to make a, .short portag(^ ; after this wo wont 
swiftly down the stream, passing over a great many rapids, but none* of them very danger 
ous. I took Itoarings, aTid ostimatod distances l>y time, doii' .A course a little south 

"The valley i.s generally narrow, witli high l)anks, sometimes of rock, at iutci-valsit 
wichnis out a little and tlioro arc low flats between the river and the liigli lianks. \\\' 
catiipod at sunset. 

" Next day wo wore mostly in still water and the valley widened out more. At noon 
wo reached tho Stewart Lake trail where wo fouml our two [lack trains camped. 

''There is not much to be seen from a canoe on a river w'th liigii banks, and so far 
as I had seen, very little land lit for cultivation; and certainly the banks of tho river are 
not ^ery favorable for a line of railway, but they get lower near the Stewart's Lake trail, 
and there is a tlat country extending away to the south-east. On our way down the river 
we saw numerous and large tlocks of geese and ducks, they were, however, very wary and 
dillicult to get near. 

"• Saturdui/, Or', .'bv/. — Directing the packers to liiifl their way down with the trains, 
by an Lidian trail to the rnoutli of the ( 'hilacoh lliver, 1 started — with another canoe 
and crew I had hired- -down the Necliaco; we were on still water and the valley .soon 
o])ened out from half a mile to a mih^ in breadth, with low tl.its through which tlie riyor 
meanders, striking the high banks on either side alternately. 

" But as we neared the Stewart River the valley again contracted and there were 
high hills on each side of us ; the river striking the base of these has caused heavy land slides 
where the material is clay or loam. Li some places there are rocky canyons. Wo camped 
(No, 31.) at the confluence of the Nechaco and Stewart Itivcrs. Thes(> two rivers 
ap]ieared of about equal volume. 


'• October ii/i. — It raiiicil all the morning but cleai'cd up at noon, ;incl wo started 
down the Stpwart River'; the stream llowintr slowlv and varying from 250 to 1,000 feet 
in ItT-eadtli. 

" In about 10 to 12 miles we ajipeared to be crossing through a range of high hills; 
+lie highest points estimated fully 1,000 feet above the knel of the I'iver. The valley is 
lieie contracted, and very soon we entei-ed a rocky canyon, through which the rapids wen- 
veiy strong for a mile and a half, and the slopes of the hills are very rough. 

" At about li miles there is a dangerous rajuil, where wc had to make a short port- 
age. From this the rapids and swift current continue— with the exception of about three 
miles of comparatively still water — to the mouth of the t'hilacoh Eiver; near which are 
the worst ra[)ids on the river, where a belt of basalt crosses it, and we had to make a 
portage of half a mile. 

" The bottom Hat of the valley is from half a mile to a mile wide, and varies from 20 
to -iO feet above the level of the river ; and is covered with small timber — s])ruve, scrub 
]iine. and aspen. There are .some low flats very little above Hood level. 

'The C'hilacoh, or Mud Kivcr as it is popularly called, enters the Stewart liiver 
fi-om the south about 20 miles above the conHuence of the latter with the Fi-aser near Fort 

'* The banks of this portion of Oi-cwart P.iver arc generally high, varying from 20 to 
80 feet to the bottom Hat of the valley, the slopes from each side of which rise in a 
succession of benches lOO to 300 feet above the level of the river; and there are some 
vciy large land slips where the river strikes tlu; foot of these. 

"On the right there is a high range of hills stretching away to the south, parallel 
with the Fraser; and on the north an elevated plain extends to the (iiscome I'ortage, or 
divide between the Fraser and Parsnip Ivivers; this is densely covered with tindier. 

"The liiver Stewart widens (mt at its conHuence with the Fraser, and the channel 
is divided by several siiuill islets so that we were not a little puzzled to know when we had 
filtered the Fniser. 

" Fort t!eorge is on the west bank of the Fraser, about a mile lielow the mouth of the 
Stewart Kiver, on an extensive Hat of a])parently good land. There is, as usual, an 
Indian village near the fort. We arrived there at 1 )).m., on the Hth October. 

"The lower half of the Chilacoh Valley is fioni a ijuarter to half a mile wide, on the 
bottom Hat, which is a d(>ej» loam covered with groves of spruc(. ]tine and as|)en, 
with o)»en glades of vorv rich grass, red toj) and blue joint over four fei^t high, with 
vetches and \)(",i vine (jii the slopes of tlut hills having a southern aspect. 

"Tlie valley is bounded b\ high benches and a rolling platcuui on the west, iind on 
the t>ast bv the liigh range of hills lying between it and the Fraser. 

"Abovit twenty uiih^s up, a range of liills the valley wliere the latter is con- 
tracted to a canyon for a ipmrter of a mile, but there will be no diHiculty in getting a line 
of railway through this. One of tlie higluist hills in this range is doubln headed and lies 
close to the valley. It is tlie samtj we had seczi from the Telegraph line two month.s before 
and served us as a landmark. 

and wo started 
) to 1,000 fcoL 

) of high hills ; 

The valley is 

the rapids wori' 


c ii short port- 
i of about three 
near which are 
; had to make a 

l1 varies from 20 
~s])ru<;e, scnd» 

Stewart lUver 
•^I'aser near Fort 

ing from 20 to 
ivhich rise in a 
[ there are some 


" Ahovo the canyon, the \ alley expands at [ilaces to fidiy two niili's in lucadLli, and 
some wide lateral valltiys come in from the jiorth-wcst. The lower part of this, by the 
river, from a quarter to half a mile wide is covered with long gi-iiss; then there, is a steji 
u\) from f)() to 100 feet, and tlie upper Hats to the slopes of the bounding hills are covered 
w ith spruce, small ]nue, and aspens. In some places the ground is s\vanii)y nnd would 
reipiiro draining for cultivation. 

"The valley ranges iroui •_',00(» to •-',:}()») feet above tlie level of the mm ; soil a iiglit 
loam very deep and free from stones. The river is a sluggish stiHMiin 100 feet wide witii 
deep water, muddy bottom a,n<l few fords; it is as crooked as a corksi'rew, meamliM'ing IVom 
side to side of the vaHey. We found sonu! pieces of lignite on the banks that had been 
bi'ought down by the current and there are probably beds of coal farther uj) the \ailc\-. 

•'The weather uj) to this time (I r»th October) had l)eeu as unid and genial as the 
Indian summer in Ontario, but now the nights were getting cold, with white frost in the 
mornings, indicating the speedy approach of winter. I therefore gave instructions t-o the 
Division Engineers to close the season's o[)era*ions on the 21th October, and, aftci- that, 
to make all liasle ]»ossible to reach the crossing of the Fraser at the month of (,t>uesnelle liy 
the end of the month; whence they would have a waggcm road on which they could pur- 
chase hay and grain if necessary for the animals— to winter (piartcrH near Kaudoojis 20<> 
miles fartlu^r south. 

"I went on ahead with my own and the .supi)ly train and we readied the I'loulh nf 
tiuesnelle on the 23rd of October. Here 1 found Division IM. encamped; they had com- 
pleted the survey up the Stewart lliver Valley to the mouth of tli(> ('hilacoli and come 
down the Fraser — bringing all their stores and luggage, in the boats which they had con- 
structed at Tcte Jaune Cache and used on the Frasi r JUver all the season." 

e south, ])arallel 

me I'ortage, or 

th timber. 


and the channel 

ow when we had 

the mouth of the 

is, as usual, an 


die wide, on the 

line and asjten, 

• feet high, with 

e west, and on 

latter is con- 

in getting a line 

headed and lies 

■o nioidhs before 


; I 

(U'Ki;A'no.\s Driu.Nd 

Report till, till' Snrvfi/.i iii British Coluinhid dnrimi tJic iji:irr \x~t'). llij Mam's Sniil/i, ICxij. 

* * * "Ou the li'tli June wo iirrived at tlie crossing of the Chi lectin 

lliver whence my pack train and the Indians proceeded westward to the Chihicoh Depot 
and Mr. Heymour and myself rode on to Puntzeo Lake, where we found Division li 
encamped. 1 spent two days with i\Ir. Jennings examining the rather l)roken and rough 
country on the divide between the Chilacoli and Chilcotiu Rivers. About 15 miles of line 
had been located, which from the ]irofile, appeared generally satisfactory. 

"On the ;5rd July wo arrived at the cam]> of Division S, Mr, J I. J. Cainbiu in 
charge. They had completed about 14 miles of location and their trial line was sonm 
miles in ■■ Jvance on the east shore of Eagle Lake, which lies about 5 miles to the south of 
Lake Tatla in a trough in the side of the hill which bounds the lattei-. 

'•Eagle Lake is about (i miles lung, and a mile from ils west end is the watershed, 
from Avhich a rather broail valley descends nearly due south into the Cascade ^lountains. 
jn this valley there is a chain of small lakes which are the sources of the east branch of 
the Homathco River, which flows througli these mountains into Dute Iidet. "^fhe last 
and largest of these lakes is Tathiyaco, which is 15 miles long and a little over a mih 
M'ide ; it lies at thi' entrance of the i>ass, and the east branch of the Homathco l!ivei' 
rushes out of it in a rapid current about 100 feet wide. 

"It had been proposed to maki^ the location survey by this^'oute in tlie hope of lind- 
ing a better line through the mountains than that surveyed in bS7J by Lake Tatla and 
the west branch of the Homathco River. And the object of my journey was to go 
through and examine this route in advance of the surveyors to ascertain if it had api)arent 
advantages that would warrant the survey being carried that way in pn.-ference to the 
line of the former survev. 

" We left Eagle jjake on the ')tli J uly and travelleil on the east side of the valley, by an 
Indian trail; in the evening we encamped iiCcar an Indian Raricherie, on the margin of the 
small lake Cochin, and the next day ou the slope of the mountain that bounds the east 
side of Lake Tatlayaco. 

"Tl>e view southward, from a point near our camp, was very gi-aml ; the silvery lake 
lay at our feet, several hundred feet beneath us; from its west bank rises a mountain of 
dark jagge<l and scarred rock 3,000 to 5,000 feet al)Ovc the level of the valley. On the 
left, near tlie foot of tlie lake n bold snow-elad mountain looms up to a great height. 
These form the portals of the entrance into the llomatheo Pas.s. Beyond, the view was 
terminated by the lofty snow-clad ))eaks of the C'ascado Mountnins. 

" From our ciimp tlie trail curves up llie slope liy wliieli the Indians reach the high 
table-land, which is well stocked with deer and motuitain sheep, so that we had to cut a 
trail to tho foot of the lake and had some <lithculty in cronaing a largo glacial stream on 
nur way. \Vc arrired there on the 7th July and camped near the outhl of the lake, 
which is the east brnnch of the Homathco Kiver. 


'.V iSlllitll, I'Jsi/, 

the Clnlcotin 
'hilacoli Depot 
id Division II 
:en aini r(>ii>i;Ii 
5 iiiik'H of lin(< 

.). Cainbii! in 
lino wjis Honit! 
to the .soutli of 

tliu wutoi'shod, 
k". ]Mountam.s. 
ast branch of 
dot. The Last 
thi ovci- a mih', 
utnatiu'o I'ivfi' 

ic hope of liiiil- 
iiko Tathi and 
loy was to go 
t liad ai>])arout 
(•ft'i'ouco to thy 

10 valley, by an 
I' margin of tlu^ 
ounds the oast 

''Tho distance to this ])oint from th(^ River Chilaneoli, near -which r)ivision S com 
nuiicod tlit'ir surveys, is a littl(> over 4<l ndlcs. The tii-st half of the distance is ovpi- 
a dry niorrain formati(Mi, the surface liroken -svith mimerons dry ponds and lakelets, 
knolls, and gravel ridges, covered with stnntcd scrub pine, with ])atches of black spruce 
iu low moist places. On the adjoining slopes there is an abundance of Douglas tii' of fair 
iiuality and large enongli for sucli l>ridging as would in- required in tlie neighborhood. 

" Tiie latter half oflhe distance is on the slojies of the valley l)y tlie margin of the 
string of lakes which feed the Homathco itiver. 'I'hese slopes are broken with sohk! 
deep lateral ravines ami tho line will have to run across the faces of some ivither steep 
I'ocky bluffs on the shore of Lake Tatlayaco. IJut, so far, this route ap])eared on the whole 
tolerably favoraltle for the lin(! of railway, with yilenty of timber suitatde for works of 

•' We could not take the pack tmln beyond this point, so 1 sesnt it back in charge of 
.Mr. C. Seymour to join the Y Division on the line from L>lackwai"r to Dean Inlet, and to 
be ready for my use on a comtemjilati'd joui'ney that way latei- in th > season. 

•• J>y noon on the Sth July we had got our supj)iies and iiaggagc! rafted across the 
loot of tho lake, and made a caelum of [irovisions for use in case we failed to get through 
i,o the coast and Ik; forced to return, or for the use of Tiedeman and Horetzky's party 
wlioui wo had expected to meet us here. We then eonimeneed our tramp, my p;irty con- 
sisting of live Lillooet Ijidian packers and one Chilcotin Indian hunter as gnid«'. 

"About a juile below the mouth of [..ike Tatlayaco, a largo glacial sti'eam comes in 
from tlie north-west. Th(> weather liad been very warm for a week jiast, and from the 
melting snow in the mountains, this str<'am was now very high, couung down with 
trenunidous force, bringing trees and huge boulders from tho mountain sides. 
Following this uj) a mile to where the stream is divided bv a .small islet, we succeeded iu 
falling large trees across, by whicli we cliunberod over safo'v. Haifa mile further down 
a large .stream comes in on the other side of the valley \'' < u ihe south-east. Hei-c wo are 
fairly in the mountains, and th(! valley is contracted almost to a canyon, tliere being oidy 
a narrow flat with a fringe of trees liy the side of the rivei-, which is iu fact |)art of tlie 
old river bed silted up with detritus washed down liy the stream. This Hat is broken at 
intervals by rocky spurs shooting down from the mountains and almtting on thi; river. 

"The coui'.S(i of the valley from thi,^ downwards turns to within a i'vw points of due 
west and is tolerably straight for about "JO miles, at which the view was terminated l>y an 
immense glaciei-, high up on the side of a mountain range which appoaroiT to cross the 
line of the vallev. 

he silvery lake 
a mountain of 
diuy. On the 
a great height, 
tlie vicAv was 

•each the high 
( had to cut a 
leial stream on 
let of the lake, 

"There was no tinil down this valley, as the Indians get to the coast by a way over 
the mountains failher south, so that our pi'ogrcss was very slow, being im[ieded by l)rush- 
wood, larg(! triudcs of fdlen trees, and fragments of rijck which hail rolled down from the 
elill's near the summit of thf momitnin. 

" Wo travelled on till' right bank of the I'ivor, which here flows botwicn two well 
I le!ined ranges. The slopes on the south side of that on which we were travelling were 
the most uniform and nul)rokou ; closely resembling from a distant view tho buck of a 
huge wave at the moment of its breaking on thebisach, while the other side cf tho parallel 
range was rugged, perpeniliculai' and broki ii. like the hollow or lee side of tl.e. wave. 

" It took us Uvo days and a half to reach the bend of the I'iver ;il)out !■"> iiules from 
the. foot of Lake Tatlayaco, where wc camiicd on Saturdav e\cniug, Julv ItUli, and 
remained over Suiuhiv. 


'• Down to tliis point tlioro a}ii)e;ii'0(l no \ovy serious ongiuecriug difficultios, tlic fall 
of the valley being tolonibly uniform and estimated at the rate of about 1 per lUO. But 
here the river takes a bend to the south-west, apparently cutting through several l)roken 
ranges of mountains, the noses of which at intervals abut on the Homathco Itivcr in 
jterjiendicular cliffs. The narrow Hat belt by the river side has disappeared, except in 
small patches, and the \alloy has contracted to a narrow deep detile, but, as far as we 
could see, there was no canyon of pei-pendicidar rocks on both sides of the river at once. 

"Two days aiid a half more we toiled along the face of these rugged mountain 
slo|)es ; the weather had become excessively wai'iii, and from the unusual quantity of snow 
that had fallen the jirevious winter, the mountain streams W(>re now roaring torrents 
which wo had great dilKculty in crossing ; and at points where rocky s])urs abut on tlu^ 
main river, leaving no ])assage Ijetween, we had to climb up on hands and knees several 
hundred feet, at one place 1,500 above the level of the river and descend again on the 
othei- side of the spur ; such journeys sometimes occupying several hours, though the 
distance across the face of the cJiif would not exceed a few hundred yards. But the; 
mountain slopes are so steep and rocky that sometimes our Indian guide had to make a 
detour to reach safe footing and fasten a rope to a tree, throwing us the other end to 
assist us in getting up with some degree of safety. 

"At noon on the 1-lth July we reached the junction of the east and west branches 
of the Homathco iiiver. The last seven nulcs of our journey undoubtedly presented grave 
engineering tlilliculties. But however difficult we found it to travel, owing to the high 
floods and there being no trail, I had reason to think that a careful survey would probably 
show it to ])ossess advantages over the line formerly surveyed by the west branch ; there- 
.' "e I thought it advisable to let the survey j)rocced by that route, and accordingly 
pre])ared topographical sketclies and instructions for Mr. Cambio which I sent back by 
the Indian guide on his return journey. 

" I was much concerned at the non-a])peurance of the trail \ydvty under Mr. Tiedeman, 
who had been landed at Waddington Harbor on the .'?rd June, and four days canoeing 
should have brought them to within 12 miles of where we were now encamped, with the 
Waddington ti-ail ov(,'r half the distance. 

"Jn two hours we succeeded in throwing a bi'itlge over the canyon on the west 
branch of the Homathco and I sent some of my Indians ahead to make a reconnoisance 
and fire off rifles to attract the attention of the trail jiarty, whom, we supposed could not 
be far oil". 

" In three hours th(;y returned, reporting that they could not succeed in l)ridging the 
iarg(! stream that comes down from Tiedeman's glacier ; they had thrown across it 
six of the largest trees they could find standing on its l)anks, whidi were whipped away 
I)y the torrent like so many chips. 

"Our case Mas uuw becoming sei-ious, \\r had but four or live days supplies left and 
feared that the trail jiaity might have been detained liy some difViodty with the Indiana. 
We he'd a consultati(jn to decide whether t« go on or return, when our Indian guide said 
he could take us to the Waddington trail by a detour of one day's journey up the bank (jf 
Tiedeman's I'iver, ami crossing the glacier out of which it issues. 

" (.)n Thursday, the l.")th July, we started at fi a.m., and in two hours arrived at the 
glacier. We had some ditiieulty in ascending the face, which is an irregular slope covered 
with loose rock and boulders. It is al)Out 200 feet high at the face, and, as far as w«* 
could see, was fnl'v I.'? niilt'S in length, ami from half a mile, at the foot, to three miles in 

ios, tlic fall 
100. But 
ei'al broken 
ICO ] liver in 
d, except in 
as far as wc 
r at once. 

I momitain 
itity of Kuow 
nng torrents 
ibut on tli(! 
tieos several 
i<];ain on the 

though the 
s. But the 

to make a 
other end to 

est hranelies 
seated grave 
to the high 
uld probably 
ancli ; there- 
ent Ijack ])V 

v. Tiedemaii, 
ays canoeing 
3d, with the 

on the west 
led could not 

l)ridging the 
wn across it 
hipped away 

[)lics left and 
the Indians, 
m guide said 
p the bank of 

rrivcd at the 
ilojie covered 
, as far as we 
hrce miles in 


breadth. The river rushes out of three tunnels, and the glacier is serrated lengthwise 
with ridges and crevasses ; the latter partly filled up with boulders and detritus from the 
mountains. In fact it has the appearance of having broken away in u body from the 
mountains l)ringing part of the latter with it. Its altitude is about 2,000 feet above the 
level of the sea. We succeeded in crossing safely by intricate windings on the broken 
surface to avoid oi)en crevasses, in which we could luiar the water gurgling Ijeneath the 
lioulders with wliicli they were j)artially tilled \\\>. The sharp riilges were clear ice, along 
which we crept on hands and knees, 

" Ascending the south-western slope of this glacial valley we travelled the rest of the 
day on an elevated plateau well timbered and dotted with several small lakes. 'l\)wards 
evening we descended with difficulty by a lateral valley to that of the Homathco, where 
we found Mr. Tiedeman in charge of the trail party encamped on the same spot where the 
late Mr. Waddington's men were murdered by the Indians in 18G1. .Since our survey 
of 1872, the Indiauti have removed all traces of the nxurdi-red men's camp and burnt the 
timber and brush which then grew there. 

" Mr. Tiedeman had misunderstood the nuiin object of his work, which, according to 
my written instructions, was to push forward as rapidly as jwssible to meet me, throwing 
log bi'idges across the larger streams while the water was low, '^nd improving the trail on 
th(; return journey. Instead of which lie liad niadi'^ only a few miles ot trail with trestle 
liridges six feet wide for pack animals. As the survey parties woukl not get into the 
mountains before the rivers were low, I desired Mr. Tiedeman to lireak uj) the trail party 
and join Division X to take the toi)ogra])hy of the country. 

"On Friday, July IGtli, we continued our tramp down the Homathco Valley, follow- 
ing the Waddington trail ; the weather continued excessively warm and the streams were 
still rising. On reaching the head of the Grand Canyon we found the river had carried 
away the bridge which Mr. Tiedeman had constructed round the face of the clifl", so wn 
liad to climb uj), by a crevasse in the rock, 100 feet, to reach the trail, which, crosses over 
the shoulder of a mountain. In like mainier we found all the bridges he had made 
carried away, so we had a rej)etition of climbing precipices and l)ridging tori'ents as tho\ 
rushed out of the canyons in the mountains. 

''We had expected to reach the camp of Division X in two days, but on Saturday 
evening we came to a torrent over which we could find no practicable means for throwing a 
bridge. 8o we had to camj) and, as we were out of meat, 1 sent the Indians out to hunt ; 
they soon returned with a large black bear which relieved us of all apprehension on the 
score of provisions. 

"Kext dav at 7 a.m., we commenced to constnict an Indian liy bridge, but, as w« 
liad only one axe left and but little spare rope, w(^ had to make lashings from the inner 
bark of 'cedar, so that it took us .seven hours to comi)letc the bridge which looked like a 
fishing rod and line hanging over the torrent, the butt end resting on the ground and 
loaded with boulders. We managed to crawl over this and drop down safely on the other 
side of the stream. Six hours more of a hard struggle among tangled creepers, o^er hug(i 
trunks of fallen trees and masses of detached rocks, brought us to the camp of Division X. 
This ])arty had completed 18 miles of trial location. I remained with them two days, 
examined their plans and profiles which showed the jine to be generally satisfactory and a 
great improvement on the preliminary survey of 187'J. 

" On the 20th we dropped down the river in a large canoe to Waddington Harbor, 
where the steamer 'Sir James Douglas,' with Mr. Hol»son and a fpiantity of supjtlies 
arrived next morning. 


"After discharging cargo the steamer started back lor Victoria, arrived at Departure 
Bay and took in coal; on tiie ^fith July wo arrived at V^ictoiia much bruised and 
shaken by ouo of tlio li.'inlcst journoys yet nuxih' on the surveys. 

'■ ^reanvrhile !Mr. Jarvis and party, wiio left b'ort (xeorgc in I)i'ci'nd)er, 1S71, to 
e.xaniiup a route aerass the Tloeky Mountains by tlie north branch of the Fraser l{ivci- 
and the Smoky River Pass, had arrived at Winnipeg, and reported unfavorably of that 
route. It was therefore decided to make the trial location surveys from Fort George 
eastward via the Yellow Head Pass, and a party was formed in Ottawa, with Mr. George 
Keefer in charge, to execute a portion of this survey, commencing at the summit of the 
A'ellow Head Pass, iind working Avestward to 'J etc Jaune Cache, thence down the Fraspr 
to meet another party working up. 

" j\Ir. Keefer and party reached Victoria on the 18th July, and before T arrived 
tiiey Avere on theii' way to tlieir apjjoiuted work, but 1 sent a messenger after them with 
detailed instructions for the practical carrying out of the surveys committed to their 
charge. The messenger overtook th(^ jtarty in the valley of the North Thompson, and Mr. 
Keefer has suice advised me of their arrival in the Yellow Head Pass and tlie commence 
ment of tl? survevs." 

.)i>ri!N('.v iMioM Dkan 


.Salmon Itivnii Pass. 

"MotXTAiNs iiv Tin: 

" T had estimated that the Divisions V and Y W(mld connect their surveys on the 
Salmon iliver before the end of August. So on the 23rd of that month 1 left Victoria on 
the s'.eamer 'Sir James Douglas' with a quantity of supplies. We called at Waddijigton 
I farbov on T'ute Inlet and landed supplies for the X Division and on tlie 2Sth we ari'ived 
in K.aniS(piot Pay on the Dean inlet, wJiere we found Mr. Trutcli aiul jiarty (Division 'I',) 
encani])ed on the spit of land that fo)-ms the soutli side of the liarbor. 

'•They had joined their surveys with those of Division V a week before, about r>li 
miles lip the Salmon River, and had then returned to the coast for instructions. 

" I imnu;diately had the jtartj re-organized for the survey from Kemauo Hay, on the 
(iardner Inlet, across the Ca.icade Mountains, towards Lake Francois, sending some of 
the men home to Victoria and replacing tliem with Indian packers whom I had broughl 
with me by the Honiathco Pass. 

''The sti'amer left with the party on the 1st September, and on the l\vd arrived iit 
Kanisnuot Bay, whea-e the ])arty disembarked to commence the surveys. 

"Tn n)y re])()rt of the work of 1^7-1, Kams(piot Bay is described as biung formed on 
one side l)y a tongue of land about two nules in length, projecting into the Dean Channel ; 
tlie Kamscpiot or Salmon River flowing into the channel on the other side of the tongue. 
This tongue has been foi-med by the debris brotight down by the I'iver, which lias burst 
lln-ough a curtain or saddle of roi'k about 40il fei^t high, which stretches .across the mouth 
of tlie vallev. 

''I engage<l Indians to pack my baggage and supplies across the mountains, and on 
Mon<lay, the .'iOth August, they had got everything to the head of the canyon through the 
saddle of rock about '2h miles on the line of survey. Next morning we all embarked in a 
large dug-out canoe, being eiglit persons in all, besides baggage and supplies. 

it Departure 
bniisc'il and 

•vv, 1S~ [, In 
'rasor liivcr 
ablj of that 
Fort Geor<.r(> 
I Mr. George 
mmit of tlio 
I the Fraspr 

)ro I arrived 

them with 

(hI to tlieir 

son, and Mr. 


;v THE 

rveys on the 
t Victoria on 
til wo an"iv(Hl 
(Division T,) 

J re, about .")(( 

) l)ay, on the 
idiiii; some of 
had brouirht 

d arrixcd at 

g formed on 
eaii Channel : 
the tongue. 
„'h has burst 
iss the mouth 

tains, and on 
I through the 
niburked in a 


"The stream varies from 150 to 300 feet in breadth, is very rapid and the caiioe was 
forced up by poling. In some jdaces the rapids were so bad that we had to get out, ami 
the Indians, Avading in the water, lifted the canoe up by liand. We made about 12 miles 
the lirst day and at noon on the second d;iy we were at tin' liciid of I'lnioe navigation. 
nciir the I'.tth mile of ttie survey. 

•'The valley up to this point varies from a <piarter to three (juarlers of a mil ■ in 
liieadth ; the river, meandering from side to side, washes the base of the rocky slopes on 
eillier side, alternating Avith low diluvial flats, heavily timbered, intervening. 

•' From tiu5 head of canoe navigation our supplies and baggage luul to be jKukcd by 
hand. We followed the trail made l)y the V Division under Mr. Trutcli, which led 
alternately over ilat benches, varying in height from 20 to 200 feet above the level of tin- 
river, and along the steep slopes of the hills which are in many places slides of loose rock. 
Tiie suj)eri(jr ranges of suow-clad mountains are at a considerable distance from the river. 
Iiut, in a few i)laces, a spur shoots out and I'xtends to the river, abutting on the same in 
a pci-pendicular rock-face, leaving no pas.sagi' l)etween. The heaviest of those is about the 
."«lst mile of tjie f;\irvcy, mid tlu' trail i,'rios nvcy the spur about ^(10 frot almyo tho level m)' 
the river. 


''On the second day, Irom the lieail of eano(> navigation, we reached Yeltesse, or the 
Salmon House, IM miles from the sea on the line surveyt'd. ilore the river rushes through 
a narrow rocky gorge, the lower leilge of rocks being about 20 feet above the level of the 
rlrer, over which there is an Indian bridge or platform of round timbers. Immediately 
below this there is a fall of about 1.") feet, over the lace of which the Indians have con- 
.siructed a iscreen of wythe.s, to which are hung pockets of network for catching salmon as 
they endeavour to leap the fall. The salmon striking against the screen fall into the 
pockets. The upper ledge of rocks on which the Indian (Salmon) llou-se stands is about 
I GO feet above the level of tho river, and a little higher u)), on the other side of the river, 
tliere is another house on about the same level. 

"The river is well named the Salmon iliver as it swarms with that iish. On my 
way u]) the Indians with the canoe jioles speared what we re(pured for food, some of the 
tish weighing over 80 lbs., and at the bridge they were constantly carrying away salmon 
that were caught in the nets. These are called 'Stick Indians,' or dwellers in the forest. 
They ajijicar to be of the same race as the Chilcotins, or intermarry with them and luider 
stand their language. I'hey arc mountauiecrs, not large, Init wirey and hav« been of 
great assistance in packing for the surveying parties. 

" The me.'^.senger, Avliom 1 had sent olf two days ]nevious to our leaving Kamsciiiot 
Hay, I found iiere sick, so had to send the message on to the camp of the Y Division, .">.» 
miles diptiiut, by another man and invait his return. I spent this time making some 
explorations in the neighborhooil. 

" At Veltesse avc are clear through the high ranges of the Ca.scade Mount.ains, and the 
liver comes to this point in a dee[) groove in the central plateau, Avliich is of volcanic 
formation, the rocks being mainly basalt. The survey followed the river for about 3tt 
miles above this place, but the trail goes up a parallel valley to the south. In this there 
are several small lakes; the largest Tanyabunkct, is about six miles in length, 'i'his 
valley at the lower end near Yeltesse, is about 1,000 feet abo\'e the Ica'cI of the river; 
at the u])})er end, 30 miles distant, they are nearly of the same level, and there the trail 
leaves the valley and crosses the Salmon lliver to the north side at the jioint which we 
reached in our exjiloration of 1)^74. 


"On tho ythJuly, I started with my pack train eastward from Yoltcsse, to exaniiiio 
ilio line of survey in the Salmon llivor valloy and arross tlio Divide to tlio Rlackwatoi'. 
llicnco down tho same to its junction with tiie liuf from IJutc Inlet, 

••'I'lie wlioU'of this |)orUon of the line is in a depression of the eentral plateau, ami 
)tivsents no eimineiriii;:,- diHii'ulties till .'d'ter its junction with the line from I'.ntc Inlet. 

"On ilic istli Septemlior, we reached Mr. iicll's camp (Division N), on the r.larl, 
water, ahout seven miles id'ove this point the I'iver is crossed liy the telegrajth trail. 

" Ml-, r.ell and myself spent several days examining the nitlier rough country that 
forms the watershed between the jilackwater and Chihu-oh. Wo followed up the valley 
of the latter "JO nnles ahove the imint M-hero th(( line of survey loaves it, and found that it 
widened as we ascended. A liranch of the liver, coming in fiom tho Avest hy a hi-oad 
valley, ai)])ears to turn tho north end of the range which divides it from tlu; l>lackwati'r. 
and gives facilities for a deviation of the line to Dean Fnlot. hy which nnu'h heavy woik 
would [ii-(M.alily he avoi<Iei|, 

"On the :.'.'h(l' Scptenilier, wo left Mr. Hell's second camp on the lUackwater, and 
jiroccnnled on our honn'ward joerney, We reached the conllucuce of the l{lack\vater ami 
Nazeo on tho L'ath, and, following up the valley o{ the latter aliout "JO miles, wo art' ved at 
Ihe camp of ^Ir. dennings (Division K.) on the L'Tth. 

" Up to this point and several ndles ahove it, the N'azco is a fine ojjcn valley; the 
river, <S0 to 101^ feet wide, wimls through extensi\e natural meadows with grove; of 
spruce, black lir and asjiens at intervals. 


'•I spent two days with .Mr. Jennings, fui'iiisheil him with some rough to]iogra]>hical 
sl<(>t : JR, which I had nuide on my May up* and gave instructions respecting thech.singnf 
1 he season';^ wuik and the return <,f the ])arty to Victoria. 

" We travelled on the trail U]) the Nazco Valley to the lakes on the central plali'aii 
which form the sources of the river, then crossed to the Ale.xis jjakes and down to the 
( 'hilicotin Valley, which w(^ followed down near to its junction with that of ihe {'"raser. 
then up the latter to Soda Creek which we reached on the 7th of ( >ctobei-. 

" I left my party at Soda Creek to take the train to Avinter ([uarters near Kamltop . 
and T travelled by .stage ami steamiioat for Victoria where 1 arrived Kith Octobei-. 

" On the l.'ith October, the Divisions S., and X., connected their surveys on the east 
bi'anch of tho llomathco Valley, on th(> line IVom Ihite Inlet to the ^'ellow Head Pass, 
and ivtunied to Victoria. 

"On the 2l)th Octol)er, the Di\isions K.. and N., connected their surveys on the 
same lino, near the mouth of tho Nazco Kiver. I'he former party returned to Victoria, 
and the latter went to Fort (leorg(> to complete fheir plans and continue the surveys east- 

ward (hu'ing the Avintor, 

"The Division \, completed a trial survey of a line from the Kemano Hay on the 
( lardner Inlet, up the valley of the Kemano J'd\or and aei'oss the Cascade Mountains, t<i 
the tirst lake on their eastern slope, Avhence the w.-itiers fall into tho Nechiioo HiA-er, and 
returned to Victoria on the "Jlst October. 


, to exaniino 

|ililti':lll, :il|il 
lull' lnli'1. 

II the r.hirk- 

h in 111. 

country tlmt 
ip the valley 
found that il 
st liy a hroad 
Black wall T, 
licavv work 

lukwatiT. ami 
U'k\v;it<'r aiul 
we ari'\f'<l ;il 

II valloy; tli»' 
itii !;r{»\c; (if 


t lie cldsillLrnf 

intral iilatrau 

down to (lie 

of llic l^'rasPi'. 

ar Kaudoo|i . 

vs on the cast 
w I read Pass. 

urvevs on the 

1 to Victoria, 

surveys east- 

) |>ay on the 
Mountains, to 
-o liiver. and 

■'About the end of Octoher, the Division M, under the eharye of Mi-. (Icorgo Kcefei-. 
liad to .stop the location Hurvoys from Yellow Mead I'ass westward, and tliey went into 
wiuttir (|uarters at 'iete .Fauiie Ciclip. from which lo iuak(^ trial survcyK. in advance of the 
location .survey, iluriii!.' the wiiitci* '.vheneviM- tlie weather would |ieriiiit." 

KWMINATION Oi' Mil: < 'llAN.NKI.S nKTWKKN 'I'lli: lsl..\M)S A I TUi; IvNII! \N( i: l- 

IUti; fNl.KT. 

"On the L".)th Octolier, I left. V'irtoria in the Hudson's Day ( 'o's steamer '< Hter,' and 
next day arrived at (Jape Mud;;-e, wliere f en,i,'a<,'ed a canoe and a j^'ood crew of [n<lians, to 
niak(! an examination of the several eliannnls that Kcjiarate tli" \',ililez and a, numlwr of 
>mall islands that lie .at the entrance to IJute Inlet. 

•• I spent ten days on this work, made, a track survey of tiie ciiannels that divide the. 
Valdez Jsliinds, to replace in some measuro the |)lansof ISTli that had lieen destroyisd hy 
lire. \Vc crossed the Arran Uapids, between Stewart Island and t\u', maiidand, when the 
[\d(' was runniut; very swiftly, then went U[> to the Kstero IJ.isin, of which I made a r(;u,L,'li 
survey. This basin is at tht; head of the Frederic Ai-m, and the tide Hows in and out 
through a channel about a thir<l of a niih* in length, and ott to l.")() feet in breadth, 
r.etween the head of the basin and ihite Inlet, thens is a di'pression in the rocks across 
which it appears feasible to I'onstruct a railway, thence along the edge of the basin to the 
liead of the Frederic- Arm. 

" From this point to a good lauding oil \'ancoiiver Island, the distanci- is about hi 
miles, almost in a direct line by the Noilalh^s Channel, in which the highest rate of the 
tiilal current does not exceed thi-ce knots pev hour. Tiio navigation to the ocean by the 
north end of Vancouvei- Island is also free tVom dangerous rapids. 

" After completing tlu; survey of the basin. \vc descended the Frederic Arm and went 
up to tlic head of i'hillij) Arm, where a river ;)<Ml feet wide enters through an open valley. 
1 1 had been reported by a person exploring for minerals, that there was a possible con- 
nection between this valley and the iloniath(-o. but, from a careful examination of the 
west side of the latter, no dciiression could be found feasilde fur carrying a railway 

•• \\'e. returnctliiome by the Nodalies (iianncl and l>i^co\cry i'as.sage to (.'ape Mndgi- 
where we were (h'tained two days by adverse winds couiingup the Sti-ait of (jlcorgia. ( >n 
ihe storm abating wi; coasted down to Comox, Avhere 1 took passage in the steamboat f ■ 


" This work was done in a canoe in the worst season for navigation, when, as we 
aft(>i-wards learned, the Pacific (.'oast was strewn with wrecks. We had fog and rain in 
a iiundance, and, by the scudding of the clouds, there evidently storm without: lait 
we had no ditliculty in finding our way through rain and mist, and the wind did notaffccl. 
us, so completely are tliesc channels sheltered I)y the high land and rocks which they 

'•I ft^el eonfidenl that a steamboat prupcrly conslrucicd could lab- a railway ti'ain on 
board and pass safely at all seasons of the year from any convenient point on Bute Inlet 
to a good landing on Vancou\er Island near Seymour Narrows. The only ditliculty would 
be tlu! swiftness of the current at a cert.-dn state of the tide; l)ut the worst rapid could be 
avoided by using mw of the cross channels that divide A'aldez Islands." 



TO UivKii Stewart. 

IS"."). l5l"rK I.M.'.T 

"Tho llomatlioo Valley at the head of Bute Inlet is a mile ami a-half or two miles 
wiilti on th ) bottom Hat which is liouiuled by |>ro"ij>itous mountain slopes. Tho general 
direction of the valley i.s north and south, and it decreases in breadth as we ascend, till 
about 150 miles from the Inlet, where the mountains close in and the river nishes thron^li 
n narrow, I'ocky canyon or chasm. It is a turbid rajiid stream of about ."5(10 feet wide, Imi 
at places it spreads out to over 1,()()0 feet, divided into several channels by low alluvial 
islets from the letritus bronght down iiy the river. These islets are eover(<d with spruce, 
po))lar ami heavy cedar trees, 

"Tho river, in winding through the valley, alternately washes the liase of the rocky 
slopes on either side and it entei-s tho Inlet on the west side. 

"Tho located line commences about the centre of the valley on the high wate • line 
at the head of the Inlet, from which a pier of L'.KM* feet in length would reacli a dep'n nf 
■_' I feet of water at low tide. Around this point there is good anchorage. 

" The lin(! 'akes ;i couisp ncfirly due north u[» the cei'tie of tJic valley fur a little dver 
a mile, near to the f(jot of Blount Evans ; it then curves away to the west, crossing the 
river — 300 feet wide — near the second mile. Near the third mile it curves away b.ack 
fo a coui-se nearly north which it follows to the 10th mile, l^p to ♦his point it is on ;i 
limbered flat nearly level and the work will be light, but here the river washes the foot 
of the mountains and the line is canied on the face of the rugged slopes for four 
miles, where the river benda off ta the other side of the valley and the line is again on the 
tlat land. 

"Tiie ]>r(>poiti()iiale length t)f these alternate sections from the head of But( Inlet to 
liic foot of tho (jireat Canyon is 22 miles on tlats with light works, aiul eight miles on the 
face of mountain slopes, requiring heavy rock cutting and four shoi-t tunnels, making 
altogether a length of at)Out 1,200 feet of tunnelling. The cuttings, however, are short, 
through narrow rocky spurs, few of them exceeding 30 to 40 feet in depth at the centre, 
falling ofi' rapidly to each end and latterly tow.-ird.s the river. The gradients in this sec- 
tion are generally easy, the largest being 58 feet Tier mile for half a mile in length and the 
sharpest curves hare a detlection of six degrees for chords If id feet long, equal to a radius 
of 055 feet. 

"The struanis crossed ou this section arc: the Homatlico IJiver — 300 feel wide,- six 
lateral glacial i^creams — 20 to 100 feet wide. Hotue of these have brought down 
large <|uantities of debris fi'om the mountains, raising their 1»eds across the Homatlico 
Valley considerably higher than the land a few hundred feet from each side of the stream. 
To avoid this difficulty the line has been canied in some instances to the foot of the 
mountain slopes, where the bed of the .stream is lower than the adjoining land; in o.iie- 
cases the stream will have to 1)6 divrted. None of streams are deep itut they are 
\ piy rapid. 

'■ From the 30th to the 5Uth mile is throu'di the heart of the Ca.scade ^lountains and, 
with a few intervals, the river nishes through a continuous canycjii. At the 31)th mile is 
the junction of the east and west branches of the Ilomathco lUver. The survey of 1S72 
follov/ed the west branch, which rises so rapidly for six miles that it was found necos.sary to 
go back to the 29th mile, and commence rising on the rugged rocky slojics, with a 
gradient of 100 feet per mile, wliich is continuous to the I Ith mile with excessively liea\y 

r. Isi.'.T 

111- two milt's 

The gClUTill 
: UHCT'IkI, till 

ishes til rough 

feet wide, liiit 

low alluviiil 

with spnirf . 

of the r(/(k\ 

1 WlU("' line 
c'l ;i (lon'ii of 

n a little <»vci' 
crossiii!' tin- 
s away hiick 
at it is on ;i 
shcs the foot 
ojies for four 
s iiL'-'xiii on the 

Butt luk't to 
i; miles on the 
nncls, milking 
'or, arc short, 
at the ccntri', 
s in this soc- 
cngth and the 
ill to a linlius 

;ct wide, — six 
ironght down 
he Homatlifo 
of the stream, 
he foot of tl'i' 
iind ; in o.ue 
out thev live 

-ountains ami, 
) IJ'Jth mile is 
rvey of li^7L' 
d necessary to 
lopes, with a 
'ssivelv lie:i\ \ 


'•The jiresent survey follows the cast liniiich of tin- Homuthco. Imt tho trial line 
showcMJ a rise of 77r> feet on the first d miles. To eiise this gradient a i le has ln-en ]>ro- 
jeeted from the cross sections, which it is believed will give tiie West gr.idients olilainaide, 
witliout gr(!atly increasing the roek excavations. This throws us back to ♦he ;5lth mile, 
between which ami the ."lord mile, the jiroiiie, as shown by the dotted line, is only 
a|>])r<*Niinate : fur when the trial line was com|ilt't<d and the new line iirojcc led, the season 
was too far advanced to attempt the location then. 

"The tollowiii'' are the gradients through the lie.irt of tiic t a.scad;' .Mniiiitain;'. t;oiii- 

iiiencing at the foot of the canyon near the iJOtli mile :■ 
•1 miles of 1.1.") per HH) tio.7- feet per mile. 


•) I 

- I 


" 1.10 >• • 

58.08 •• 

.. o ,,() •• 

|0.-|.(iO •• 

of level 

0.00 •• 

'• 2.00 •■ • 

lo.'i (iO •■ 

of level 

0.00 '• 

'• 1.40 •• 

71.00 •• 

•• 0..S.-) >• • 

Jl.SS •• 

•• L'.or. •• 

10.-.. CO •• 

•• icNcl •• • 

o.oit •• 

Total ri.M" 

1,7 lii fc-i 

averaging 87.10 feet [ler mile. 

••There will be a lai-ge ipiantity of rock o.vcavation throughout thi.s .si^etiou, including 
.•,everal short tunnels, but the reduction in heavy works is very considerable coiuparcd 
with the lin'.< surveyed in 1S7"J, on which the avcrag(? length of tunnelling in the ('a.scade 
.Mountains was fully three miles, while on the [ircscuL line it will not exceed two miles. 

" I'roiu the .lOth to the (ilst mile at the foot of Lake Tatlayaco, ilic rise is .")()7 feel. 
iieing an average of 4G feet per mile. The highest gra<lients are one (jf 7'J feet per mile for 
a mile and a half and another of 'ii'i feet per mile foi- the same distance. None of the 
Q other exceed 1 per 1 00. 

••The works on this .vitiou will be I hive liiii'S li.-a\y rijck cutting ami eight miles 
of light and me<lium work. 

•• Near the 0:ind mile, the Hue's the lloiiiatlico liivci — lUO feet wide— to 
its oiitllow from Lake Tatlayaco. which is l\71i.' feet above the sea level, thence the line 
follows the ea.stern shore of the lake to its head at the 77tli mile, with variable; but 
generally easy gradients. 

••Near the foot of the lake the work.-, will be heavy for about a mile, consisting of 
lock cuttings and two tunnels, each :;i)0 feet in length. "^ Along the shore of the lake th'! 
cuttings will not be deeji, but iirincii)ally in rock. .\t the (".."ith mile the line crosses 
(,'hesliee Ifiver, a glacial stream 100 feet wiile. 

'•At the 77th mile, near the head of l^iiko Tatlayaco, ve are fairly through the 




tains and tin; lin(; thenco to the crossing 

of the Itiver Fraser above Fort 

({eorgc, about -.'10 miles, travmses the ('enlial I'lateau, 1 let ween the ('ascade .and Eocky 
Mountains, bv so.'nc of the numefous vallevs ;iiii 

lake liasii's ^^ ith 


h it is iu'letded. 


'• N'rar till' nitli mile is the sminiiit wlilcli ilividcs the waters (lowiiij,' rustwaid to f Iif 
Krasi'i ami westward to the I'acitii' Ulthii. It is I'l.aOO IV'ft aliovu the kcu levt'l, and tin- 
I iso to it from Lidic Tatlayaco in almost contimioiis, tlicro bciny only a few slioi-t strettliPH 
of !r t'l iiitfrvcuiiiii. 'i'lic l:ii,dn'st ^'radii'iit is I \n-v 10(1 fotiliiuiously fur ci-^Iit inik's; the 
rt>8t arc oasy. 

••'J'lif svdiks oil tills si'ctioii will l)c iiiodi-ratc; the riiltin^.s arc |iriii(ipal!y in _i,'rav(d 
and lioidilors, witli a small |iro|«)rtion of I'ock. 'i'li<; iicaviost works will Ix; tlin crossin;,' 
of tln! ravines, one of tlicm ."i<l(> feet wide at lln; top and III feet deep, the other 400 feet 
wide ami I \'.\ feel de.')i. Iiolh of them slope to only a few feet in lireadtll at the liottom. 

■' l''roiii '.»."i lu Itij.' iiuirs till line rnns a!on,i,' the south-east shore of lOa^le Lake witii 
easy, iindiilutiii!,' u'l'-idieiits. There will he a eonsiderahle (inantity of roek eiitling in this 

•• 'leiiee to the < 'iiilaiui)li \'al!ey the line follows a (!r[)ressioii in tiie plaleait, appa- 
rently the ancient hod of the lake and river. 'L'he yriidients aro <;eiieially etisy, except I 
per |00 for fonr miles. They are (h-seendiuL; to the C'hilancoh, which is '_',!)7.') feettdiose 
sea level where the line crosses the river which is ."iO feet wide. 

''This section is liroken with l■id^'e^ of sand, ifiaMl and houlilers, and small div 
poiids. The works will imt he heavy. 

" From the ( 'hilancnh to (he crossing of the ( 'hilicotin l!i\cr at tlio loUth mih) tin; 
line is over a rolling' country. From the iL'Jnd to tlie l-'iOth nnle it ])asKes on the north- 
west of I'nntzee Lake, well iijj on the Hhij)e, in order to snrmount the ]»latean hetwoen that 
and the ("hilicotin Valley. The highest ]ioint is at \',V,] mih^s and is M,'l()7 feet above .sea 
level. The rise is almost continuous from the Chilanooh to tliis point, lint the highest 
'gradient is 1 per lOO for a mile and a half. 

" Hence the line dcsccmls with easy gradient to the (.'hilicotin Valley; cro.s.sing the 
river- 1 -JO feet wi.h'-ncar the fool .if I he (.'liLsicut Lake at the altitude of .'i.'J'JO feet 
alio\e scii hnol. 

" From the Chilicotiu Valley IIJ!) miles - the line reaches the highe-st point of the 
plateau at ]')o miles. Avitli easy niuhilating gradients. Thi.s point is .'5,(505 feet above .sea 
level. Hence to the west end nf |,ake Nestacho at l(>'2 miles, the grailients arc very 
easy, tliat point heing ;>.t7tl feet above sea level. 

"The whole of this section from 139 to IdL' miles Ls over an arid countrv of sand, 
gravel and lioulders. and tlie wnik will be very light. 

■' From 1(52 miles tlie line runs along the slopes of the \alley by Lakes Nestacho, 
Zazatee and Tehu sin-il-til to lii7'' miles with ('asy gradients, but on half the distance 
there Avill be some ratlier heavv rock < tittimj;: the balance will be liirht work. 

"From the point — lt57i,' mihss— the Nazco lliver, here oidy 'JO feet wide, Hows 
into a Oi'nvon, the head of which is ;?. Ill) feet abo\e sea level. The descent thronsh the 
canyon, eight ui.d a-half miles in length, is at a uniform rate of 1 p(>r lOO. Half the 
distance Is curvature, varying from l,!nO to 1,4133 feet radius. 

" Tht^ upjier ])arl of the canyon is coinpohcd tif basaltic rock, the lower pait con- 
■'loiiierate. There will he some licavv reck rutliii'.'s in (lii.-^ rrrfion. 

stwanl to the 
v(!l, and tlir 
loit stretiliPh 
lit iiiilfs; till' 

ly ill xi'ivcl 
the. rmssiiii^ 
her 400 ftvt 
the liottoni. 

1(^ Lake with 
ttiir' in Lliis 

ateitii, ai>|iii- 
isy, except I 
'.") feet ali(i\(' 

(! small tlrv 

Dtli milt; tlie 
a the iiorth- 
l)et\veen that 
et iibeve sea 
the highest 

ci'ossiiig the 
>f ;?,2'J0 feet 

point of ihr 
jt iil)0\e 8ea 
'Uts are \ ery 

try of Kuud, 

cs Nestacho, 
tli<' (Ustaiiee 

wide, Hows 
through the 
). Half the 

or part con- 


" From \7C>1 miles, at the foot of llio canyon, the vaHey widens out so that between 
(his point and the junction with the lllaekwater. there is'sco|M' for niori< than one line. 
'I'iie line h)cated has l)eeii cliosen to shorten the distaiui^ as much as |ira((ical»lc an<l t<> 
keep off till' low lands widch are Huliject to overth)W, so that there are points at wliii-h it 
may Ih; fotiml liesIiMliIi' to inaki- sliort ileviiitions to redm-i' thr i|uantitv nf rmk 

'■ The altitude at tin- foot of tlic canyon is •_',!)S."» (cft. and at the niontli of tlu> N'a/.ro 
L'.IiSO feet above sea h;vel— a fall of oO,') feet in lo miles. The highest, gradient 0.."iO per 


"On some j)ortioiis of this seclido there will be a eon^idir.dde ijuantitv of riM'k cut 
ting, morc! esjiecially on the shore of Iflke Nazc<p fmni the \~<. to tin' js^'ml mile. The 
lialance will be light wmh. 

"There are six crossings of the Xazco that will ri'ipiire bridges of one span of InO 
fi;ct, with about ')() fc-et of trestle bridging at each end, unless there are stone ubiitirieiit^. 
One bridge will liave two s])ans of 100 feet each. The lower chords of the-si; bridges will 
be only a few feet above flood level, suflicient to allow trees to under f'reelv, 

" Krom the mouth of the Xazco the line follow-; down the \ alley of tla; Hlaek\\at<'r 
"i miles to the L'^Mth mile, when; the altitude is '2.'>'M feet, giving an average fail of '.i^ 
feet per mile. 1 5ut the gradients are undulating and there are three jiicccs of I per |H0 
making .an <aggregate of one and a half miles in length. About four miles of this secition 
is on lock formation and the cuttings will be rather he,i\\. Thi- Iial.ince is prineipally mi 
gravel antl boidders, piobalily resting on solid I'ock. 

'• The river is very crooked in this part of the valley anil the line crosses it threi' 
times, reipiiring one briilge of two spans of lOt( feet each, a)id two bridges of three spans 
of 100 feet each. 

" From '2'^\ to '2'M miles the liu(! ascends the slope of the \alley ol)liipieiy on lo tin' 
plateau, which divides the Jilackwater from the t^hilacoh Valley, with a gradient of |.'» 
feet per mile. On this length there will be some lii'avy rork eiittiie/ and t a'o tiinnei^. 
one l,:;0O feet, the other GOO feet in length. 

'"At 'J.")7 miles the altitudi; is i.fiS,'? feet abosi- .M-a level; thence tlie ])Iateaii is 
cros.sed in a straight line with easy undulating gra<lients to -17 miles. The formation is 
sand and gr-avel and the works on this section will bt> light. 

"The heigiit ot the last point is L'.oOl feet abov(! sea level. Hence tlie line descends 
the slope by a serpentine coui'se to the Chilacoh Valley, with gradients varying from O.L'O 
to 1 per 100. There are about four miles of the hitter in several l"ngfhs with stretche'^ 
of level between. 

"The formation is sand, gravel and boulders and there are no deep cuttings, but 
there are several deep ravines to cross. The largest of these is ."lOlt feet at top, 10 feet at 
bottom and 1 10 feet <lecp. 

" At L'."i().\ miles the line crosses tli(^ bottom tint of the Chilaeoh \'alley -MOll feet- 
wide, re(iuiriug an embankment or trestle work .'iO feet high. The river is liM) feel wid.'. 

" F'rom thi.s the line follows the Chilaeoh Valley down to its junction with that of 
tlu> Stewart at '2S'yi miles. The gradients ai'(> very easy, the altitude at the ( Hiilacoh 

being •_'/--•'' f''«'t ='"'l "<^^''*' ^^*-'^^''""*^ -■•'•"'•' *"''^^' 


"Oil the I'lrst ]2 miles thv works will Ix- very li,i,'li(, ''nt on Uio next (ivo miles tin' 
rivor has cut through a nmcje of hills aiul the vallrv is cuiilracl.od ; on this last section 
there will bo .■^onie tl;H']i etittiiij,'s in s:\iiil ;nul pfrMvel. 

"The lino at '_'"."> miles is "J.llM) feet alio\e sea iev(>l, mid tlieiie<^ to '2Si> miles the 
ijnuliont is almost uiiilorm at pii,dit fe. t jier mile, 'i'he works woi.ld lie very li<,'lit liut for 
several diversions of the rive'i-, making, an n.i,'gregate len;,'th of 4,000 feet. The eiittinL;s 
for these divei-sioiis will, iiowever, not be deeji. It is a sliii,'i,'i.sli stream risiiii:^ to within 
a few feet of tho level of the flat throti^^h which it winds. On the last three miles, t(» tlie 
junction with tho Stewart v;dley, there ;ire some deep enttiiii^s in siind ;ind irravel .'ind 
three short euttiiiifs in i-ork. 

•' P>ctween (Im' l.'.'i7th and L'S'.'th nui.' llie liiu' ei-osses the Chilaeoli iJivc r three times 
and will reipiin* {wo bridijes wiih one sjian nt' I (ID \\-v{. and une liridL.''' \\ith two spans of 
1 IK) feet. 

'This is the jioiiiL to wiiicli ilie I lial location sui'vey had been carried in Oetolier. 
I '7-">, anil tho result is to a certain excnt sat isfaetoi-y. The (vxcesslvoly hea\ y works 
tlii'oni;h the (.'ascade Mountains, re(iuired o/i the line sui'veyed in 187-', have by the last 
survey Ijeen reduced to practicable limits. Tho len).;th of tuiuiellin;i; by the former Avas 
fully four miles; now it will not exceed two miles. Th(> rock excavation and bridj^ini; over 
deep ra\ ines have been redm-od in ])roporiinn, as the foiuiaLiou line is now at a much less 
height above the level nf ihc llnMailico lvi\ei-. Ilie ^^radienis ai-e aiso ormsiderably 

'•On the other hand iln' line by the ITiver Na/.ci.i has nni proved so favorable as 
antieiiiated. Tho canyo' at the head of the valley is eight miles in length with a contiiuious 
gradient u( I ])cv 1 00 ami heavy rock cutting throughout. There is also sonic heavy 
woi'k on two or three .niles in the iJlaokwater Valley. 

'• Tiie length of line on w iiich very heavy rock exca\atioii and tunnelling occurs Is 
nbout ;")(» miles viz: — In the ( 'ascade iMountains 40 miles : in the Xazco canyon eight miles, 
and in thi> valley nf the I'lackwater two to thre<^ miles. 

" It is not necessary here to enter into a further classillcatinn of the works, as the 
(piaiititii?s are being taki'ii out from which an ap|ii'oximate estimate of the cost nf con 
stniction will be obtained both on this and other Jines. 

'•From Stewart River to Vellow Head I'ass the line will be eomnion to .all those 
termiuatiug at, or mirth of I Jute Inlet. 

''The Divisions M and N have lieen engaged (hiring last winter and spring in 
continuing the trial location of this jiortion of the liiu'. A report has been received 
from tho former, dated loth Junuary 1^7(5. aceompanicHl with ])lan and profile of 22.', 
miles locateil from the summit of Yellow ifead I'ass westw;ird. A sui>sei|uent leport 
states that the party have been engaged during the wiiitei- running trial lines in advance 
of location and that they were piepared to resume the latter as soon as the oonnti'y was 
elfar of snow. 

"A branch of tlu; lliver Kra.3er rises on the west side of the ^'ellow Head Pass 
within half a mile of the summit, which is th(^ eastern boundary of the province of iJritish 
(.'olumbia. Tho river fluws westward through Vellow Head and Moose Lakes, and the 
line is located on the north si le of these to wthin four miles of the foot (tf the jjitter lake. 

inilos lilt* 
liist section 

S() mill's till' 
lii,'lit l)Ut fur 
riic fiittin,ifs 
>r t(i within 
niilos, to tiic 
ll ffl'ilVcl ;il!il 

tiii'i'C times 

Wil SliMllS III' 

1 ill Oilulier. 

Iicaw woi'ks 
by tlio last 
former was 

>riil.i,'iii,i,' over 

L :i much less 

faVDi'iilile as 

a coutiimous 

) Rome lieUN V 

w' occurs 1- 

eji'lit miles. 

works, as the 
e cost "t" con- 

II to all (hose 

1 spriujLC ill 
leeu received 

iroiilo of 22}, 

n|ueiit repoi'L 
s ill advaiief' 

count rv was 

,v IJpinl J'liss 
uco of I'ritish 
iken, and the 
le latter lake. 


'• Jn the distance located— 22 J miles— the fall i., 313 feet. Of this fall 03 feet takes 
l)lace III tlio two and a-half niilcs from the summit of the pas>,, to Yellow llt>ad Lake in 
which thci'(» is a f,'radient of 1 per 100 for a mile and ii-half. The rest of tln^ tall is lietsveen 
the two lakes, on which there are two gradients of 1 per 100 making aitogethei- a leiitrtii 
of two miles. On tin; shore of th(? lakes the gradients are undulating and easv. 

"The works on this section will not he heavy; a few of the cuttings will leacii 2(1 to 
."lO feet iu depth hut chiefly in sand and gravt^l, with a few short cuttings in rock. 

"A report from the Engineer in charge of Division M dated May 2nd, 1S7(I, states 
that the jiarty luid been running trial lines during the winter, but resumed location on 
the 2'.)th Fi'bruary, and they had i-eached and cros.sed tin- Itiver Fi-aser 20 miles above 
Kort (fcorge. A plan and profile accompanying the report, show this section to be 2'.' 
miles in length. 

"The distance from Bute Inlet to the junction of the ("hilacoli and Stewart Valleys 
has been stated 289 :| miles. From this iioint the line has lusen continu(>d along the right 
bank of the Stewart River, crossing the latter near the 297th mile. It follows the left 
bank to the 302nd mile, when it makes a sharp turn to the north up a narrow valley 
jiarallel to the Fnvser. At the l^ead of this valley 308th mile— is the sunnnit of tin* 
divide between the valleys of the Stewart and the F'raser. From this summit the line 
descends obliquely tlie slo]>e of the latter, and crosses the river at the ;>1S.', mile. 

"The line on the banks of the River Stewart and the lateral valley u|i to the 3'>lst 
mile is on fertile Hats, with easy gradients and the work will be light. 

"The altitude at the crossing of the River Stewart is 1,9."»0 feet aliove .sea level. 
The river is r)00 feet wide, with 20 feet depth of water and a riipid current. The bridgiiin' 
of this will be a dillicult piece of work. Tlie ice piles up on the siilcs of the river to a 
height of five to ten feet. 

"The sunnnit of the divide is at 307i miles, and. ascending this on the scmoh .side, 
there are three lengths aggregating three miles of 1 per 100, and, descending the north 
slopes, there are^ five miles of the same gradient on three lengths, with short pieces 
of level between. 

"Crossing the divide from 300 to 313 miles, the country is serrated with sJiarp 
ridges and narrow deep I'aviues, on which there will b(> very heavy excavations 20 to f.O 
feet in depth, chiefly in clay. On the rest of the distance the works will be vtM-y light. 

"The Salmon River is crossed at 310',' miles. It is SO feet wide but subject to 
overflow its luinks. 

"The Fraser where the line crosses is 700 feet wide between walls of solid rock; it 
is 30 feet deep at Hood with a very rapid current. This crossing only appears suitable 
t'or a suspension iiridge, and it may bt; found necessary to stdect a i-rossing where the river 
is not so contracted and the current less swift." 


iNf.KT I'o Yki.i.ow IIicAn I'ass. 

"The line of this preliminary survey runs up the valley of the Salmon River, which 
rises in the central plateau and Hows nearly duo west through the Cascade Mountains to 
Dean Inlet, it then Uie watershed to the head of the Ulack water, which river 


Hows nearly clue east to llu; Frasor. Tlio line follows this to tlie intersection of the line 
fi'oni V,\xU' fillet. Tlience to Yellow Hfiul I'ass is eoiniiion to liotli lines. 

" Topograph ieal sketehcs ami some cross sections were taken to a sufficient breadth 
to ]iroject a line for location, and, as a location survey is now in ])ro<fress of that portion of 
I lie line throu'di the C'ascatle ^lountains, it is not necessarv to enter verv niinutelv into a 
description of tJio jireliminary line. 

"The following table shows the gradients taken at points where there is a very 
decided change in the x'ato of inclination, disregarding minor variations. The Uemarks in 
the margin will suUicicnlly indicate the character of the country and works required. 

Tabi.k of (Ji!.\1)1i:nts, 


Length. 1 





miles 1 

r ^ . »tr. 







mile 1 


miles 1 

miles j 







• iradicnt. 


."),'? feet \Kv mi It. 
.'{I feet JUT milt 

4!) feet [)er mile ) 
4l?i feet [ler mile \ 
yO feet iier mile 


l2(!.j feit per mile / 
70 feet i)ir mile \ 

]()() feet jicr mile 
itO feet per mile 

100 feet [ler mile 

On Hat tongue of laml, soutli shore of Kams((Uot J5ay. 

A (juai'ter of a mile of this is tlirough a canyon. Ho>'k cutting. 

Tlie line is on the wrong side of the river with a large quantity of 
rneU eiittiiig and some tunnelling. ()u tlie otiier side are 
tini1)ered tlats with rock coming to tlie water's edge for a short 
space at three dill'erent points. Line being located on that side 
will cross river near l!tth mile. 

None of tlij cuttings will exceed .35 feet in depth, but will be 
ehielly in rock 

Tiinnel half a mile in length through roek. Piest of the cutting 

At ^'eltesse or Salmon House, cross river 150 feet above water 
with bridge !)00 feet long. One span of 200 feet over the 
chasm and 7 spans of 100 feet with a height of 40 to 50 feet. 

Heavy roek cuttings. 

The canyon. Very In^avy work. 

'I'o liead of canyon. Heavy rock cuttings. 

Heavy niek cuttings. 

'■ At Yeltessc, Oltli mile, is a fixed point ami tlie line cannot be altered. It will be 
•seen tliat, with the exc(!jition of a half a uule of tiinnelling. there an; no very great 
dilHcultics up to this jioint and the gradients are not bad. Hen! we an; entirely through 
the superior snow-clad i-anges of the (.'ascade JNIountains, and, from the head of the 
Canyon, to this point the riv(U' linds its way in a deeji groove through tlie rolling hills of 
the central jilateau, and the gi'catest engineering difliculties will be on 1(1 miles fi-om 
Yeltesse upward. It is possibh? that a uniform gradient of about 81 feet pei- mih; eouhl 
be obtained with heavy rock cuttings and little, if any tunnelling; but a careful location 
iirvey can ;iloue determine this. 

"The altitude at the Ti'Jnd mile is ;),0(l.'» feet above sea hnel. The line follows the 
north bank of tin; river to ")!).', miles, where it commences to ascend tlu? slopc.-s of the 
vaUey of the plateau wliicli <li\ides the head waters of the Salmon lliver and the 

"Following a chain of small lakes it reaches tin; highest point of (lie <liwde near 
llasiUt ]jake at 8(ii, miles, ."1,700 feet ul)0vc sea level. 

of tlie line 

3Ut breiultli 
it poi'tioii of 
utelv into a 

e 18 a very 
llemarks in 

k cutting,', 
e (|iiantity of 
tlier side are 
t;c) Cor a short 
I on thatsidi' 

li, Imt will be 

)t' the cutting 

t above water 
fc(!t over the 
to 50 feet. 

, It will 1k" 
a very groat 
ifoly tJiioiigli 
hoad of tlio 
)lling lulls of 
i niilt's fi'oiii 
!■ niil(! could 
•oful lociiiiou 

3 follows tlio 
! slo})(.'s of tlic 
Ivor and llm 

dividf noiir 

" In ascending to this jilatoau tlio highest gradient is I" per lOO in fuur lon"t.lis 
making together a little over seven miles. The gradients on the plateau are easv and 

"From tlu! r)2ud to tjje HTjUi mile thei'e will bo heavy rock excavation, theuct; Lo the 
summit the rock, will be moderate. The cuttings will l)o generally under IJ feet in 
depth i very few will reach 2;") feet, and nearly all will b(^ iu sand ami gravel. 

"Near the 87th nule the line runs at the foot of a range of basaltic columns along 
the north shore of a small lake, less than a mile in length, whiili is ouo of the highest 
sources of the Hlackwater. 

"From the 00 to 92^ miles it runs along the north shore of Lake EligiU'k, the 
second in the chain through which the Blackwater flows and which contribute! to its 
supply. Thence the depr<'ssiou in th. plateau becomes a doiined, broad, but not deep, 
valley, and the line runs <m the north side of it at souk; dist.iiui! from tlui I'iver, ]iassing 
the juncti(m of the two branches near the lUlst mile; the; largei- branch cdniing down 
from a high I'ango to the south-west. 

"'I'he line crosses the I'ivei- — IliD feet wide - at lid,' miles, near the licail ufa sniall 
canyon ; altitude .'5, 100 feet. Krom the sinnmit to Uus point tlu; grailients are undulaliug 
and easy, there being only (me piece of 1 per lOO two-thirds of a mile in lenntli. The 
works will be light; few of the cuttings exceed 10 feet and will be chielly in sand, gi'a\el 
and boulders. 

"From the crossing the line follows the nglit Imnls. of the rlvir. tlirttugli the ennyuu 
about a mile in length with a base of Ii7 feet. 

"From II.") to 1:1") mili>s the line follows the south shore nf Lake Thracliii, 
through which the i'llackwitei' Hows, and at I •") 1 miles near the foot of Lake Eucliinico ii 
re-crosses the river. 

•'Tn this section the gradients are generally easy, but the ground is more liroken and 
the work will be rather heavy, as there is a consideraltle poi'tir)n of rock in some of the 
cuttings. Tt is prob.alile that abetter line could lio found li\ kee|iini;- on the left bank of 
the river and lakes all th(! way down. 

''The altitude at the crossing of tlu- river near the LMtli mile is l,;];}-") feet, thence 
the line runs on the left bank of the river which flows thrnugh a chain of small lakes to 
the KiOth mile 'i'ht^ grailients are easy on this section, but tluM'e will lie some rather deep 
cuttiii'^s on the shores of tlie lakes, which, however, lan be mueh reiluced liy a ciircfiil 
location of the lin(>. 

"The last point is :^,0I7 feet aliove .sea lexcl and from it the Blackwater makes u sharp 
lieud to the south-east till it meets the Na/.co. The combined streams liend to the north 
east. To cut off this angle the line has been I'un over the i'idg(! which has caused the 
dellection of the river. The sununit is near the l<i*!th mile — altitude .'{."J^S feet. In 
(h;scending the iskultnsley, a trilaitary of the Blackwater, there is a gradient of 1.S7 
I>er 100, eijuul to !)'.• fe(!t p(>r mile, tor ;?,' uules, and another of I ]i(>r 100 for a mileanda 
half ; but tliis can be improved to a uniform gradient of 1 per KXI for about nine miles, or. 
])robablv nmch betttu" by a consideralile deviation of the line to the northward. The 
excavations on this side of the ridge will be heavy, but principally in sund and gravel or 
loose rock. 

"The Iskultasley River, 20 feet wide, is crossed between the 17 lat and 172nd 
mile ; thence the line follows its left bank to the Blackwater Valley, where it joins the 
line from Bute Inlet, which entere the Blackwater by the Nazco Valley 10 niiles further 

" The length of the line from Dean Inlet to the junction is 184 miles, and from Bute 
Inlet 230 miles— a difference of 4G miles in favor of the former with generally lighter 
works throughout, and it is anticipated that by a deviation of the line so as to form :i 
junction with tliat from Bute Inlet in the Chilacoh Valley, the heavy work, which is now 
common to both Imes, between the 230th and 2G0th miles will be much reduced. A 
survey of this is no^\ being made." 

From Kemano ['ay, on thk Gauuxkr Ouannkk, to Fiust Lake on Kasteun Sloi'i; 

oi' THE Cascade Mountains. 

'• This survey was an attempt to cross tlie Cascade Mountains from the Gardner 
Channel to Lake Francois in order to take advantage of the comparatively low linn of 
country stretching from this lake to tlie Fraser near Fort George, by the Nechacoh and 
Stewart Valleys. 


" p]xplorations with heights taken with the barometer in 1874 gave no promise of a 
practicable line across the Ciiscade IVIountains north of the 53rd parallel of 1 titudo, but this 
njuto was tliought of so m\ich impoi'tance as to merit a better instrumental survey. 

"The line conmiences on a bay at the moutl. of the Kemano River, about 20 mih^s 
from the head of the Gai'dner Inlet, and follows the Kemano Valley nine miles, in -^vhich 
the rise is 175 feet. The valley Ls naiTOw and subject to overflow during the freshets 
fi'oui the melting snow in siunmer and the rains of autunui. The mountains ris(^ 
precipitously from each side of the valley in masses of bare rock. 

" At the ninth mile ihe lino leaves the Kemano Valley and takes a more easterly 
coui-se u]) a lateral ravine through which a sti-eam Hows from a small lake near the 
summit of the mountain. The slopes of the ravine are steep and rugged and avalanches of 
snow and loose rock roll down them and sometimes choke up the ravine to a gieat depth. 

•'The summit of tlie mountain Is reached at the 19th mile, where the altitude is 
4,019 feet. The gi-adients in the lust ten miles vary from 200 to 800 feet per mile. 

" At 22 miles th(i lino itiachcs the head of the first lake on the eastern slope of the 
mountains, from which the water Hows to Lake Francois or tho Nechacoh River. The 
line was cani(>d alongthe north shore of this lake four miles; its length is estimated 18 to 
20 miles and its altitude 2,790 aboTe the sea. 

"To construct a railway on this route would rcipiire a tunnel from this lake to the 
Kemano Valley, a tUstanco of 10,7 miles in a direct line, with a continuous gradient 
of 1 in 22.15, ecpial to 238 feet jter mile. 

"Any attempt to improve this gradient would only increase tho length of tuiuielling 
and excessively heavy rock excavation and expose the line to avalanches of snow and rock 
that roll downi the sides of the ravine;. 

" This line is so obviously impracticable that the survey has not been extended." 

and 172iul 
it joins the 
lies further 

1 from Bute 
ally lighter 
to form a 
•hich is now 
L'duced. A 

EUN Si-orK 

ho Gardner 
low lino of 
;chacoh and 

roniiso of a 
ido, but this 

it 20 miles 
es, in which 
the freshets 
intiiins riso 

ore easterly 
c near the 
t'alanches of 
gi'oat depth. 

e altitude is 
■ mile. 

Uope of the 
liver. The 
mated 1<S to 

lake to the 
3US gradient 

if tunnelling 
ow and rock 



Survey of the Kitlope Valley from the Head of Gardner Inlet. 

" During the months of February, March and part of April last a survey of this 
valley was attempted. The surveyors found the Gardner Channel or Inlet covered with 
tixed ice for 2.5 miles from its head and the ])arty were detained l)y storms of snow and 
rain, which partly broke tij) the ice, so that it was a month before they got all their 
baggiige and supplies to the head of the Inlet and conuuenced work. 

" They continued the survey 40 miles and had then struck the Chatsquut lliver, 
which flows into the Dean Inlet, where they were forced to discontinue the survey as the 
snow Avas 12 to 14 feet deep and was Ijccommg soft ; and avalanches of snow were rolling 
down the mountain sides into the Kitlope Valley. 

" A full description of the survey is given in the interesting report of Mr. C. 11. 
Gamsby, the engineer in chai-ge." 


rilAlTKi; VI. 


Im>IAN TlMItl::^ ANI> TliKATlKS. 

l!i)Hiil of llir llim. Din-'nl Luinl, Minixfn' of the Interior, 1875,^)^/. r)-0. 

••Tlio nuiiiiicr oi sni.ill Imnds into wJiicli jiiost of the rmlliin tril)cs of tlic Dominion 
of Canaila arc divided, and tlit> ilistaiicc wliich sonic of tlic bands must necessarily lie 
fi-om any otlicrr of tlic Department, rcndci' it ditlirult to j iroeii re satisfactorily infonnation 
as io tiicir actnal ecndjtion, 

* * "It is niatifvini,' Im oKscrvc tjial llie Indians on scncral of tlic 

(■(•serves are liei;innin,L;- to ae([iiirc individual jirojicrty. They are making small clearances 
un their allotments, raising |)atches f)f grain and vegetai)los, and procuring farm stock. 
I'ut the progress is slow. Habits foi-mcd l>y a peoj>l(> generations back are difficult to 
overcome. The system of li\iug with the vwiXv savage is from hand to mouth. Ho has 
no inducement to accpiiro property, lieeatise it would only further expose \\i\\\ to the 
attacks of his enemies. Me is active on the war-path or in the chase; but when danger 
is over, revenge satisfied, tir his immediate wants ajipcased, he relapses into his accustomed 
iiulolence. It may 1h> said that this inertia, is the chief legacy which he bequeaths to his 
children. The great dillicully with the Indian is that he cannot all at once rid himself of 
this iidieritaiicc. Even under the most favorable circumstances time must be given him 
to nndei-stand the moti\es and ac(|uire the habits of the white man, who label's to 
accumidate wealth in order that he may have the means of su]iport in or old age, 
or of giving his ollspiiiig a start in life. Ihit when th(>se motixcs come to be understood 
and acted u])on l)y the I,i dian. the evidence of which is the possession of considerable 
]iroperty .-K'liuired by his own industry and thrift, it shows that he may safely be en- 
trusted with the rights of full citi/en.ship. To grant enfranchisement to the intelligent 
and well-behaved Jndians would probably train to .still further self-reliance, and encourage 
their brethren v ho are lagging behind to make greater exertions to overtake the Anglo 
Sa.Non in the race of progress." 


Xo. I. //*'('/' .">/■'' A ":/"■•/. \^7\. Iii'tirii',/ /III- M(ij)'Klji ihc Qiino)i, (IikI tli'i ''I'li'i" >''<' ('i"l 
Vrvi' I/i'/((ii>>\ of yiuvltolid. ditil co'infi'i/ (i<fj(iri'i(l. 


"The ('hii)]K'wa and ."-svauniy ^'''f' Trilies of Indians, and all other the Indians 
inhabiting the district hereinjifter described ami df^tined, ilo hereby cede, release, sur- 
render, and yield up to Jbr Majesjty the Queen, and Successors for ever, all the lands 
incluiled within the following limits, that is to say : IJeginning at the International 
Ifoundary line near its juiuliou v itii the liukc of the Woods, at a point dtie north from the 


tjcntiH! of llostiiiu L!ik(^, tlKmco to mn thxa north to the contro of Roso.v'i Lnko; tlionco 
iioilliwiiril, to tins (UMitrc of Wliitc Mouth l/ikc, ollicrwij^c cnlli'.l Wliito Mud l.ukc ; 
th(!iK;o l»y tlio inuldh! of thi! Lake iiiul the iiiiddh^ of th« river issuing tlicivfmiii, to the 
luoiitli thereof in Winnipeg lliver; tlience l>y the \Viniii|i("4 liiver to its nioutli : thenet^ 
\V(>st\v-ardly, inidiiding ull tiie Ishmds nr.u- the soutli end of tlie Like, ucrovS the L;ik(^ to 
the mouth of the Di'unkeu lliver; thence westwurdly, to a point on I/dce ^runitoha, half 
way lictwecn Oak Point and tlie mouth of Swan (,'ivek; tiienee aei-oss Lake Manitoba, on 
a line (hic west to its westcn'u shore; thence in a straight line to tlie in'ovsing of the 
llapids on the Assiniboine; thence duo soutli to the International l)ouii lary line, and 
thenei! c:istwardly by the said limi to tlie place of beginning; to liuvc .mil to hnld th" 
same to lier said IMajesty the Queen, and Jler Hucri's-ioi's for eviM-." 

'Av.v/.// .Vo. -2, lu'i'/r -n-^f A 



r.ol NDAlllKs. 

e Dommiou 
'ceasarily l)e 

icral of the 
11 clearances 
; farm stock, 
e difficult to 
h. Ho lias 
him to tlio 
,'hen danger 
i accustomed 
icaths to his 
id himself of 
le given him 
10 labors to 
;s or old age, 

safely be en- 
' intelligent 
id encourage 

the Anglo 

/n 11/11 li'(i (I III I 

the Indians 
release, siir- 
all the lands 

irlh from the 

"The C!hip)»ewa Tribe of Indians, and all other the Indians iiihaliittiig the district 
hereinafter described and detiiuHl, do hereby cede, release, surrender and yield up to I lor 
Majesty the Queen, and Her successors for ever, all the lands inchuled within the follow- 
ing limits, that is to say: — AH that tract of country lying partly to the north and partly 
(o th(^ west of a tract of land ceded to Wvr Majesty the Qucimi liy tliri Indians inhabiting 
the Province of Manitoba, and certain adjoining localities, under the terms of a Treat v 
niad(! at Lower Fort Garry on i\n\ third day of August last |ia:st, the land now intended to 
be ceded and surrendered, being particularly descril>cil as follows, that is to say : -begin- 
ning at the mouth of Winnipeg Jliver, on the north line of the lands ceded l)y said Trciaty, 
thence running along the tfastern shore of Lake Winnipeg, northwardly as far as the 
mouth of Benin's River; thence across the said Like to its western shore at the north 
bank of the mouth of the Jiittle Haskatchewan or Dauphin River: thence up said stream 
and along the northern and w(!st(,'rn shores thereof, and of St. ^NLirtin's Lake, and along 
the north bank of the stream flowing into St. Martin's iiake from Lake ^I initolia by the 
geiKU'al course of such stream to such last-mentioned i^ake; thence by the eastern and 
northern shores of Lake Manitoba to the mouth of the Waterhen I'iver; thence by tin; 
eastern and northern shores of sail I river up stream to the northei'most extremity of a 
small lake known as Waterhen J^ake ; thence in a line due west to and across Lake Winni- 
])egoosis; thence in a straight line to the most noi'therly waters forming the source of tins 
Shell River; thence to a point west of the same, two miles distant from the river, 
measuring at right angles thereto ; thence by a line parallel with tin; Shell River to its 
mouth and then crossing the Assiniboine River and running parallel thereto and two miles 
distant therefrom and to the westward thereof to a. point opposit(> l''ort Kllice ; theue(> in 
a southwesterly course to the northwesU.'rn point of the Moosi; Mountains; thence by a 
line due south to the United States frontiei; thenct; by the frontier eastwardly to the 
W((stward line of said tract ceded by Treaty as aforesaid; thence boundeil thereby, by the 
west, north-we-st and north lines of said tract to the place of l»eginning at the mouth of 
Wiiuiipeg lliver; to have and to hold the saiiu^ to Jler ^Miiji^stv the (^leeu and Her 
successoi's for ever." 


'•The Saultenx Tribe of the Ojibbeway Indians, and all otliei' the Indians inhabitim; 
the district hereinafter described and delintid, do hereby cede. I'elease, surrender, and yiel.l 
up to the dovernment of the Dominion of Canada, for Her ]\Lijesty the Queen and Hei- 
successors for ever, all their rights, titles and privil(>gi>s whatsoevei- to the lands includi-d 
within the following limits, that is to sav; 


" Comnu'iuun*,' ;it ii |>uiiit on tin; Pigeon Kivor lloutr wlicic (lif Intfrnatioiiul lioiiiul- 
nvy line between the tei rituries of Unsat Britain and tlio United States intcisoets tlie 
height of hind separating the waters running to Lake Superior from those (lowing to Lake 
Winnipeg, thence nortlierly, westeriy and easterly, along th<'i height of lanil aforesaid 
following its sinuosities, whatever their eonrse may 1»p, to the jjoint at which tJie said 
height of land meets the summit of the water shed froiu which tlu! streams How to Lake 
Nepigon, thence northerly and westerly, or Avhatever may he its course along the ridge 
separating the waters of the Nepigon and the Winidpeg to the lieiglit of land dividing the 
waters cif the Albany and the Winni[ieg, thence westerly and north-westerly along the 
height of land dividing the waters flowing to Hudson's IJay by the Albany or other rivers 
from those running to English lliver and tlu' Winnipeg to a jioint on the said height of 
land l)earing north forty-tive degrees east fiom l*\)rt Alexander at the mouth of the 
Winnipeg; tliencc; south forty five degrees west to l"'ort Alexander at the nujuth of the 
Winnipeg; thence southerly along the eastern bank of •' W' ' )eg to the mouth of 
White ISlouth Kiver, thence sc.ttVerly by the line describ' '. .>s .1 tJia*^ ,'art foi-niing the 
eastern boundary of the tract surrendered by tlu; Chippev,. "t! .■ , mpy C'ree Triljes of 
Indians, to Her Alajesty on the third of August, one tliousa: 1 • :i\ii i nndred and seventy- 
one, namely, by Whibt Mouth lliver to White Mouth Lake au.i them •• a line, having 
the general bearing of Whitt? INIonth River to the lorty-ninth parallel 01 .lorth latitude. 
thenc(! by the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the Lake of the "Woods and from 
thence iiy the International iMuunlary line to the; placi' of beginning. 

" Th<^ tract coinjirised within the lines alio\i' descriVu'd cmliracing an area of fifty-live 
thousand square miles be the same more or less. 

'•To have and to hold tiit; same to Her JMajesty the Queen and fler successors 
f'or ever." ♦ 

Tr<iit;i Xo 1. maile \Uh Srptomha; 1S71. 


"The (,'ree and S,udteu\ Tribes of Indians, and all otliei- the Indians iuhaltiting tiie 
distiict hereinafter described and defined, do hereby cede, release, siurendt-r anil yield uj) 
to the GovernnKUit of the Dominion of Canada ibi- Iler INIaji^sty th«? Quei'u and LT<'r 
succe.ssoi's for ever, all their rights, titles and privileges whatsoever to the lamls included 
Avithin th(f following limits, that is to fay:— - 

"Commencing at a point on the United States frontier due south of the north- 
western point of the Moose Alountains, thence due north to said point of said mountains, 
thencii in a north-easterly comse to a ])oLnt two miles due west of Fort Lllice, thence in a 
line parallel with, and two miles westward from the Assiinboine Uiver to the mouth of 
the Shell River, thence parallel to the said river, and two miles distant therefrom, to its 
source; thence in a straight line to a point on the western shore of Lake Winnipegoosis 
due west from the most northern extremity of Waterhen Lake, thence east to the centre 
of Lake Winnipegoosis, thence northwardly through the middle of the said lake (including 
I3ii-ch Island) to the mouth of ived Deer Rivcsr, thence westwardly and sonth-westwardly 
along and including the said Reil Deer River and its lakes. Red Deer and Etoimami to 
th(> source of its M-estflrn branch, thence in a straight line to the source of the northern 
branch of the Qu'Api)elle, thence along and including said streams to the Forks near 
Lo'ig Lake, thence along and including th« valley of the west branch of the Qu'ApjUille 
to tlie South Saskatchewan; thence along and including said river to the mouth of Alaph* 
Creek ; thence southwardly along said creek to a point opposite the western extremity of 
the Cypress Hills; thence due south to the International boundary; tlience east along 

ill lidUlnl- 

rsi'cts till' 

ir to Lakt' 


tlic Hiiid 

to Lako 

tlic ridj,'*' 

VuUllg tilt' 

aloui; thr 
lii'i' rivors 
liciLjlit of 
111 of tlic 
ith of the 
mouth of 
rining tlio 
Tiibes of 
d scvi'iity- 
10, liaving 
1 latitinU', 
iuid from 



\ni\nii ihi' 

I yield 11]) 

uid Ht'V 

s iuchidiMl 

icuce ill a 
mouth of 
)iii, to its 
he ccntn> 

uiiuami to 
B iiovtheni 
^'orkH n«ir 

of Mhi)1o 
troniity of 



tlu; .laid boundary to tli • plai-o of coniiiKJiioeinont. Also all tlioir rii,'l Ls, titles and 
|irivilt'i;(>s wliutsocvor to all otlior lauds wlicreso('\(M- situated svitliin Fl"r M, ji'stv's North- 
West 'I'enitories. or any of them, to liavi- and to hold llie sium' • . H' '' Majesty tin.' 
'j'liei'u and I ler su'-eessoi s I'm- e\er." 

7'/V(<// .\'</. ."». i,it'/i: ■2^)l/i II. oJ •l\l'i S.jtdnilirr, is;.", 


"Till" Saultea ;\ and Swampy Cree Tribes of Indians and all other tlie Indians 
iiiliahttiiii; the district hereinafter doscnI)ed and dotinoil, do hereby cede, release, sui-- 
render, and yield up to the (Jovernniont of the nominion of Canada, for H< r Majpstvthe 
Qiipon nnd Her sucoessors forever, all their rights, titles and privileu'e-> whatsoever to tin- 
lands included within tlie followin;.; limits, that Ih to say; - 

•'( V)mmeiiciii;4 at the iioith corner or junction of Treaties Ni'. 1 mid .'5, tlieiiee, 
'•■isterly alonii the liuun lary of Treaty No. .*? to the hei;i;!it of land at the north- 'ast 
• ■onier of the stiid Treaty limits, a point (lividing tlie waters of the AHiany and Winni|icn 
itivers, tiieneo due north along the said height of laud to a 'point inter-iected by the 
■ )'.\' of north latitude, and thence north-westerly to Favorable Lake, thence following the 
east shore of the said hake to its northern limit, thence north-westerly to the north end 
of l/ike WinnipegoosiH, thence westerly to the height of l.ind called ' l.'obinson's Portage,' 
(hence norLh-westerly to the cast end of ( 'ross Lake, thence north-wc-lerly crossing Fox's 
Lake, thence north-westerly to the north end of Split Lake, thence south-westerly to 
ripcstone Lake, on IJurntwood Kiver, thence south-westerly to the western point of John 
Scott's Lalce, thence ; aith-wcilerly to the north shore of 15eaver Lake, th 'uce south- 
westerly to the west end of Cumberland Lake, theiic(» due south to the Sasikatchewan 
iliver, thence^ du(> south to the north-w(\st corner of the northern limiis of Treaty No. \. 
including all territory within the s.aid limits, and all isl.iuds on all laki-s within the said 
limits .as above described, and it being also understood that in all cases wlc I'e lakes f)riii 
till- treaty limits, t^'u miles from the shoi'e of the laki' should b- inehidel ii the Treaty. 

*'And all tlieir rights, titli!S and privileges •whatsoevi'r to ail other lands 
wherever situated in the Tei-ritories. or in any othei- Province oi- jiurtion of 
Her Maji'sLy'^i |)t)ininions situated and being within the hominion of < ana .a, 

"The tract compri<ed witiun the lines aln)V(! described enibia'ing :i;i area of one 
iiundred thousand s(|uare miles, lie the same more or less,- 

■To have and to hold the same tollei- .ALijrsty the (>ueeii and I'-r su<-i-e.ssors 

lor ever. 

Trriiiii Xii. Ck 

Thi.-. Treaty wa.s negotiated during the sumuier of ls7'i. i'-y it il ihe eoiintiv 
west of the territory ceded under the jirovisions of the foregoing treaties, to the lloeky 
.Mountains, was surrendered to the l)ominion (joveriimeiit, with the exeeption of the 
eountry of the J51ackfeet lying in the south-west portuiii of the North-West Territories far 
south of the I'ailroad route. It is expected, however, that a treaty with this tribe will be 
concluded lu-xt year when the Indian title to tin- whole region will be eNtinguis'jed in 
favor of the (iovernuient of tlie Dominion. 

To e:ich and all of the fonMnenticnied treaties the iollmving pro\ ision vaij 
uttached :- - 


llcr Majcstv fiirth 

il Iiuliium, tliiit witliiii thi: lioiuulai'V of 

icr .>iiije.siv tiiriiu'i' agrees with hor sum liuliium, una wiiiuu tui,' iioiuuiary oi 
liitliun Koscrves, until ollioi'wise ilrtoiiiiim'il l>y lier CJovcrntnout of the Domiiiioii of 
( aiuula, MO iiitoxicatiii;,' li([iior shall lu' allowrd to be introduced or suM, and all laws r.ow 
ill foreo, or hen-after to he enacted, to |)resorve her Indian snlijects inhaljitin;; the 
IJeservos or livm<; elscwhore within Her Xorth-Wfst Territories, from tiio evil inllneneo 
of the usf* of into\ieatin<,' liijnors. shall lio strii tly enfurcod." 

J'/ii ('iiidiil 11141 I hull, liKHi, I'lji Clii'i'!'.< Mnr^imlL ft. hi, I. 


* * '■' •• In a rf|iort lo tT* I 'nited States Coni,'ress for the year li^TO it 

aid: 'It is now an estalilished fart that the Indians of ( 'anada have jiassed through 

the most ci'itieal era of transition from harliarism to eivilizrition ; and the assimilation of 
their hahits to those of thi' white race is so far from threatening,' their gi'adual extinction 
liiat it is jirodncing results directly opposite.' We (Canadians) have followe(l 

towards tin in an unth^viating policy of conciliation and protection, which ajipears to have 
won the admiration of some of our friends in America. ''J'iie CJovernnient has assumed a 
friendly and prinstakim,' ^MiardiaiLsiiip over them,' says the report aliove (pioted. We 
liMve carefully respected <jur treaty enu'agements with them, and have ])aid then; for the 
lands we have rerpiired of them, or liave granted them nt^w reservations. We have 
supplied them with missionaries and schools, and the elements of instruction in agricul- 
ture and in various trades. Of more consei|uence still in estimating the causes staying 
their extinction, we liave provided for them medical aid, and hav(f taken especial jiains to 
save them from the ra\ages of small pox, a disease w I ich formerly wnuld destroy whole 




* * " It is greatly to the credit of tlie Imjierial and < 'anadian (ioveru 

nienis tliai since the eouijuest of the oountiy no wars have hpen waged with the Indian 
trilies. 'IVeuties have been made for the cession of the tracts of country claimed i>y the 
sariotis li'ilies, and these engagements have lieen scrupulously I'cspected. Large sums of 
money are paid annually, in accordance with the terms of these treaties. 

* "This |iiilicy of peace anil protection tosvards the Indians has 

|'ii.\ed a wise one. It has cost far less than the aggressKe policy of the United States 
towards the tribes within their liotmdaries. Kngland is regarded with resjiect and 
ali'ection by these nnh; savages. 'King (feorge's men,' as our soldiers ai'e called, are 
spoken of with admiration, and are believed to lie invincilile." 

//;</, I,. I 111. 

* "In ail probability the Canachi Paciiic Railway will soon be eon- 

Jt will pass througii l,nuO miles of Indian country. Sonic management will 



be needed to reconcile the Indians to tlie undertaking, for the railroad, and the line of 

settlements along its I'oute will tend to I'uin the great rtMiiaining bufl'alo grounds, and. in 
doing this, will threaten the continued ]iros]jerity of tLesc wild children of nature. 

" For the sake of our own interest.s, if not from pity for a rac(* destined apjiai'ently 
to extinction, we should deal with these Indian tribes kindly, and let them pass from the 
world unstained l)y the shedding of English lilood.'' 


I m Hilary of 
omiuiou ol" 
11 laws r.ow 
iiljitiii:,' tlm 
il iiillm.'Uff 

■iir liSTO it 
sell tiirougli 
luiliitiuu of 
[ pxtinction 
,ve folli)\v»'<l 

■ill's to llJlVf 

s asstiiueil a 
lotcd. We 
iclii tor the 
We have 
ill a^nicul- 
ist's stayiii,LC 
•iai jiaiiis to 
siniv wlmli' 

ian ( iovfrii 
tlif liuliaii 
iiieil liy tiic 
rt^c suiiiH (pf 

Imlifliis lias 

iiiLed States 

res])fct and 

i'all('(l. an' 

ooii be oon- 
gfiiiciit will 
I the line ol' 
tills, and. in 

I apparently 
iss from the 

InMIAN* Por'tl.ATInN. 

CniMiii oiCidi't'f'i, |S71. /i>tri)'hffion t.0 Vof. / 1'., /-. A.V.V.V/ I'. 

" .Manitolia (('. 1S70) Kstimate of ahnri'.^inal |io]iul,ilii(ii 50(1 

" r.ritish Coliniiliia " •• •■ •• l'.'., ()()(> 

" l,al(i'aili)f, Kii|)eit's | . . „ - 

•• Land and NertliWest 1 " ■'•''•'•"' 

••'{"c.tal 7'^. 'I'M)" 

Ji'/Hul I'j' l/ti' hiimrlwiid (>/ III'' I id' r'i(ii\ 1^71. I ulrinlai'liiiii. it. IV. 

" Kstiniated Indian [lojiulation. 

'• 15ritish Coluniltia .'. l,.">2it 

'• Manitolia and North-West under ti-caty IS.'.UI 

" Sioii.c in Manitoba and North-West I,1.')0 

" Krom IVace River to IT. S. IJonndary, nmreatied' lO,0<){) 

'" iJnjiert's Land, Ac .">. 1 7U 

" Total G2,0S I " 

Till-; .Mdi .NiKi' I'ni.ifi:. 

/''■jiorf iij' yidjiii' i!i luriil I'J. Sillii/ Sni'/ili. f 'i)iiiii'n»'h'iirf (^niii-lini MHitin., !"'^7'''. 

"ToonHU'li \ alue eannot be attaehed to the N'mtli W'l -^t Poliee. Ion tniich Mttrniion 
eaiinot be [laid to (heir etlieieney. 

''We read that not lon^^' acjo these wiM Indian tribes of ihr I''iii' West wi-re 
aeeustonied to rp^'ard murder as honorable war, i-ol)bery and |iillai,'e as traits most 
ennobling to mankind; the jjlaekfeet, Ci'ecs, Salteaux, .\ssiboynes, the J'eigauH, amonj; 
the most savage of the wild races of Western America, free from all restraint and any 
sort of control, waged indis.i'imiiiate war wiili each otiier and with mankind. 

'* T^aw, order, and security for life and [n-ojierty were iitth' obsei ved ; rivil and !i'i;al 
institutions almost entirely unknown. 

•'To tlay what a revolution e;ui we see: -all these have given jdace to pcacf' ,ind 
security, ])r()siierity, contentment, and gooil will, il, remains only to satisfy the Indian 
tribes liv ciiUring into fail- and just treaties, which they mncli desire; but in carrying this 
into elleet, the utmost caution is necessary to convince them that their spacious hunting 
grounds are still open lo lle-ni, fojlhi'v will follow t!ie butlalo as long as tli? liutlalo con 
I iuues to exisl. 

" T!ie appoinlmiiil of hiagi.lraLes. aiid eiii ijuragtinent of nii.i.aonaiy labour arc 
4Uei^^tiuns Azo becoming pruuiiueuL in the d;iwiiiug dovflupuifUt of that noble teirituiy, 
uot long ago only known to the wild Indians of the tnounlaln, the forest, and the prairie, 
to the dissipated, nomadic, half-breed, and to the hardy ti'a{![)er, but now silently ami 
patiently awaiting the approach of the immense wa -e of human life which must shortly 
overrun the fair and ])r()ductive soil of those remote and beautiful solitudes." 

•Since this Report was publisheii aunther treaty lias 1 eon coiicluikil by which the ImUaii tithito 
the whole of the Saskatchewan coimtry has hern ceded to Canada. Tlicrc now remains only the 
li!a;kfeet ivitb v h'jm a treaty ^vill be negotiated ai the :,ujnmcr of lo77. 

I'rpnrf of thf llmi. Ddi'll f,ali\L Mhtintcr of thr /iitirlor, |S7fi. 

'• 'I'he fn-r. stojis tal<r>ii l>y tlir Dominion (Jovcriiniuiit widi ;\ view lo the iiili-oili.rtiun 
of Inw iiiid <.|-iltn' in tlm 'i't'rritorics were tlio pashiii!,' of tlio Acts |iroliiliitiii.i^ tlio 
introduction .f intoxicatini,' litpior into tlio 'I'crritorics iind lor t he cst;i.itlisliini'nt of tlu 
•Monntrd Police Koire,' the hittor in l<S7.'5, iiiid tlic foimci- in 1^71. TIio one stiuci< it; 
the I'liot of til. ci'viiig evil of tlio 'I'cnitorics tlio infiiiiions liijiior tnllic wliiio the otlifr 
.snpplicd, in tlic otliciTS iiml men of tLc Mniuitcd I'olico I'oi'cc, cliiciciit iiacliinriv for tlif 
])ioni|)t cnforcuiuont of the lii|Uoi' l;i\v. 

* * * " l'>\ tilt! iiiiitoil ojitniiioii of nets, t!ir li(|iioi ti-:itlic in thnjr 

portions of tin Tci i itories wlicfc the .Mounted I'olico Korct; havo tlicir stations lias liccn 
ctfocttially stamped out. Tli* Aniorican Tradinj,' I'osts have liwm broken up an<l the 
whiskoy traders have rc-crosseil the line. I.awii' and crini«- are now in fact alinosi 
unknown in the Tciritorios and life and projicrty nic as safe thoic as in other porfioiis of 
tiie l)ominion. 

•'All the reports received from tlif .N'orth-West shew thai tin' Indians j;-ener 
ally ap]ireciatf the ;;roat lioon conferred upon thoin l>y the l>i minion ( iovornnient ami 
ascrilie the peace and secnrity they now enjoy mainly to tlir> operutioii of these acts, .nnd 
to the prcsem '• in t!ip country of the Mounted Police Porce." 

f'niSHS .f C'IIHI'Ik. |S71. I iih-o'llii-l'tOn In I'liL /I'.. :>. I.XXXIW 

NaiDCs of Teri'itorial I^i\isions. 

" Manitoba 

" P>ritish Columhia 

" l-alirador, Ilupert's f-aiid and North West. 




I' part o/' >''c( > '(i)/iniitli'r VII liiiiiiii/viiliiiii loiii (Jiiliiii'r.iihnn. Jlnrsr iii' ( 'ninui'iii.t. 

i'liiKulti. Mr, .]/>■ /.rail's Krldnice, j>p.'-\ I-"). 

■'(Jenoral iioiindaricM Prom J.iU' ,'>t'iil (sa\ lomr. '■'-" W.. hit. Tiii" X.) to foot of 
Porky MouiUains, lat. Cid" .\.; thence alon;,' base of Pocky .Mountains to lal. f)!)'! N.; 
thence; to the .south bend of Mouse Kiver; thence to the Pake of the Woods, lat. Ai^" N.. 
then(;e along Paiiiy Piver, ami thence Iaic Scul. This aica, uiiliroken liy mountains or 
rock to any material extent, with streams and sniidl lakes wliich Imt fertilize, may be 
stated at 320.000 square miles. 

•Since the above ccnaua taken thero Ima liccii a large iinini^'ratinn ef Icelanders, Menonites 
aud others into the territories and the Province of .Manitoba. The ninnber of Icelanders is approxi- 
inately estimatcil ."IS over 1,000, aud of .Meuonites about o.OOO. Tlie white popiilation of Manitoba 
alone ib now catimatcd at from od.OOO to 10,000. 

lititii; till) 
III 1)1° till 
struck ii, 
•■ tlip otlif-r 
I', for tln' 

f in il.iui 
1ms lic<ii 
I fUlil tlic 
ii't aliiHisI 
111! ions of 

i!is ;,('iii'r 
iiiiriit ami 
(■(s, mill 

Tot ill 
l>iil,-it ii'ii. 



ln»; ,sl 1 

I illlUll'lllS, 

to foot of 
it. 50" N.; 
lit. d'J'-N.: 
uiitaiiiH or 
'.t', uiav 111- 

, Menonitus 
i^ apprnxi- 
f Manitoba 


•' rVyoiiil it, iiortliwnnN, liowcvrr, arc also arms ot' riflicat \fi,'i'tal)Ii' luoulil, (Imunis) 
oil wuriii Silurian ami l)i'voiiiaii bases, ami w illi mnrly ilays ot' utmost fi-rtililv. Tln-v 
an- foiiml on tin- lowor rcatin'S of thfl Ilivfrs IVai-c, liny, ami Aux LianU (Arrti.' 
stri'Htiis. triliiilarifis of tlir %\Ti\.K MarKonzii- ilivi'ii an ag^'rl•'.;at^•, sav, of at irasf .'id.iMiii 
Hi|uar(' miles." 

VK<.i:i\i;i.i: a.m» iiias.^ (i;i mmimh ) .\iii;a.-» li^;^o^|» (and not im i.i iir.n im ti;i; sud^k. 

Willi .sItliriKNT TIUIIKU. ttr. 

>'|iiari- Mili'^. 
■• 1. IIihImiu'.s l!ay llasin (puriioii Silurun, so tar as Luowu. aiiil fairly 
prrdii-alile) cast side, ( K. of iiicridiaii NO" \V.) lOii.OiiO s.piare .Miles. \N'esV 

suk; (W. of meridian NO" \V.) .'500.000 soiiare niilei |ii(i,ii(ii 

"2. Winiii|iui; Basin, cast side, from KnLflish J;iver to .Ni ismi llivn... mi.imiii 

" r>. l'>eavor iJiver (iiiiilille and lowei' parts) , .^o.lll)(^ 

"1. Melhy [,akr and ( 'lear Water lliwr, ami .\tl)ali:iscu IJivrr t'roiu 

Clear Water Uivpr to Atlmliasea Lake, ea.-.t .siilo : :;o,(}M0 

•• .'i. West of .Maekeii/.ie ( I )uvoiiian wiMi eoal im azures) to wlieat line as 
aliovr .st.ated, and from Kort Cliiiiweviin to |-'.,ti Itt- Dlmion on (Ireat ."skive 

Lake, .say. from kit. oS" to '"I" N lo.iihu 

•• •'. Last side of .Maeketi/io River to l''(.rt (omd ! Injie. or sn v kit. •;>■• N irid.Miin 

•'7. West of tlie AL'ickenzie Ilivi'L- from lat. I'-l" N.. nortliwards. to 
Amorican (late Jlussian) boniulary, Ion;,'. Ill W., and American I'acilie 

shore strip, viz: all nortli of lat. fiO" N., e.xifpt area No. .">, aforesaid ICd.oni) 

'• S. Uoekv .Mountain eastern slope lieyond vvkeutline oU.uiiii 

'•'.I. Ouliyiuij nroas, amongst others, the oxtonsive but uiulctined ones 
between ike Hudson's i'ay Silurian, and nnrtkei-n ri'.ers i)f the '•'t. Lawrcnee 

\' alley : .say from Laki? Mista.'»sini to Lake Nejii'^on lOil.ilOM 

•• 10. Add, also, tim (by soino caliiul) * |ie:,ert' of .nr latitudes; 
say, bcivseeii kits. •!".)" and "lO" N., where inai/.e w\. arrows. :iiid buM'alois 
fatt'ii -;i favoiirito Indian liunting ground lO.iKiO 

•Total area L(M.)O,000 

'■ Tlif barley are.', of llie .iliovf nn.y be tai i| ;i; t.vo thirds. 

••Tin; rest ofdii! Xoi'th-Wi'si and Kupiit's Land-. inr!tidin_' the imineiise • IJarieu 
'Iroinul.s' of fiur Lauivntian system, and the Labrador Jlocks of our eastern l!u]>eri's 
Land, and t ho great wilds an I islands of our .\ietie. may be fairly estimated ;it another 
million souart,! miles. 

"The above eeiiinniii' ureas are predieatiil on the old eastern lioundary of iJiilish 
Columliia, throughout its l(Mi;„'th from lat. -I'.' to GO" X., but i»y ireetit statute, the Im- 
perial Alt L".> and ;'>0 \ic,. rhap. ti", that bo , dary has been i;liani,'ed so as to giv,' about 
.■'>O,000 .sipiaro miles, oi- a liille more to I'l-n !i Columbia, and a half of wliirii llO.OOO 
sipiarc miles is viieal land of liest iiiiality. 

'• .\nd here, as lioldiiig special kii iw le Ige. |ier.-, ainl doci'.nu'ntary, as to l!ritish 
Columl>ia, throughout its interior, know a best, if not (until very recently) almost aololy. 
by the fur trade and the I'uget Sound Agricultural Association, ."u which ii.y fatliiM-, and 
ou his decease, my .self, were jiartnei's, I would make a stateiueut as to tlie agrinilt ual 
resources of that country, as having .sonu! rJatioji to, if not in t; sense embraced iri the 
L'cucral term ' Xorth-Wcsl Tcrriluiic./ uf '.'aiinii. i." 



" Total ;iio,i (L;co(Icsi(iil) .'l.'in.doo s(|iiai'0 miles. 

•• \\ ii'-iit nrr.i, Lshiiids iiirlu'lrd, estimate ni l.Jd.OOU sijUiire miles, hciu^ all south of 
iat. ").")> N.; altlrmgh, it must l>o said, there are fine wlieat valleys far beyoud north- 
ward. 'I'lie <.;rass, Iiarlcy and vcp'talilc area north of the ahove — thivt is, from Iat, -y')" 
to tlO" >,'. (uortheni boundary of JJritisii Columbia) and from long. 120" \V. to tlu' 
.Vmei lean boundary, long. 141" W., I estimate at 1(10,(100 siauire miles. .\ eonsider- 
ablc |)oi-tion say one-sixtli of tiiesr areas is eovei'cd with lakes, numerous, and, like all 
the rivers, abounding with w holesome llsh the staple food of the natives, 

•• Wood .nnd gi'ass are.-. .^00.(t(.IO sipiare miles. 

■• llarren I'oek, but with eonsithrable mineral (in eommorcia! quantity and ijuality) 
sueli .'IS gold, silver, iii|iiiei-. iron, Ae., and coal nf liest kinds in abundanee and readily 
woK.alile, .")(), (100 s(|nare miles. 

•■The ti^l* ^\^•,lltIl of ii> >liores (sea) and inland waters is unrivalled in extent ;ind 

" Its fui yield to (lie iradi', in my lime there, as I see by the books unil papers of 
my father and his stall' of eleve!i <'ierks in ehai'ge of outlying posts in this ilistriet, was 
pr(iportionat<'ly \:>' ,'>r than tliat of any other trading district in the \vliole IJndson's 
l'>a\' 'i'eriitories. What now it mav lie, it is impossible to sav. 

■• .\s to I lie ydapi.ibility of tiie eountry for stock raising, I may state, — 

'• li is mure a gra; ing th.'ii an agricultural country, and the horses useil liy the trade 
(fur) -bands of from •_'• to .'iOO for transport — h.-ul only the jiatural, bunch ami 
oilier, to ficd on the ir/n,'r i/mr roninl, ami in winter, though ever h^ft in the op(>n, even 
tatteiiefi. and were ready ti '■ their eai'ly spring ;(nd long summer wf)rk. There were no 
cattle nor e\en a pig there in ili'>"e times, and it was with great ditliculty that ni ISiM) 
my father managfd, in spiir of opposing indiaus, tc» take tlir tirst calves U]> the Colundiia. 
Tlie, inere; srd so nipidly that they (ih". Company) had soon more than they i-ei|uirei|, or 
rould use in anyway, and iliey had to let them run wild. 

"Nine \i.\iv^ rd'terw.iids. viz., in is;').*, the i'uget Sound Agrienltural As,sociation, 
with a capital of ,£l'0(I,000 stg., ten per cent paid, was started by a few partners of the 
Hudson's l!a\ Company, and amongst them my father to tiie extent of I'.'iOO stg. It 
established a farm, very 'arge, on the I'aeific Coast, I'uget Soun<l, with extension lo 
N'alieouvrr I -land. 

■•The prijiei|ial objcrlixc miiiket. waN the Kussian tiade, \i/., tallow lo liieii trading 
pi\sls, and garrison at Sill, a on tiie north \\vs\ (then Kussian) coast, and also for supplies 
to the Hudson's i'.ay ('omp.iiiC;- (lade. For some \ears it paiil Ti percent on paid up 
capital (lo per i ent ), biu fioni iiii:,iu.iiiag( luent or failure of market, dis idemU faileil 
entirely, and ibotit l.'i veins ago I sold out at par. 

''Tiie (■■eg<in Treaty g.Kc the .\inericans the greater part of our lands and 
im]iiovements and the iiKli'innity voted, and ultimately after about 20 years ]iaid for it, 
was (.)iH) million dollars, an increase in \alue of nearly ten fold in eleven years, the tieaty 
lieing in \6\t. The fact carries its own obvious siguiticauce on the (juestions of agricul- 
tural resources of the vr;gion in question. The average yield of that -whr.Tt field i;-, 
cicdihly reporltd ,<t from '"'O to oO bu:,hcl-,- of vLral per .icre (English aerf ). 


ill south of 
youd nortli- 
)iii lilt, ■*").")" 
W. to till- 
A oousiilor- 
i.l, like nil 

11(1 nualitv) 
and iradily 

cxti'iit and 

I papers of 
istfict, w,is 
I' liudMiii's 

y tlic tradf 
l)iinch and 
upon, even 
'(' were no 
it ni iS-_>() 
'Muircd, or 

irrs of the 
110 st^'. It 
MiMisioii (o 

rir t rail mi;- 
ir siip|)lic.s 
lilt paid up 
(-■lids l:u|i.d 

lands and 
iiid for it, 

the treaty 
of agricul 
:at field i;-, 

"The Company's farms on the Columbia and the Cowlitz (a noithern trilnitaiT near 
the eoast), constituted, 1 helievc, in their value, th',; principal ])ortion of the four millions 
of dollars of indeninitr voted to the Company, and jiaid hy the Aiiierioan (lovernment of 
the United States undei the Oregon Treaty. The terrain of Southei'n Uritish Coliinil)ia 
-a oomiiarative jilateau — fi'om Kamli)0|>s to the .\mtMiean honndary {}'.*") ri((. the 
Okanagan Valley, is not a whit less valuable for ;j;ra/.ing, and mueh of it^for asjrieultiiral 
pur|toaes, than any jiart of the Coluniliia N'alley. C nfortiinately for the eniintry's oredii 
in this respect, the late railway surveys have been in whal truly may be called a Sea ct 
Mountains -'its Highlands' — its Alpiuff regions of somewhat rugged mould; but as 
th«« campagua', the ever fertile jilaius, and vales and mountain foot slo])es of It ' 

southei'n France, are not to be judged by the neighboiing liciLihts that liut mini 

their fertilitv, neither should Ibitish Columbia in her iihysiral leiinins in tlii-. respeet 

il\. or 
minister to 

'So much for Southern Hritish Coluniliia, say from the AmiM-ii'an iioun-iary to 
latitude T)!" north. I'.eyond that the country is less mountainous, and in fact from the 
Jiocky Mountains to thft Coast IlangiMs a line rolling plateau of wood and prairie with 
much hike and river of easy and far continuous navigation, and where, at an .-ivei.ige 
height of onlv al>out l.'.H)(l feet above sea, the ])re\ailing llora is one indicat ive of heal 
and moisture, and a fine climate, with no se\-.'rci- winter we.itlier than pre\ liK in .entral 
Canada, say in the mei'idian of Ottawa. 

" It is a region little known, saNc to the oA/ fur liadeis nf the NurlJi West, and in 

their journals and ever faithfully kept and most crediiile diaries -from which in my 

book, ' I'eace Itiver,' published here four years ago. I ipiole largely we lind record of .i 
liigh degrei^ of fertility and agiicultural product. 

"T shall liere present but two extracts, viz., from the laic Chief l';u'tor li.irnion's 
journal of life, for several years there, aliout <>(» years ago. and which was printed about 
."»() voars iin;o. and is now scarce. 'At Fort St. James' (.diont latitude .'il" .",0 norlli. .ind 
!,,S0() feet aiiove sea. as estimated V)y nie, and as suliseipiently ascertained liy aneroid 
measurement liv .Mr. Iloret/ky, of .Mr. l""leiuiug's Kluti'). -the tirst barlcs (ll\ " .pi.irts) 
sown produred live bushels, .say about S| bushels per acre." 

"'.\t Kort I'laser' (still further west on the slopi" of the Cascade or Coast Kaiige), 
• I he lirst potatoes planted (about a iiushel) produced forty fold.' 

" Fort St. James is onlv about ">(! miles, in air line, froii old Fi.rt Ccurge on the 
Frasfr, and to wiiich jioint, it has just iieeii repoited, the Canadian I'acilie Kailv.ay is 
being looated. The nearest and best access to ocean from that jioint is by that valley— a 
fine ojien one according to report — on which old Fort Fraser was built, and whence to 
ocean — (Jardner's lidet, there is {ai'cording to old fur trade reports in my possession) al 
least one siUnion stream direct westward to ocean, tuid salmon !>eing unable to leap 
Ih'VOIkI I'J feet in height, their presence on this ]>l,iteau by sucl. short cut from sim wduld 
seem to indicate a line of route possibly fcasibh^ for railway to ocean there. 

"Th(>ro wouhl bo more good land along such a line ilian ai.y other fui'tlicr south, as 
all south between the Fraser lliver and the west coast is higher and colder. 

" l''or (.Canadians, accustomed and able to cope with .such winter there, and with the 
more than ordinary Canadum degree of growing power in climate and soil, this? region is 
really a good one ;'aud a local market is ever at hand in the gold mining communiiie.s of 
Cariiioo, Ominica, and CasHiar." 


An\ AVi'Aci:-; ok tiii; Canvdian i.'m tk. 

Fiici^ (iii'l Fljiii'i'-^ rr/'tlini/ til VtiiH'Oiirrr l-i'iiiil hikI lliili^li ( 'nhi mlilii. A'// •/. D''-^j>iiril 
P^'iiiliei'liiii, Sn,'i'ri/ii,--fii-'il(i\iL ] iiiiroi'i'ii' Islii lid . ji. |(i,. 

* * '■'•' '• ( loviTiiin Sti'vcns. (*) 111" .M iiuicsotii, l.Htlicvps tliiit the must 

il.'siralili' routo to tlio I'aoiHc will be toiind in tlic piissfssion of (Iroat Iji'itnin. jiml tliiii 
a urciit intorocoaiiic ooiniuunicatiou is inoro lilcply to Ix* constnictecl thi'otigli tlm Saskat- 
rlicwaii Basin tliau across tlio Ainoricau dpsrit';, tli' i-rctarcous Hud i'oin[>aiMti\v'ly rainless 
ar^as of tlu' smitlrTii hit itmlcs." 

Tni: I'i.A.'i; ];i\ i;i: ( 'm .n r;;'.. 

Tlf Wild Xnri'i i.iii't. \v. /•'. ];i,i!,',; I- n.'i.s. 

■I ' "I 


'^- ■'■'■ ■■' '• I'nlikr- t!c j>ra.i:\('s of tlic Saskatflicwan. Ibis |t]ali'aii i> iliickly 

inliTsjiorscd with wools ami tliioki'ls of pine ami |io|>lar. Its many lakes an; fi'i'o frnin 
alliali. anil t!i'> v.ii'icti i^q-owtli of willows wliirli they snstaiii yield ample su>t('nanri> lc> 
tiie herds of mouse which still roam the l.ind. 'I'lie deep tnnii^h throuL,'li whieli the rixcr 
(I'eaoe) flous increases with sinLiulir re,:;n'arity as the traveller ascends the slrcam. 'I'lius 
at Vennilliou the hanks are scarcely .">'• f 'ct ahove luw water level ; littO miles higher up 
tiiey rise t() ."J.")!! foot: at Diinvogan tliPj are 72ll ; and lIXl jniles still furtlier we^t tlie\ 
attain an ele\ ation of !.M)il .and 1 ,<HI() feet. ( 'nee upon the snmniit, however, no indicaii'in 
tit' i-n;,':^cdn'jKs meets the eye. 'I'he eounti-y sjireads into a succession of i»r.iirics, lakes, and 
copses, through which the travpllei- can lide with ease, safe from the had jerdiole-; whicii 
torm an ohiictiomd.k* fi-itun- in more southeiai pi'airicv-i. Al times the river lu'd tills 
ii|i the entire liottom of the deep \,i!ley throngh which it runs: hut more fre [Ueully a 
woo(U>d terrace lies betw(v>n the too; of the ridge and the liiiids' of the water, or the land 
rises to the upper Iev(>l in a .■^eries of rounded .and less abrupt ascLMits. 'I"he soil is a <!ark 
sandy loam ; the rocks .are chiefly lime and sandstone, and tiu^ num 'rous slides arnl hugf 
l.indsli))s along the lofty shores, render visible strata upon strata of many-colored earths 
and layers of rock and shingle, ligiute and b.mded clays in rich sucC(^ssion. A lilack, 
liiluminous earth in many places forces iis way through rock or shingle, and ruslies in 
long, dark streaks down the steep ilescent. Such is the ])resenfc aspect of the Peace Ui\er. 
as lonely and siletit it holds its long course, dei'p fui-row^d bch^w the unmeasured 

I'/./i/;/'.-.' fi'mii Moiil.i\'Jil thi'ntijii the (Joiiti nt'n.l oj Xin'lli Aiiirrlrii. Ilif Sir 
Mack''ii:!i\ /i/i. |."i b l."!."*, fmlcr tfntc <ij' Jfai/ \^H/i, I 7!b"». 



* '■ * ■' From th(; pl.ace which we i|uitte 1 this morrung. the west side of 

the river (Peace) disphiyed a succession of the most boaiitifu! scenery 1 had ever beheld. 
The ground at intervals to a considerable lieight. and sti'etehiiig inwards to a con 
siderable distance* ; at (•very interval oi- pause in the rise, there is a. yery genth ascending 
space or lawn, which is .altern.ate with abrupt ]irecipices to the sunnuit of the whole, or. 
at, as far as the eye could distinguish, '''his magnificent theatre of nature! has all the 
decorations which the trees .and the animals of the countiw afford it ; groves of poplars 
in every shape vary the scene ; and their intervals are eidivened with vast henls of elks 
•Mild buti'aloes, the formii' choo.sing the stee|)s and uplands, the latter iireferring tlic plains. 
* The whole country displayed an e.Nuberant verilnre ; tlie trees that liear 

a })lossoni were advancing fast to that delightfid appearance, and the velvet rind of their 
branches refh>cting the oblitpu^ ray.s of u rising or Hetting sun, added a splendid gaiety to 

(*) Report of S«l(.'<'t C'))iriiittci' to Ifmi^c :<( IJcprrscntjvtivcs, I-c^'. Minuosota, KS.'iS. 


'. Dr.i,ur<l 

iIk' must 

• iiiil that 

ir" Sa^kiit- 

'Iv ratiilcss 

i- iliiikly 

iV'T' i'l-dlM 

<'ii:i!ii'M (ii 
til'' ri\('r 

III. 'I'llllS 

liiyl"'!' iij) 

.V(st [\\v\ 

ahcs. ;iii'l 

Its \vlii<'i| 

rlu'il lill.s 
pioutly ii 
■ tlic l:iui| 
is .'I (!.irk 
ami liiinf 
vl «';i,rtlis 
A Mack, 
■uslios ill 
C'l' River. 

li' t'Uiiilii' 

I SKi.' ol 

J U t'oll- 

lu)l«', i)r, 
-. .all Mm; 
of elks 
' |il;iiiiM. 
lilt bear 
of their to 

tlie scene, wliicli \\n expressioiis of iiiliio inv (|\iulille<| to ilesciilie. 'I'lie .nsl sl.le nl' tlie 
river consists of a raiii;e (if liii;li-laii(l covered witli tlie wliile spiiire .iml iIm' soft liiirii. 
wliilc till" Ii.uiks aliuiiihl witli tlie alder and the \vilio-,\ ." 

Ihil, iq,. ~,-S. 

* '* " 'I'lie Itaiiks (if till' ri\'ei' liotli aliovc and liejow rhe riiiiids. were 
i>;i butli sides covered with the varions kiirls of %v(j()d (•oiiiiiion to tliis comitry : |>articii 
larly the western si(h\ the hind liiiiii;- hiwer and couslstini:? of a \\A\ lihick soil, 'j'lii^ 
art itielal ixroiind is carried down by the stream, and rests njion drift-wooil. so as to lie cii^dil oi 
ten feet dee|i. 'I'iic (Msiei'n liaiiks are iimre elovai-'d, and tlr- soil is yellow cla > iniMil 
with '^'riu'el : s) tint the trees iirc neither so l;iri;e or nnmerons .-is on rhi- ojijiom'tf slior ■. 

* '■ "The liiiliiiiis infoiiiieil me th it ;it ;i \cry .^nrill disl.-iiie" frim eith>'i 
bink of the ii\,'r are very e.\telisi\c phdiis. frei|Uented Iiy larije of luill'iloes : while 
ill'* iiioiKc ;ind reindetM' keep in tin' wooils that li.pnh'r tjii it." 

CiiiU'hi Oil tin' Piii-ijir. /!/ ('/inifrs /f'ji'' /:/.;/, jiji. '11 iio '"I. 

'•'■ '•■ * •■ for se\elill miles to tlie southwest, lie liiilpje li'iace) lil\er. 

llowiiiv; ^"<l feel benentli us. on its f-ileiil fuinse to the Arctic ( >cean, coulil lie distinctly 
traced as it inean(h<rod through its miiihty \ alley. Siscral larijeaiid wnoded islands dot NmI 
its surface here and there. .\bout a i'ou|>Ie of miles to the sdiith the 

Smoky iiixi'i', a very lar^c trilnitiiry. uiiii'^les ii-i w;iters with those of the reace l!i\ci. 
l''rom our |n>sition, and emliraciiiii' an an^le of fully l.'iii de^jrees, or. in other words, from 
the northwest round to south, a liouiidh\ss and nearly le\-el e\|itnse of eoiintry could !"■ 
taken in at a j^hince, the only breaks bein:; the great v.dhns of the I'cmci; and Smok;. 
Iiiu'i's, tliaii which uothini; tint we had ever seen could lie more iieautifiil. the t'ormcr 
es|iecinlly, in its iiia,i,'nitiide and th'iitli, sm'i)as.siiig all wts had anticipate<l. The wi'lih d 
the valley at this point cannot, be less than two and a half miles; ami the liaiiks. (vivend 
\sitli verdure, and showiiiLj occasionally elnnii's of wood, slope dusi nwnrils to the w, iter's 
ed^'e in \arieil \-et e\('r Ljr.iceful furm.' 

/Ae/. r. IJ. 

* * *■ ••The fori ( 1 >im\en;in) is estimated lo be l.lllin frcl, ;diM\i- sea 
level; heiiee tie' u'eneial elexatinii of th(^ siirroiindiii^' countrN is one t hoiisami se\eii 
hundred f ■■ • l| is much the same as that of iicsser Sl.i\e Lake. 'i"he s.iine ele\ati(iii 
holds ;,'oo'l on tiio south side, which is p;irliall\ covered with a .scatrered j,'i.iwtli nf poplar 
and s]iriiee trees. 

"The cliloresecnce of sulphate of soda is occasionally k •marked aloii^ ihe sioBes of the 
sallev in the vicinity of l>uii\ei.'aii, and caimel coal occurs within a do/en miles of the foil, 
but on the south side. l''rom the Itocky JMoiintain I'^ata^e to the Smoky lliver. a 
distance of probaldy •-'•"HI miles, the Peace lti\er, after taking' a leaji of 'Jfi feet throU'.:li 
the last and most easteid of the liocky Mountain l'iiii,i,'<'S, has cut its way (hroiiuli thick 
strata of clay and sandstone to a depth of 7<»ll and SOO feet, where it Hows -....r an almo-i 
hori/oiittil strata of limestmie, which stirlehes northward as faras l.ake .\ I liabas.a. w Ihiv 
I he primitisc system meets the silnrian.'' 

//»/'/. /'. 1 b 

* * * " We followed a well defined Indian trail, which led us over the 
iiicst churrninf^ oouiitry we had yot tmni, fmssin*,' sometimes through small poplars, but 
cliieHy over tin opoii rolliui; prairie land of the most excellent kind. 


1 -AH 

* * * '■ Wo |troct'('d('(l to fxainiiK' tliu section cxixjst'd to viow, wliicli 
coiisistfd of an iniiiiciiM' layer of t-lay, .samlstoiic, slate aiul foasiliferoiis liincotoue. Mixed 
up with tliese strata we found an excellent speciiuen of coul. 

* * * " Aftei- sii|ii>fr tiiis cveiiiiii; I tested tlie (jiiaiities of the coal we had 
|iieked >i]» at uooii, and found it to Ijurn readily. i,'iviui,'a ,i,^)od, clear t!anu>, with very little 
asli ; tlie stroiii,' otlor of leal coal was eniittetl. \\'(! had, indeed, found a treasure; and 
when wo rellect that hundi'eds uf sijuare nuies of this beautiful country in all prolialiilily 
cover iniiuense lieids of (Ids numeral, liie future of tliis oasis in the ^jreat " \or west ' may 
1)0 safely lucdicted. 

* * ' ■• Tlie whole country passed over durini;' thost^ four days was varied 
in uj»])earnnc<'. tiie trail jiassinL; through woods and praiiie. pi'inei|ially t lie former, and for 
I lie last two days thronyh a rouuh <'ounti'v covered with \ery dense forest. A tjoodnianv 
hirm' ( I'l'i'Us were crossed and they invariably flowed tliroui;h deep (lopressions cut out b\ 
ihemsehcs in the land, to a depth of .")00 to 'iCO fe(>t, where; we crossed tliom. Some \v\\ 
lieautiful pr.iirie land was also .seen, but we always kept to tlu; north of tho ' Urand 
I'rairie,' vhich, unfortunately, we had not time to visit: still the favorabh; apjioaranci? of 
the country we did pass thrtiuyh .-utiued j^reatly in favor of the moi'c southern section, 
alii'Ut whicli ue h:id heard SCI niui-!i." 

* * * •• Immediately beneath, and at my very feet, lay the little Kelt. 
(St. .i(ihn) the doors and windows b«'in<,' just discernalile in the distance, while behinti it. 
lo the south, the iii;ih ridye of the rii^ht bank of tia; I'ine llivei- coidd lie ti'aced for many 
ndles to the south-west. The whoh' countiy in that diicction was one mass of dense 
forest, extending' liyht up to the outer and most eastern I'aui^e of the l!< '<y JNlountains. 
which were distinctly \isiiile. Away in the I'arther distance, a few snow--cap|)fd and 
isolated poiiks, of the hij^diei' raui;o, reared their .serrated sinnndts hii;li in the clear .and 
clitudless sky, and owin;^' to a peculiar state of the atmosphere, seemed to vibrate and 
tri'iidde as each successive ra\ of the now rapidly deeiiniuir snn indriuLjed upon theii- 

/A/./. /-. :.s. 

* ■' * '■ ( *n riding up IVoiu the rixcr (I'lace) to ufain the iiii^hcr rc;.;i(in> 
ali.iNe, we passed ,,\rv sonu- alius iai llats whicli were very densely timbei-ed, .and wo saw 
sMiue iiiaL:nilicent idui,dil>ark ]io]»Iais. ',\ or 4 feet in diameter, and iiiowini; to a j^reai 
lieiKhi. We were now L'J juilcs from the lower en<l of the ilocky .Mountain rortaj^e, 
where we arrived on the morning of the I'L'nd, after following; the northern slope of tin' 
\alloyfor the entii'e distance. |5et ween the IJixiorodu iNliliou and the Portage, we 
rros,sod .several dee|» ravines, the outhts of .'•mall rivers flowing into the main on<'. 'i"he 
nail, though lonnh in occassional spots, cari'ied us ovei' a very tine country, where the 
e\cellcnt .soil and laige tiacts of iinc' land, facing to the south, would ofler great facilities 
for farnung. TIiori> was, however, a .scarcity of wood, but the southern banks juul the 
iiumorous islands, being covered with dense timber, afl'urd iiidimited ipiantities of that 
material for both fuel and niaiiufacturing purposes. .\k wc approached the l'oit.iL;e the 
soil bocam<; \pry light and sandy, and the evpress occurred in alnindance.'' 

It' l^iii'l (ij lln' ^iliil ( 'mil niilli I II,, II, 'III iii-.liijii iiiiil t i,liiiii'.itli(iii. Ildiisi III ( \,iiiiiiui,,y. 
I'liiHiilii. Prii/'i'.ssiir Miii'iiHii's /•.clifi If. Oil {III F/nrii unil Fiiium n/' l/if I'niiiih'i/. 

'■ V' 1"^ theif any other wo'd Ida;! j.ophu in the Peace lliver 'oiintrv / 

" ,1 , l''i\e si\ ;iiK of nil the tic ' > ' .s |io| lai uiiu ! < iuMirialily a si;.ru i)f dry soil ;iiid 



iow, wliicli 
lu. Mixcil 

JOid we liad 
1 very littlf 
:isiii'c ; and 
Wfst' inav 

Ljudil laiiil. J>alsam i)0|>lar is very altuudant (ni the islands in all (lie iKiilii-woslt'iii 
rivers, oi'tcii attaiuiiiL; a diamctfi- <»t' fn)iii (i to III tret, (>\<'ii as tar north as Fort Simji^mi. 
Wliiti- spnici^ grows to a very lari;i' sv.o oii a!I tlii; watcrslicds and tlu- .slojics of the soiiih 

liauk of tlin IVacc II 

i\i'r, on 

islands in all llic rivcis, and vcrv almndiiiitly on tlio lo\ 


Is at the 

\V ' ,t fUt 

I of l.ak(^ Atli; 


I liavf often seen it over tln'cc feet in 

dianicti^', Imt tln' iisnal size is from one to two feet. I'auksiin pine Mas not observed mi 
Teacct I\i\t'r, ')nt it ocenrs at Lake Athabasca, and is alnnidant as yon a|i|iroafli tlir 
Saskalclicwan l!i\(rfroni the north. Its iiri'scnre indicatc.'s sandy soil untit for iiilli 

was varied 
iier, and tor 

ijood many 
, en( out l)y 

Some very 
the ' (irand 
itoaraneo of 
■Ml section, 

'• White liirrli is not abundant aion;^r t III' Teai-e lliver litit is eonnnon on the Ati 
isea and Mackenzie itivers. The Norliicin Indians make lar''c ouantities of svrui) fi 


its sap 111 spnuj, 



leso ar(! the most imuortaut tre 


wliito ur red pine in I lie conniry. 

're are no lieecli. maph'. a.-li, oak, chu 

0. What fruit 

s ^;ro\v spun 

aneousjv in the Teae'' lliver cointrvand Alhali 

re''i(jns I 


le iierrv of 


iiK-lmi' ( 'uiKi'l' iisis (Service Iierrv ol ( 'aiKidianN, I'oirrs 

little i-'ort. 

hehind it. 
'd for many 
!S of dense 
^appHl and 
' clear and 
vil>rat<- and 

upon their 

her iciiious 

nd we saw 

111 a i^i-eai 

n I'orta^e. 

I ope of I he 

'ortage, we 

one. The 

wheie the 

at facilities 

ks and the 

ies of that 

I'ol'tau'e t he 

' (\>llllllliliS. 


rv soil and 

Kins) IS eollecled in immeii>.(' 

of the. Ki'cnch halflireeds, and Sas ka tum lierries of the Ind 

(piantities in the upper Peace Kixcr, and forms ipiili' an article of food and trade. W lien 

I Wiis at Dunvegan last summer the Indians and llalf-liroeds were cam|M'd out collect ing 
I tlie lierries wliicli were then in tlieii- prime (.\ugust filli). iJeai's are \i'ry fond of them. 

and resort to the sunny slopes of tlie I'eace Ki\(>r at this time in great numliers to teed 

upon the lierries. The Indian women press tliem into s(piare cakes while ficsli and then 
i di-y tliein for t"ulure n.-^e, liiit. those i,, 'ended for the Hmlson Hay ( 'ompany's posts are diicrl 

in the. sun and mi.\<'d with dry meal and gri'aso to form pcmmican, or are fried in grease 

i'oi" a (Ii'isi'rf. 

'• Strawlierrics and ra.^plicrrii'.-> .ii'c \r\-\ alMiii'liOit in mo,t distriris mi I'cace liivcr. 
especially at N'ei'nullion. 


water 1:1 mm! ill tiic I' l!i\ cr coiintrv ! 

••.I. The waters of the Saskatchewan, .\thal»asca and I'eai'e Kivers are n-ver clear, 
and in the spring of the \car ai'e very nunldy. All other waters in the Teace l.'ivcr 
"oun'rv are ■,'ou<l. 1 never saw a brackish pool in the whole region. 

■•'J. Are the valley^ofihe Saskatchewan and Peace l!i\er liealthv foi- white men? 

••.I. l)uring the yeais in iSrJ. and lS7,"i. 1 iie\er s.iw- a sick wliitc man or Hall 
breed. .My own health was so nmcli improvecl by my first trip that I have been a new 
man ever since. .Meat will keep fresii an aslonisiiing lime, and tliis is one ol' the surest 
tests of I he pui ily of t he at niospherc. 

"The Inilians of Pe.icc lliver are fa.lnig away, and will .-on disappear, fecrofulou.^ 
diseases of Viirious kinds, ami pulmonary diseases produood by insutticient clothing are 
doing their woi'k, ami the scaiitv pojmlatiini is les.'tning everv yeaf. 


" Q. Is ll <io any game ? 

•'.I. 'I'lic moose is still almnilaiit mi hntli sides of tlie I'ruee liivti. .nul the wikmI 
l>iiirali> is still iniuid lietweeii tlie Atlialiasea ami tiie I'eaee liivcr al>o\it Int. .")7". i'loiii oOO 
to 1,(11111 liciid is the estimate of the hunters. liiaelc li(\'iis are \c)v nuiueious on the, iip- 
per jii'.i't of I'eaee Ki\ er, aii.l fiirnislied the ehief food nf the |)e(i|ih' in .Inly and .Kiiunsl. 
<'arilioo are north and east of f.ake Athal>asea, ami afe tlie eiuef food ot the Indians and 
llalf-lireeds of that ie^;i()n. iJalihits ar(Mn immense nnndieis win reNcr there is timlier, 
and are easily taken. Watei-fovv! ar« heyond eomjmtation, diirini; Heptemlier, in the 
nei^hliiirhood nf Lake .Xtliahasea, and lari;e llocks of ( 'aiiada .^lu'se are found on I'eaee 
iJixer all snnimer. I.sii.x. Iiea\'er, maitin and fn.\ make np the chief t'luliearin;.,' animals. 

•• (}. .\re there any nnneral deposits in tin- eonntry .' If .so. .state the dill'i 'rent kinds, 

•• .1. Lar^'e deposits of coal have lieen oli.served. Iiy .Mr. Selwyn. on the t^askatche'.van 
lietw.TU the llocky Mountain House and Victoria, a distaiu'e of I'll miles, lie speaks 
in one ] dace of ha vim,' .seen seams 'JO feet thick, and in his repoit [\\v |S7."> and \^~ I. Iir' 
ijivcs a ]>li(itoi.'i;iph. lai paL;e II. of this seam. 

' lie\. .Mr. (ii.ini. in ■<>eeaii in <l(can. .speaks oi' a m-.hii nf it;;d nii ihc I'cnduna 
iJiver a tril'iitarv of the Atliahasca ten feet thick, and tnnii which they liroii;^lit ,iway 
spci'imens that were afti'i'wards analysed !iy I'rofc^sdi- j.awsdii. and found Ik cuntain lc,,s 
than ."> per cent of asli. 

••"Whilf till iiiy tri]* to reace Uiver, in company with .Mr. Horetzky, in the fall of 
isTll. i diseo\ered coal in V.w^v ((Uantities in the 'mnk of one of the rivers which How 
iuto Little Slave Lake, it was also seen in small (piantities in a numher of other 
localities in the. vicinity of the lake. It is also icported fr-ni the upper part of Smoky 
|{i\ei-. and I have seen it in .sjnall ijUantities on ti.e ujiper part oi I'eaee Itiver ai ' its 
(I ilnilaries on the ri'j;lit bank. I ohseived no indieatioT.s of coal lielow Smoky l!i\er, luu 
^ir dchn llichardson speaks of li^'nil'" ''einy- almndant on tin' Mai-ken/ii'. 

•• ('lay ironstone is a.s.Miciatcd with the coal wherever it has hei n oliser\cd. althou;,di 
possil.Iv n<il ill payinj,' ipiantities. Toal, tlnMi, and ironstone may 1 <• said to <\\tend 
.ihiiost ;d! ' ,. way from lh<' lionmlary to the .\rctic Ocejin. iJypsnm of the \ery liesi 
.|na!itv. ;ni'. as white a.'^ snow, was seen at IVaec Point ou j'twco Jtiver. and for a distam'f 
of over "JO miles it I'.xtended on lioth sides of the river, aveivi^in;,' IJ feet in thickness. 
Sii .John liii-hardson says in his 'Journal »)f a l>oat V'oyage to the .\rctii- Ocean,' Vol. I 
page Ul), that he found this sain(! gypsum associated with the salt deposits ou Salt liivei 
aliout ?'• ndles N.N. Iv, fr lit I'eacr I'oint. and he infi'is Jiat the countrv hetween is of 
I he same character. 

"Sir. John examined the salt deposits at Salt IJiver ami found that they \\ei(' del i\cd 
from the water of salt springs, of which he fuuiul a numher flowing out of a hill and 
spreading their waters t,)\vv .i clay llat of .;ome extent. The^ e\ .ipoiai ion of the water 
lea\'es llie sail incrie.tiiiL' tlii' ;-oil, ,nid in .--oine [dace-, formiii'.'; moimils oul of \\hleh (he 
pure s;dl is shovelled. 

" i''or many miles along the .\ dial i.'isca lielow the l'"oiks there are <iutcro])s of hltick 
shale from which liijuid petroleum is constantly oozing. .\t \arious points, at sonits dis 
tance from the imaiediutu bank of tlio river there are i\'gular tar springs, from which the 
Hudson Bay < 'ompany get their supi)ly for boat building and other purposes. The tar is 
•ilwavs coAcrcd uith water in these springrs, and bomething like coal oil iis :>ron floating ou 
thio v.itcr. l'c:iclci tho;:e mentioned, othci r-priD^fj arc kno" n to c:.i^t on .lie CIeai""--F*.cr, 

• •?-!.(fli'!ti;ri.ii»i»M«»iw»|!Ut:- 


tliC \\(1(P(I 

IVoiii ion 

nil till! ll|i- 
il A(lL; 
iili:uis ami 
is tiinlier, 
ici-, in the 
1 I'll I'l'iii-f 
i'4 aiiiiiiiils. 

rent kimls. 


lie speaks 

is; I. li.. 

I' I'lliil'llia 
ill^llt ,l\\a\ 
niitaill l< .,f. 

iIk' tall ut' 
wliiili How 

1' ot" otlltT 

, ol' Smoky 
iNcr ai ' its 
• l!is cr, lull 

•(I. altli(ju;,'li 
i to t'XU'ml 
ic M'vy lirsi 
i- a (listaiu'c 
11 tliickiu'ss. 
•an,' Vol. 1 
I Salt Itivci 
twcfii is ot" 

\(i(' (Icriscil 

a hill an<l 

)i' tlif- watt T 

r \\ liirli I III' 

i|is of black 
ut soma (lis 
1 uliicli the 
TUe tar in 
1 tiodtin;; on 


a triliiilary of tlic Atlialia.M-a. ami oii roacc llivir. iirar Smoky nivcr, ami Killli; lo il 
Kivcr on tlio saiiif sLivam. Siilplmr s|>i-iiigs air fi'iM|iiriil on tin- Cli'iirwatiT, ami lai-a;<' 
mctalif'Toiis (liposits avo saiil to exist near Foml l)u Lar on tin" north shore of Lako 
Atliiilpasca. (loiil is foinal in small ijiiantitir.s on tlic np|K'i' ['race liiviT, Imt it isof \fiy 
littli' aiToiint. Iiiunm^c c|Uantitirs of tiist-t-lass samlstom' occur for ovi'r ."((Ml miles itlont; 
I'cacc liixcr. aiul otlin- niiiici'als will lie iliscovcied w lien llie conntrv is lieiier Knnwii. 

'(J. What svas tlie iial iii >■ i.|' \ oiii iil..>ei\ atimi-- mi llielini.i cif reace Ilivei. ami 
wliat results iliil yon olitain '. 

"A. At six points, as it weie. 1 m.nle a soclion liy eiiunieratiii,!;; all tlii" tlowcriiiL,' 
plant.-, in the vicinity. These points were llmlsou's Hope, just east of tlm mountains : St. 
.lolin's (it) miles lielow : I)unvegan. U'" Uiiles further ilosvn ; then Vermillion, ahoiit .■i<Ml 
miles lower ilown, then Little Util Jtivrr. liM» miles further ilown, ami lastly at Lake 
Atliiiliasca. As will lie seen the flora of i Im whole ri\er is much like that of Central 
Ontario, ami of tho praiiie rei,'ion. It may he as well to remark that we can only iloiluce 
the teiiiperalMiv of the j;rowin;j; season from thi; M-^etahle p-.oductions. 'I'lie foU'win;.' 
lalile ''ives the result of the l>ot:iiiical examination in a \ei\ coialensed form ; 

1)11. ■!..■. 

\Ve,,t ..f 


.>t( 111 










TmLJ. i;.'il..Mllr 

•• 1 1 ml, ^ Hup.. ... •_'!! l.!i; 

••St. John -^i^ Kil 

•■ l>nn\i'LCaii 1.' I'i I '''H 

•' Vermiilion I. ■"•',» 111' 

•' Little Keil Kiver iL'.s .^•^s 

•• Lake Atlialp;--.ra. . . . -Jl"' \xi\ 

■■ The only plants that show aii\ sJ^i.n ..f m ciiiiiatt/ are those tVum t^'uehi'-. 
The twi at V'li-niillioii were N'ellow Laiilo ( l!liii>aatli»^ Crlstaijnlli ) ami lli,i,'h J'fiish 
^'\;i\\\>vvv\ ( Viliitfiiuni jKaicijforiiiii. ) Th*' most proiiiiiUMit feature in the whole ie'.^ioii 
was ,1 iii|ines> ill f!ie s,uil ami raiikuess in the vegetation never seen in Ontario." 

X \\ It; \i jiiN Tiiiioi i.n mi: Itn K^ .Miuntvins. 

>7..7<-A •:.''//,>' .\',,,ih \V>'-<t •>f .liii.rl'". L''i Miir. Tii<},,'. /,. :V.\. 

* '^ "■ •• I'iMce liiwi is umiuestioiia!il\ mie ol the; most lieaiilifiil in ihe 

• oiinlrv. perhaps in I he worhl. Its navij,'atioii. at any lale in hoatsof the cmmtry, is mi 
inti'ri-upleil, except !iy a small fall aiul a few rapiil.>. Tlio.-,e ohstructious mi'^ht lie 

reniOM'd liy works ot st ndary impoi'tanco, ami iIkmi the ri\cr would he na\ ii^ilde, 

tliroui,dinut. ils leni'tli. loi lio.ii-. of coiisideralile ,i:'e. ,iiid 'his, loo. nearly throunhvuit the 
^almmel . 

•■ I'lowiii-- tiir')ii;;li a \al!ey .i.-- J.Mnlilul a.-- il is rit h. the stream i i -es iii the Uocky 
Mountains, tpiite dose to the sources of the ceh.'lirated Kraser Kiver, with which, a i Itiver 
.\ihaliase,( iLm's w ith ( 'oluiiihia, l!i\er, it foruis a water channel that almost uninternipteilly 
connects the .\riiic ( >ccan w'ih the I'.uliic 

"Th'- route IS ctH'taiiily not without ditlicultii.s, hut thobt; are much !i;iis than would 
II iturally he riuj^p-iscd to lie conuectcd with • roS;>in;; tliu Kocky Mountains by wat'jr. it 
HMi dbcovtrcd I'v- tJir AleAtndci M.iLl.ciui'. in 17'.'', -ind h.i.i krp. uxd by fm addtio. 


Tlific sue those vlio iiiniiiiaiu that it is the niitiiml ruiwl to the North- W^est. The vulhy 
wuicrctl liy llio IVacc Itivcr nmiiot Imt iK'tronic jMoidcd, ami thnii many iiujuisitive ami 
iutt^rcstod imlividuuls will adniiio this giaml stream tliat is now pi-oliaMy icganli'il with 
iiKlitrcrence l»y the ]>oor t'aiiiily of hoavci-s (1) living on it hanks." 

ii'cjiiirf. (</ l/n Sili:ct ('(>iiiiiii//ee o/ tlii-. //nn,-"' nj ( 'umiiKuis, ('nnnila, mi 1 ininiji'ulion uml 
f'o/oHt.i(il!ini, \!>H't: [t. ")ti. Mr. Mdlcum Mr/,i'tMf's /'JrlJeiic. 

" Tho imist ini|M>i(ant stretches itf iiavi^atiou are Iron i lloil l{i\er to the. month of 
tlie Siuskatchewan, thence to iMhuonton, and even some miles heyond. This stretch nii^dit 
li(^ elhu ted withont hreak of bnik, or at h\ast without taking the boat out of water. From 
a point oji th(! Saskatchewan, say altout Victoria or below, a jxjrtage road of al)ont sixty 
ndles sliould be, and I am told is lii'ing ma(h', to tlie bend of tlie Athabasca ; thence to thi; 
mouth of the I'eace IJiver the distance is about '.i')0 mih's; thence to Mountain Kails is 
aliout 220 nulfs. This stretch of .')7<> r es is of comparatively most gentle current and 
of evei'-abundant lirimiiiing waters. The ^lountain Falls necessitate a short portage. 
From them to the foot of tiu^ Kocky iNIountains is a sj)lendiil stretch of 500 miles, com- 
jiaratively easy river navigation, witlunit a singh- break for i)oats of any si/.(% row, sail or 
steam. Ileic a portage (not ditlicult) often miles occurs. IJut beyond tlait, and with a 
semi lacustrine coui-se, across and through tlui vcri/ heart of the Rock i/ Mouidaiu,s to 
.McLeotl's Lake, and Fort on the Wcsl side, there is unbroken and comparatively easy 
navigation ftn- boats. al»out 200 miles further, and by the Finlay Branch, alioiit the samt! 
distance to the Oniinicii (Jolil .Mines, a region witlunit one bad rapid. 

"The Mclvenzie Imer, from Athal)asca l.ake to the Arctic, has a course of ai'ouL 
1,400 miles, in which, in pictty close succession, not far from the l,ake, tliero are only 
four rapids. 'I'hf* ri'sl nf tli<' stream, wilh a body of water l)ut litth^ less th.iu our St. \ .;\\\ 
lence, and in current lil\<' that hctwceii .Monlr^'al and '^hubce, is ii lliousand miles and 
more of ship course. " 

< 'l.l.M mi: III- I'l \i K lii\ i;i!. 

Till- l',i<l /iir>r('(>iiiilr//,J/"i!.'<iiii PkiiiiihI ^Sarth \\i' Tfim(vric.-<. I'li A. ./. /ii'{>.^i//, (,'./:'. 

•■■ * '•Klovated as Dnnvegiin on I'eace Kixcr is, 910 feet abo\e the sea 

liy Lefroy, "Tf^ by Kichardson, and under the high latitude of 50" (i' north, it may be 
interesting to compare the mean temperature of the seven months from April t,> October, 
inclusively, of the year Ic^O.S. with the ineaii temjierature of Halifax, Nov:i Scot|;i. I.uitude 
I I" 'My north, as given in tlie tabh's of tem]>eraturcs. 

" Tt shows the monthly m<'an tempeiature at Dunvegan t<t I'W ftdly a decree, and (hat 
c»f the three sumuu-r montiis to I'c about two degrees, warmer than Halifa.x. 

" The three eoMest months are, on the other hand, intensely cold compared with 
Halifa.x. -an admirable ai langcment toi- utility. The ndlder winter of Halifa.x would \\f 
comparatively valueless at Jhinvegan, but it is of (he ntniost imp(<'ea( Halifax, which 
owes its ojien winter navigation to it. 

"Nothing conclusive can lie ba.'-ed on one year's 'ob.servat ions ; but combineil with 
other indications of climate, they al'jrd favorable evidence." 

(1) Thin no doabt refer* to the tribe of Uciivrr Inrliann wlm inhabit the Pcarc Kiver coiuitry. 


ic valley 
ive ami 
Ic.l witli 

mil iiiiii 

iioiltli *))' 

.'h iiiip,'iit 


Jilt sixty 
HO to tin ! 

Falls is 
rent and 

porta j^f. 
It'H, vo\n- 
V, sail <ii' 
(1 with a 
tilt inn (o 
,'»'ly ca.Ny 
till' saint! 

.IT;'. .S'. ./. ft'iirsou's Hi'itmt Oil ili< l/nx' of Ruatts Inlu'eeii Lukv Snjn'i'lor an'! I'ff Rlcei; li^lV.i 

* * '•' " Could we visit tiie fertile belt, ami see its broad navigable rivers, 
ciittin;; tliri)ii;^li <,'reat coal tields, neartiieir sources, lo wind for many hundreds of miles 
flin)Ui;h ^'rassy prairies of unsurpassed fertility, or. passini,' from this fertile belt, to view 
still another licit as vast, faither to the north, l)ut fartluM' also to the west, ami under 
elimatle inlhienees of a lower level wlM.'re another navii,'.ible river, thi' yreat Unji^'a 
(Peace) tahiuL; its rise in tlie plains of Itritish Columbia, cuts throm,'h the I'oi'ky 
Mountains, in its course of .i thousand miles, ami winds eastward throuj^h woodland and 
prairie, across teu dcLtrees of loni,'it\idc. 'I'liis is the i-ci^ion which so impi'c.ssed Sir .\Iex- 
ander Mackenzie, tlii! first civili/ed man who had e\ ei' beheld it. pjarly in .May he saw 
the coin It ry :<i'een withexulierant venlure, its gently iiiidiilatiiii,' iiills and valleys covered. 
as far as the eye could reach, with vast herds of laitlalo and elk, with their youn,L( friskinic 
.iboul them. lie speaks of its soft and beautiful scenery, its trees in fidl bhjssom. ami. 
indeed, to jmlLie iVom his aecouni, as well as tVom the narratives of other tran-Uers. il 
would .seem as if this remote country of IJnjiga, with its wimling streams, its chimiis of 
trees, and beautiful jxreensward, and its henls of untamed cattle, rivals if it does not sur- 
pass, in many jilaces, all the groves, lawns and plantatious with which genius and art 
seek to adoi-n the haltitations of civili/ed lif-." 

of about 
arc only 
St. I.av^ 
lilc;-. aii'l 


.• the sea 

may be 

( )ctobcr, 


and tliat 

ircd with 
W(<uld lie 
IX, whi( h 

iicd willi